Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: reactivity

218 Reactivity Study on South African Calcium Based Material Using a pH-Stat and Citric Acid: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Mbali Chiliza, Tumisang Seodigeng

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The study on reactivity of calcined calcium-based material is very important in dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, so as to produce absorbent with high sulphur dioxide capture capacity during the hydration process. The effect of calcining temperature and time on the reactivity of calcined limestone material were investigated. In this study, the reactivity was measured using a pH stat apparatus and also confirming the result by performing citric acid reactivity test. The reactivity was calculated using the shrinking core model. Based on the experiments, a mathematical model is developed to correlate the effect of time and temperature to the reactivity of absorbent. The calcination process variables were temperature (700 -1000°C) and time (1-6 hrs). It was found that reactivity increases with an increase in time and temperature.

Keywords: reactivity, citric acid, calcination, time

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217 Investigation of the GFR2400 Reactivity Control System

Authors: Ján Haščík, Štefan Čerba, Jakub Lüley, Branislav Vrban

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The presented paper is related to the design methods and neutronic characterization of the reactivity control system in the large power unit of Generation IV Gas cooled Fast Reactor – GFR2400. The reactor core is based on carbide pin fuel type with the application of refractory metallic liners used to enhance the fission product retention of the SiC cladding. The heterogeneous design optimization of control rod is presented and the results of rods worth and their interferences in a core are evaluated. In addition, the idea of reflector removal as an additive reactivity management option is investigated and briefly described.

Keywords: control rods design, GFR2400, hot spot, movable reflector, reactivity

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216 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

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Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

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215 Antibody Reactivity of Synthetic Peptides Belonging to Proteins Encoded by Genes Located in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Genomic Regions of Differences

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

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The comparisons of mycobacterial genomes have identified several Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific genomic regions that are absent in other mycobacteria and are known as regions of differences. Due to M. tuberculosis-specificity, the peptides encoded by these regions could be useful in the specific diagnosis of tuberculosis. To explore this possibility, overlapping synthetic peptides corresponding to 39 proteins predicted to be encoded by genes present in regions of differences were tested for antibody-reactivity with sera from tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects. The results identified four immunodominant peptides corresponding to four different proteins, with three of the peptides showing significantly stronger antibody reactivity and rate of positivity with sera from tuberculosis patients than healthy subjects. The fourth peptide was recognized equally well by the sera of tuberculosis patients as well as healthy subjects. Predication of antibody epitopes by bioinformatics analyses using ABCpred server predicted multiple linear epitopes in each peptide. Furthermore, peptide sequence analysis for sequence identity using BLAST suggested M. tuberculosis-specificity for the three peptides that had preferential reactivity with sera from tuberculosis patients, but the peptide with equal reactivity with sera of TB patients and healthy subjects showed significant identity with sequences present in nob-tuberculous mycobacteria. The three identified M. tuberculosis-specific immunodominant peptides may be useful in the serological diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: genomic regions of differences, Mycobacterium tuberculossis, peptides, serodiagnosis

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214 Comparing Spontaneous Hydrolysis Rates of Activated Models of DNA and RNA

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi, Adel M. Mlitan, Abdulfattah M. Alkherraz

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This research project aims to investigate difference in relative rates concerning phosphoryl transfer relevant to biological catalysis of DNA and RNA in the pH-independent reactions. Activated Models of DNA and RNA for alkyl-aryl phosphate diesters (with 4-nitrophenyl as a good leaving group) have successfully been prepared to gather kinetic parameters. Eyring plots for the pH–independent hydrolysis of 1 and 2 were established at different temperatures in the range 100–160 °C. These measurements have been used to provide a better estimate for the difference in relative rates between the reactivity of DNA and RNA cleavage. Eyring plot gave an extrapolated rate of kH2O = 1 × 10-10 s -1 for 1 (RNA model) and 2 (DNA model) at 25°C. Comparing the reactivity of RNA model and DNA model shows that the difference in relative rates in the pH-independent reactions is surprisingly very similar at 25°. This allows us to obtain chemical insights into how biological catalysts such as enzymes may have evolved to perform their current functions.

