Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: flutter

18 Influence of Propeller Blade Lift Distribution on Whirl Flutter Stability Characteristics

Authors: J. Cecrdle


This paper deals with the whirl flutter of the turboprop aircraft structures. It is focused on the influence of the blade lift span-wise distribution on the whirl flutter stability. Firstly it gives the overall theoretical background of the whirl flutter phenomenon. After that the propeller blade forces solution and the options of the blade lift modelling are described. The problem is demonstrated on the example of a twin turboprop aircraft structure. There are evaluated the influences with respect to the propeller aerodynamic derivatives and finally the influences to the whirl flutter speed and the whirl flutter margin respectively.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, flutter, propeller blade force, whirl flutter

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17 Flutter Control Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Using Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Timothee Gidenne, Xia Pinqi


In this paper, an investigation of the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced polymer as an actuator for an active flutter suppression to counter the flutter phenomena is conducted. The goal of this analysis is to establish a link between the behavior of the control surface and the actuators to demonstrate the veracity of using such a suppression system for the aeronautical field. A preliminary binary flutter model using simplified unsteady aerodynamics is developed to study the behavior of the wing while reaching the flutter speed and when the control system suppresses the flutter phenomena. The Timoshenko beam theory for bilayer materials is used to match the response of the control surface with the CNTs reinforced polymer (CNRP) actuators. According to Timoshenko theory, results show a good and realistic response for such a purpose. Even if the results are still preliminary, they show evidence of the potential use of CNRP for control surface actuation for the small-scale and lightweight system.

Keywords: actuators, aeroelastic, aeroservoelasticity, carbon nanotubes, flutter, flutter suppression

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16 Experimental Study of Flag Flutter in Uniform Flow

Authors: A. Sadeghi, M. Sedghi, M. R. Emami Azadi, R. Gharraei Khosroshahi


Flags are objects with very low bending stiffness and under wind forces start to vibrate and finally to flutter. Even in lower velocities of wind their flutter can be seen. In this research physical property of fabric is determined by performing tensile tests. Then with performing laboratory experiments in wind tunnel, determination of initial flapping speed and also study of displacement amplitude at leech and calculation of their frequency would be targeted. Laboratory tests are performed in a wind tunnel and with different velocities of wind flow for specimens with different dimensions. The results show that extension of specimens' width increase flutter initiation velocity and increase of specimen length decreases it. Also by increasing wind velocity displacement amplitude at leech of specimens are decreased. This displacement has a straight relation with specimens' length and width.

Keywords: flag, flutter, wind velocity, flutter amplitudes, wind tunnel

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15 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman


In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel

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14 Active Flutter Suppression of Sports Aircraft Tailplane by Supplementary Control Surface

Authors: Aleš Kratochvíl, Svatomír Slavík


The paper presents an aircraft flutter suppression by active damping of supplementary control surface at trailing edge. The mathematical model of thin oscillation airfoil with control surface driven by pilot is developed. The supplementary control surface driven by control law is added. Active damping of flutter by several control law is present. The structural model of tailplane with an aerodynamic strip theory based on the airfoil model is developed by a finite element method. The optimization process of stiffens parameters is carried out to match the structural model with results from a ground vibration test of a small sport airplane. The implementation of supplementary control surface driven by control law is present. The active damping of tailplane model is shown.

Keywords: active damping, finite element method, flutter, tailplane model

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13 A Parametric Investigation into the Free Vibration and Flutter Characteristics of High Aspect Ratio Aircraft Wings Using Polynomial Distributions of Stiffness and Mass Properties