Keywords: DNA and RNA models, relative rates, reactivity, phosphoryl transfe

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213 The Use of Polar Substituent Groups for Promoting Azo Disperse Dye Solubility and Reactivity for More Economic and Environmental Benign Applications: A Computational Study

Authors: Olaide O. Wahab, Lukman O. Olasunkanmi, Krishna K. Govender, Penny P. Govender

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The economic and environmental challenges associated with azo disperse dyes applications are due to poor aqueous solubility and low degradation tendency which stems from low chemical reactivity. Poor aqueous solubility property of this group of dyes necessitates the use of dispersing agents which increase operational costs and also release toxic chemical components into the environment, while their low degradation tendency is due to the high stability of the azo functional group (-N=N-) in their chemical structures. To address these problems, this study investigated theoretically the effects of some polar substituents on the aqueous solubility and reactivity properties of disperse yellow (DY) 119 dye with a view to theoretically develop new azo disperse dyes with improved solubility in water and higher degradation tendency in the environment using DMol³ computational code. All calculations were carried out using the Becke and Perdew version of Volsko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN-BP) level of density functional theory in conjunction with double numerical basis set containing polarization function (DNP). The aqueous solubility determination was achieved with conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) in conjunction with known empirical solubility model, while the reactivity was predicted using frontier molecular orbital calculations. Most of the new derivatives studied showed evidence of higher aqueous solubility and degradation tendency compared to the parent dye. We conclude that these derivatives are promising alternative dyes for more economic and environmental benign dyeing practice and therefore recommend them for synthesis.

Keywords: aqueous solubility, azo disperse dye, degradation, disperse yellow 119, DMol³, reactivity

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212 Preliminary Study on the Factors Affecting Safety Parameters of (Th, U)O₂ Fuel Cycle: The Basis for Choosing Three Fissile Enrichment Zones

Authors: E. H. Uguru, S. F. A. Sani, M. U. Khandaker, M. H. Rabir

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The beginning of cycle transient safety parameters is paramount for smooth reactor operation. The enhanced operational safety of UO₂ fuelled AP1000 reactor being the first using three fissile enrichment zones motivated this research for (Th, U)O₂ fuel. This study evaluated the impact of fissile enrichment, soluble boron, and gadolinia on the transient safety parameters to determine the basis for choosing the three fissile enrichment zones. Fuel assembly and core model of Westinghouse small modular reactor were investigated using different fuel and reactivity control arrangements. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) integrated with CINDER90 burn-up code was used for the calculations. The results show that the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) and the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity (FTC) were respectively negative and decreased with increasing fissile enrichment. Soluble boron significantly decreased the MTC but slightly increased FTC while gadolinia followed the same trend with a minor impact. However, the MTC and FTC respectively decreased significantly with increasing change in temperature. These results provide a guide on the considerable factors in choosing the three fissile enrichment zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel in anticipation of their impact on safety parameters. Therefore, this study provides foundational results on the factors that must be considered in choosing three fissile arrangement zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel.

Keywords: reactivity, safety parameters, small modular reactor, soluble boron, thorium fuel cycle

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211 Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Tehran Research Reactor

Authors: A. Lashkari, H. Khalafi, H. Khazeminejad, S. Khakshourniya

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In this paper, a numerical model is presented. The model is used to analyze a steady state thermo-hydraulic and reactivity insertion transient in TRR reference cores respectively. The model predictions are compared with the experiments and PARET code results. The model uses the piecewise constant and lumped parameter methods for the coupled point kinetics and thermal-hydraulics modules respectively. The advantages of the piecewise constant method are simplicity, efficiency and accuracy. A main criterion on the applicability range of this model is that the exit coolant temperature remains below the saturation temperature, i.e. no bulk boiling occurs in the core. The calculation values of power and coolant temperature, in steady state and positive reactivity insertion scenario, are in good agreement with the experiment values. However, the model is a useful tool for the transient analysis of most research reactor encountered in practice. The main objective of this work is using simple calculation methods and benchmarking them with experimental data. This model can be used for training proposes.

Keywords: thermal-hydraulic, research reactor, reactivity insertion, numerical modeling

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210 Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Toxins

Authors: Naveen Kumar B. T., Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, Shanthanagouda A. H., Orawan Boodde, Shankar K. M., Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

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Since 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) outbreaks have increased rapidly, and these have led to the major economic losses to the global shrimp industry. In comparison to other treatments, passive immunity and monoclonal antibody (MAb) based farmer level kit have proved their importance in controlling and treating the diseases in the shrimp industry. In the present study, MAbs were produced against the recombinant PirB protein Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing AHPND. Briefly, Balb/C mice were immunized with rPirB at 15 days interval, and antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Spleen cells from mice showing high antibody titer were fused with SP2O myeloma cells for hybridoma production. Among 130 hybridomas, four showed high antibody titer and positive reactivity in an immunoblot assay. In Western blot assay, three out of four MAbs (4C4, 2C2 and 4G3) showed reactivity to rPirB protein. However, in the natural host, only Mab clone 4G3 show strong reactivity (with a strain of V. parahemolyticus causing EMS/AHPND). These clones also showed reactivity with less than 20 kDa proteins in AHPND free V. parahaemolyticus (Thailand stain). Further, on from MAb 4G3 clone, four panels of single cell MAbs clones (G3F5, G3B8, G3H2, and G3D6) were produced of which three showed strong positive reactivity to rPirB protein in the Western blot. These MAbs have potential for controlling and prevention of the AHPND through passive immunity and development of filed level rapid diagnostic kits.

Keywords: shrimp, economic loss, AHPND, MAb

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209 Prediction of the Regioselectivity of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Nitrile Oxides with 2(5H)-Furanones Using Recent Theoretical Reactivity Indices

Authors: Imad Eddine Charif, Wafaa Benchouk, Sidi Mohamed Mekelleche

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The regioselectivity of a series of 16 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of nitrile oxides with 2(5H)-furanones has been analysed by means of global and local electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivity indices using density functional theory at the B3LYP level together with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The local electrophilicity and nucleophilicity indices, based on Fukui and Parr functions, have been calculated for the terminal sites, namely the C1 and O3 atoms of the 1,3-dipole and the C4 and C5 atoms of the dipolarophile. These local indices were calculated using both Mulliken and natural charges and spin densities. The results obtained show that the C5 atom of the 2(5H)-furanones is the most electrophilic site whereas the O3 atom of the nitrile oxides is the most nucleophilic centre. It turns out that the experimental regioselectivity is correctly reproduced, indicating that both Fukui- and Parr-based indices are efficient tools for the prediction of the regiochemistry of the studied reactions and could be used for the prediction of newly designed reactions of the same kind.

Keywords: 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition, density functional theory, nitrile oxides, regioselectivity, reactivity indices

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208 Effect of Minerals in Middlings on the Reactivity of Gasification-Coke by Blending a Large Proportion of Long Flame Coal

Authors: Jianjun Wu, Fanhui Guo, Yixin Zhang

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In this study, gasification-coke were produced by blending the middlings (MC), and coking coal (CC) and a large proportion of long flame coal (Shenfu coal, SC), the effects of blending ratio were investigated. Mineral evolution and crystalline order obtained by XRD methods were reproduced within reasonable accuracy. Structure characteristics of partially gasification-coke such as surface area and porosity were determined using the N₂ adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Experimental data of gasification-coke was dominated by the TGA results provided trend, reactivity differences between gasification-cokes are discussed in terms of structure characteristic, crystallinity, and alkali index (AI). The first-order reaction equation was suitable for the gasification reaction kinetics of CO₂ atmosphere which was represented by the volumetric reaction model with linear correlation coefficient above 0.985. The differences in the microporous structure of gasification-coke and catalysis caused by the minerals in parent coals were supposed to be the main factors which affect its reactivity. The addition of MC made the samples enriched with a large amount of ash causing a higher surface area and a lower crystalline order to gasification-coke which was beneficial to gasification reaction. The higher SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ contents, causing a decreasing AI value and increasing activation energy, which reduced the gasification reaction activity. It was found that the increasing amount of MC got a better performance on the coke gasification reactivity by blending > 30% SC with this coking process.