Authors: Ranjan Banerjee, W. D. Gunawardana


The free vibration and flutter analysis plays a major part in aircraft design which is indeed, a mandatory requirement. In particular, high aspect ratio transport airliner wings are prone to free vibration and flutter problems that must be addressed during the design process as demanded by the airworthiness authorities. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed free vibration and flutter analysis for a wide range of high aspect ratio aircraft wings and generate design curves to provide useful visions and understandings of aircraft design from an aeroelastic perspective. In the initial stage of the investigation, the bending and torsional stiffnesses of a number of transport aircraft wings are looked at and critically examined to see whether it is possible to express the stiffness distributions in polynomial form, but in a sufficiently accurate manner. A similar attempt is made for mass and mass moment of inertia distributions of the wing. Once the choice of stiffness and mass distributions in polynomial form is made, the high aspect ratio wing is idealised by a series of bending-torsion coupled beams from a structural standpoint. Then the dynamic stiffness method is applied to compute the natural frequencies and mode shape of the wing. Next the wing is idealised aerodynamically and to this end, unsteady aerodynamic of Theodorsen type is employed to represent the harmonically oscillating wing. Following this step, a normal mode method through the use of generalised coordinates is applied to formulate the flutter problem. In essence, the generalised mass, stiffness and aerodynamic matrices are combined to obtain the flutter matrix which is subsequently solved in the complex domain to determine the flutter speed and flutter frequency. In the final stage of the investigation, an exhaustive parametric study is carried out by varying significant wing parameters to generate design curves which help to predict the free vibration and flutter behaviour of high aspect ratio transport aircraft wings in a generic manner. It is in the aeroelastic context of aircraft design where the results are expected to be most useful.

Keywords: high-aspect ratio wing, flutter, dynamic stiffness method, free vibration, aeroelasticity

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12 Effect of Atrial Flutter on Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed, Richard Amoateng, Akhil Jain, Mohamed Ahmed


Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a type of acquired cardiomyopathy caused by chronic alcohol consumption. Frequently ACM is associated with arrhythmias such as atrial flutter. Our aim was to characterize the patient demographics and investigate the effect of atrial flutter (AF) on ACM. This was a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to identify admissions in adults with principal and secondary diagnoses of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter from 2019. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, race, household income, insurance status, Elixhauser comorbidity score, hospital location, bed size, and teaching status. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS) and total charge in USD. There was a total of 21,855 admissions with alcoholic cardiomyopathy, of which 1,635 had atrial flutter (AF-ACM). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, AF-ACM cohort had fewer females (4.89% vs 14.54%, p<0.001), were older (58.66 vs 56.13 years, p<0.001), fewer Native Americans (0.61% vs2.67%, p<0.01), had fewer smaller (19.27% vs 22.45%, p<0.01) & medium-sized hospitals (23.24% vs28.98%, p<0.01), but more large-sized hospitals (57.49% vs 48.57%, p<0.01), more Medicare (40.37% vs 34.08%, p<0.05) and fewer Medicaid insured (23.55% vs 33.70%, p=<0.001), fewer hypertension (10.7% vs 15.01%, p<0.05), and more obesity (24.77% vs 16.35%, p<0.001). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, there was no difference in AF-ACM cohort mortality rate (6.13% vs 4.20%, p=0.0998), unadjusted mortality OR 1.49 (95% CI 0.92-2.40, p=0.102), adjusted mortality OR 1.36 (95% CI 0.83-2.24, p=0.221), but there was a difference in LOS 1.23 days (95% CI 0.34-2.13, p<0.01), total charge $28,860.30 (95% CI 11,883.96-45,836.60, p<0.01). In patients admitted with ACM, the presence of AF was not associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate or odds of all-cause mortality; however, it was associated with 1.23 days increase in LOS and a $28,860.30 increase in total hospitalization charge. Native Americans, older age and obesity were risk factors for the presence of AF in ACM.

Keywords: alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial flutter, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia

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11 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish


Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

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10 A New Approach in a Problem of a Supersonic Panel Flutter

Authors: M. V. Belubekyan, S. R. Martirosyan


On the example of an elastic rectangular plate streamlined by a supersonic gas flow, we have investigated the phenomenon of divergence and of panel flatter of the overrunning of the gas flow at a free edge under assumption of the presence of concentrated inertial masses and moments at the free edge. We applied a new approach of finding of solution of these problems, which was developed based on the algorithm for an analytical solution finding. This algorithm is easy to use for theoretical studies for the wides circle of nonconservative problems of linear elastic stability. We have established the relation between the characteristics of natural vibrations of the plate and velocity of the streamlining gas flow, which enables one to draw some conclusions on the stability of disturbed motion of the plate depending on the parameters of the system plate-flow. Its solution shows that either the divergence or the localized divergence and the flutter instability are possible. The regions of the stability and instability in space of parameters of the problem are identified. We have investigated the dynamic behavior of the disturbed motion of the panel near the boundaries of region of the stability. The safe and dangerous boundaries of region of the stability are found. The transition through safe boundary of the region of the stability leads to the divergence or localized divergence arising in the vicinity of free edge of the rectangular plate. The transition through dangerous boundary of the region of the stability leads to the panel flutter. The deformations arising at the flutter are more dangerous to the skin of the modern aircrafts and rockets resulting to the loss of the strength and appearance of the fatigue cracks.

Keywords: stability, elastic plate, divergence, localized divergence, supersonic panels flutter

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9 Time-Domain Expressions for Bridge Self-Excited Aerodynamic Forces by Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer

Authors: Hao-Su Liu, Jun-Qing Lei


This study introduces the theory of modified particle swarm optimizer and its application in time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces. Based on the indicial function expression and the rational function expression in time-domain expression for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, the characteristics of the two methods, i.e. the modified particle swarm optimizer and conventional search method, are compared in flutter derivatives’ fitting process. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that adopting whether the indicial function expression or the rational function expression, the fitting flutter derivatives obtained by modified particle swarm optimizer have better goodness of fit with ones obtained from experiment. As to the flutter derivatives which have higher nonlinearity, the self-excited aerodynamic forces, using the flutter derivatives obtained through modified particle swarm optimizer fitting process, are much closer to the ones simulated by the experimental. The modified particle swarm optimizer was used to recognize the parameters of time-domain expressions for flutter derivatives of an actual long-span highway-railway truss bridge with double decks at the wind attack angle of 0°, -3° and +3°. It was found that this method could solve the bounded problems of attenuation coefficient effectively in conventional search method, and had the ability of searching in unboundedly area. Accordingly, this study provides a method for engineering industry to frequently and efficiently obtain the time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces.

Keywords: time-domain expressions, bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, modified particle swarm optimizer, long-span highway-railway truss bridge

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8 Increment of Panel Flutter Margin Using Adaptive Stiffeners

Authors: S. Raja, K. M. Parammasivam, V. Aghilesh


Fluid-structure interaction is a crucial consideration in the design of many engineering systems such as flight vehicles and bridges. Aircraft lifting surfaces and turbine blades can fail due to oscillations caused by fluid-structure interaction. Hence, it is focussed to study the fluid-structure interaction in the present research. First, the effect of free vibration over the panel is studied. It is well known that the deformation of a panel and flow induced forces affects one another. The selected panel has a span 300mm, chord 300mm and thickness 2 mm. The project is to study, the effect of cross-sectional area and the stiffener location is carried out for the same panel. The stiffener spacing is varied along both the chordwise and span-wise direction. Then for that optimal location the ideal stiffener length is identified. The effect of stiffener cross-section shapes (T, I, Hat, Z) over flutter velocity has been conducted. The flutter velocities of the selected panel with two rectangular stiffeners of cantilever configuration are estimated using MSC NASTRAN software package. As the flow passes over the panel, deformation takes place which further changes the flow structure over it. With increasing velocity, the deformation goes on increasing, but the stiffness of the system tries to dampen the excitation and maintain equilibrium. But beyond a critical velocity, the system damping suddenly becomes ineffective, so it loses its equilibrium. This estimated in NASTRAN using PK method. The first 10 modal frequencies of a simple panel and stiffened panel are estimated numerically and are validated with open literature. A grid independence study is also carried out and the modal frequency values remain the same for element lengths less than 20 mm. The current investigation concludes that the span-wise stiffener placement is more effective than the chord-wise placement. The maximum flutter velocity achieved for chord-wise placement is 204 m/s while for a span-wise arrangement it is augmented to 963 m/s for the stiffeners location of ¼ and ¾ of the chord from the panel edge (50% of chord from either side of the mid-chord line). The flutter velocity is directly proportional to the stiffener cross-sectional area. A significant increment in flutter velocity from 218m/s to 1024m/s is observed for the stiffener lengths varying from 50% to 60% of the span. The maximum flutter velocity above Mach 3 is achieved. It is also observed that for a stiffened panel, the full effect of stiffener can be achieved only when the stiffener end is clamped. Stiffeners with Z cross section incremented the flutter velocity from 142m/s (Panel with no stiffener) to 328 m/s, which is 2.3 times that of simple panel.

Keywords: stiffener placement, stiffener cross-sectional area, stiffener length, stiffener cross sectional area shape

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7 Modelling and Simulation of Aero-Elastic Vibrations Using System Dynamic Approach

Authors: Cosmas Pandit Pagwiwoko, Ammar Khaled Abdelaziz Abdelsamia


Flutter as a phenomenon of flow-induced and self-excited vibration has to be recognized considering its harmful effect on the structure especially in a stage of aircraft design. This phenomenon is also important for a wind energy harvester based on the fluttering surface due to its effective operational velocity range. This multi-physics occurrence can be presented by two governing equations in both fluid and structure simultaneously in respecting certain boundary conditions on the surface of the body. In this work, the equations are resolved separately by two distinct solvers, one-time step of each domain. The modelling and simulation of this flow-structure interaction in ANSYS show the effectiveness of this loosely coupled method in representing flutter phenomenon however the process is time-consuming for design purposes. Therefore, another technique using the same weak coupled aero-structure is proposed by using system dynamics approach. In this technique, the aerodynamic forces were calculated using singularity function for a range of frequencies and certain natural mode shapes are transformed into time domain by employing an approximation model of fraction rational function in Laplace variable. The representation of structure in a multi-degree-of-freedom coupled with a transfer function of aerodynamic forces can then be simulated in time domain on a block-diagram platform such as Simulink MATLAB. The dynamic response of flutter at certain velocity can be evaluated with another established flutter calculation in frequency domain k-method. In this method, a parameter of artificial structural damping is inserted in the equation of motion to assure the energy balance of flow and vibrating structure. The simulation in time domain is particularly interested as it enables to apply the structural non-linear factors accurately. Experimental tests on a fluttering airfoil in the wind tunnel are also conducted to validate the method.

Keywords: flutter, flow-induced vibration, flow-structure interaction, non-linear structure

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6 Aeroelastic Analysis of Nonlinear All-Movable Fin with Freeplay in Low-Speed

Authors: Laith K. Abbas, Xiaoting Rui, Pier Marzocca


Aerospace systems, generally speaking, are inherently nonlinear. These nonlinearities may modify the behavior of the system. However, nonlinearities in an aeroelastic system can be divided into structural and aerodynamic. Structural nonlinearities can be subdivided into distributed and concentrated ones. Distributed nonlinearities are spread over the whole structure representing the characteristic of materials and large motions. Concentrated nonlinearities act locally, representing loose of attachments, worn hinges of control surfaces, and the presence of external stores. The concentrated nonlinearities can be approximated by one of the classical structural nonlinearities, namely, cubic, free-play and hysteresis, or by a combination of these, for example, a free-play and a cubic one. Compressibility, aerodynamic heating, separated flows and turbulence effects are important aspects that result in nonlinear aerodynamic behavior. An issue related to the low-speed flutter and its catastrophic/benign character represented by Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) of all-movable fin, as well to their control is addressed in the present work. To the approach of this issue: (1) Quasi-Steady (QS) Theory and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of subsonic flow are implemented, (2) Flutter motion equations of a two-dimensional typical section with cubic nonlinear stiffness in the pitching direction and free play gap are established, (3) Uncoupled bending/torsion frequencies of the selected fin are computed using recently developed Transfer Matrix Method of Multibody System Dynamics (MSTMM), and (4) Time simulations are carried out to study the bifurcation behavior of the aeroelastic system. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the LCO and chaotic behavior are influenced by the coupled aeroelastic nonlinearities and intend to implement a control capability enabling one to control both the flutter boundary and its character. By this way, it may expand the operational envelop of the aerospace vehicle without failure.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, CFD, MSTMM, flutter, freeplay, fin

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5 Aeroelastic Stability Analysis in Turbomachinery Using Reduced Order Aeroelastic Model Tool

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Prasad, Ludek Pesek Prasad


In the present day fan blade of aero engine, turboprop propellers, gas turbine or steam turbine low-pressure blades are getting bigger, lighter and thus, become more flexible. Therefore, flutter, forced blade response and vibration related failure of the high aspect ratio blade are of main concern for the designers, thus need to be address properly in order to achieve successful component design. At the preliminary design stage large number of design iteration is need to achieve the utter free safe design. Most of the numerical method used for aeroelastic analysis is based on field-based methods such as finite difference method, finite element method, finite volume method or coupled. These numerical schemes are used to solve the coupled fluid Flow-Structural equation based on full Naiver-Stokes (NS) along with structural mechanics’ equations. These type of schemes provides very accurate results if modeled properly, however, they are computationally very expensive and need large computing recourse along with good personal expertise. Therefore, it is not the first choice for aeroelastic analysis during preliminary design phase. A reduced order aeroelastic model (ROAM) with acceptable accuracy and fast execution is more demanded at this stage. Similar ROAM are being used by other researchers for aeroelastic and force response analysis of turbomachinery. In the present paper new medium fidelity ROAM is successfully developed and implemented in numerical tool to simulated the aeroelastic stability phenomena in turbomachinery and well as flexible wings. In the present, a hybrid flow solver based on 3D viscous-inviscid coupled 3D panel method (PM) and 3d discrete vortex particle method (DVM) is developed, viscous parameters are estimated using boundary layer(BL) approach. This method can simulate flow separation and is a good compromise between accuracy and speed compared to CFD. In the second phase of the research work, the flow solver (PM) will be coupled with ROM non-linear beam element method (BEM) based FEM structural solver (with multibody capabilities) to perform the complete aeroelastic simulation of a steam turbine bladed disk, propellers, fan blades, aircraft wing etc. The partitioned based coupling approach is used for fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The numerical results are compared with experimental data for different test cases and for the blade cascade test case, experimental data is obtained from in-house lab experiments at IT CAS. Furthermore, the results from the new aeroelastic model will be compared with classical CFD-CSD based aeroelastic models. The proposed methodology for the aeroelastic stability analysis of gas turbine or steam turbine blades, or propellers or fan blades will provide researchers and engineers a fast, cost-effective and efficient tool for aeroelastic (classical flutter) analysis for different design at preliminary design stage where large numbers of design iteration are required in short time frame.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, beam element method (BEM), discrete vortex particle method (DVM), classical flutter, fluid-structure interaction (FSI), panel method, reduce order aeroelastic model (ROAM), turbomachinery, viscous-inviscid coupling

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4 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo


Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure

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3 The Museum of Museums: A Mobile Augmented Reality Application

Authors: Qian Jin


Museums have been using interactive technology to spark visitor interest and improve understanding. These technologies can play a crucial role in helping visitors understand more about an exhibition site by using multimedia to provide information. Google Arts and Culture and Smartify are two very successful digital heritage products. They used mobile augmented reality to visualise the museum's 3D models and heritage images but did not include 3D models of the collection and audio information. In this research, service-oriented mobile augmented reality application was developed for users to access collections from multiple museums(including V and A, the British Museum, and British Library). The third-party API (Application Programming Interface) is requested to collect metadata (including images, 3D models, videos, and text) of three museums' collections. The acquired content is then visualized in AR environments. This product will help users who cannot visit the museum offline due to various reasons (inconvenience of transportation, physical disability, time schedule).

Keywords: digital heritage, argument reality, museum, flutter, ARcore

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2 Investigation of Vortex Induced Vibration and Galloping Characteristic for Various Shape Slender Bridge Hanger

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Syariefatunnisa


Hanger at the arch bridges is an important part to transfer load on the bridge deck onto the arch. Bridges are subjected to several types of loadings, such as dead load, temperature load, wind load, moving loads etc. Usually the hanger bridge has a typical bluff body shape such as circle, square, H beam, etc. When flow past bluff body, the flow separates from the body surface generating an unsteady broad wake. These vortices are shed to the wake periodically with some frequency that is related to the undisturbed wind speed and the size of the cross-section body by the well-known Strouhal relationship. The dynamic characteristic and hanger shape are crucial for the evaluation of vortex induced vibrations and structural vibrations. The effect of vortex induced vibration is not catastrophic as a flutter phenomenon, but it can make fatigue failure to the structure. Wind tunnel tests are conducted to investigate the VIV and galloping effect at circle, hexagonal, and H beam bluff body for hanger bridge. From this research, the hanger bridge with hexagonal shape has a minimum vibration amplitude due to VIV phenomenon compared to circle and H beam. However, when the wind bruises the acute angle of hexagon shape, the vibration amplitude of bridge hanger with hexagonal shape is higher than the other bluff body.

Keywords: vortex induced vibration, hanger bridge, wind tunnel, galloping

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1 Experimental Study Analyzing the Similarity Theory Formulations for the Effect of Aerodynamic Roughness Length on Turbulence Length Scales in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

Authors: Matthew J. Emes, Azadeh Jafari, Maziar Arjomandi


Velocity fluctuations of shear-generated turbulence are largest in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) of nominal 100 m depth, which can lead to dynamic effects such as galloping and flutter on small physical structures on the ground when the turbulence length scales and characteristic length of the physical structure are the same order of magnitude. Turbulence length scales are a measure of the average sizes of the energy-containing eddies that are widely estimated using two-point cross-correlation analysis to convert the temporal lag to a separation distance using Taylor’s hypothesis that the convection velocity is equal to the mean velocity at the corresponding height. Profiles of turbulence length scales in the neutrally-stratified ASL, as predicted by Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) 85020 for single-point data and ESDU 86010 for two-point correlations, are largely dependent on the aerodynamic roughness length. Field measurements have shown that longitudinal turbulence length scales show significant regional variation, whereas length scales of the vertical component show consistent Obukhov scaling from site to site because of the absence of low-frequency components. Hence, the objective of this experimental study is to compare the similarity theory relationships between the turbulence length scales and aerodynamic roughness length with those calculated using the autocorrelations and cross-correlations of field measurement velocity data at two sites: the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility in a desert ASL in Dugway, Utah, USA and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) wind tower in a rural ASL in Jemalong, NSW, Australia. The results indicate that the longitudinal turbulence length scales increase with increasing aerodynamic roughness length, as opposed to the relationships derived by similarity theory correlations in ESDU models. However, the ratio of the turbulence length scales in the lateral and vertical directions to the longitudinal length scales is relatively independent of surface roughness, showing consistent inner-scaling between the two sites and the ESDU correlations. Further, the diurnal variation of wind velocity due to changes in atmospheric stability conditions has a significant effect on the turbulence structure of the energy-containing eddies in the lower ASL.

Keywords: aerodynamic roughness length, atmospheric surface layer, similarity theory, turbulence length scales

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