Keywords: low-rank coal, middlings, structure characteristic, mineral evolution, alkali index, gasification-coke, gasification kinetics

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207 Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Calcined Kaolinitic Clays Using Analytical Techniques

Authors: Alireza Khaloo, Asghar Gholizadeh-Vayghan

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The present work focuses on the characterization of the physicochemical properties of kaolinitic clays in both raw and calcined (i.e., dehydroxylated) states. The properties investigated included the dehydroxylation temperature, chemical composition and crystalline phases, band types, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, and reactive and unreactive silica and alumina. The thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy results suggest that full dehydroxylation takes place at 639°C, converting kaolinite to reactive metakaolinite (Si₂Al₂O₇). Application of higher temperatures up to 800 °C leads to complete decarbonation of the calcite phase, and the kaolinite converts to mullite at temperatures exceeding 957 °C. Calcination at 639°C was found to cause a 50% increase in the vitreous content of kaolin. Statistically meaningful increases in the reactivity of silica, alumina, calcite and sodium carbonate in kaolin were detected as a result of such thermal treatment. Such increases were found to be 11%, 47%, 240% and 10%, respectively. The ferrite phase, however, showed a 36% decline in reactivity. The proposed approach can be used as an analytical method to determine the viability of the source of kaolinite and proper physical and chemical modifications needed to enhance its suitability for geopolymer production.

Keywords: physicochemical properties, dehydroxylation, kaolinitic clays, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, reactivity

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206 Reduction Behavior of Some Low-Grade Iron Ores for Application in Blast Furnace

Authors: Heba Al-Kelesh

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Day after day, high-grade iron ores are consumed. Because of the strong global demand for iron and steel, it has necessitated the utilization of various low-grade iron ores, which are not suitable for direct exploitation in the iron industry. The low-grade ores cannot be dressed using traditional mineral processing methods because of complicated mineral compositions. The present work is aimed to investigate the reducibility of some Egyptian iron ores and concentrates by conditions emulate different blast furnace areas. Representative specimens are collected from El-Gedida–Baharia oasis, Eastern South Aswan, and Eastern desert-wadi Kareem (EDC). Some mineralogical and morphological characterizations are executed. The reactivity arrangement of green samples is Baharia>Aswan>EDC. The presence of magnetite decreased reactivity of EDC. The reducibility of the Aswan sample is lower than Baharia due to the presence of agglomerated metallic grain surrounded by semi-melted phases. Specimens are annealed at 1000ᵒC for 3 hours. After firing, the reducibility of Aswan becomes the lowest due to the formation of fayalite and calcium phosphate phases. The relative attitude for green and fired samples reduced at different conditions are studied. For thermal and top areas, the reactivity of fired samples is greater than green ones, which were confirmed by morphological examinations.

Keywords: reducibility, low grade, iron industry, blast furnace

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205 Structure-Reactivity Relationship of Some Rhᴵᴵᴵ and Osᴵᴵᴵ Complexes with N-Inert Ligands in Ionic Liquids

Authors: Jovana Bogojeski, Dusan Cocic, Nenad Jankovic, Angelina Petrovic

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Kinetically-inert transition metal complexes, such as Rh(III) and Os(III) complexes, attract increasing attention as leading scaffolds for the development of potential pharmacological agents due to their inertness and stability. Therefore, we have designed and fully characterized a few novel rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes with a tridentate nitrogen−donor chelate system. For some complexes, the crystal X-ray structure analysis was performed. Reactivity of the newly synthesized complexes towards small biomolecules, such as L-methionine (L-Met), guanosine-5’-monophosphate (5’-GMP), and glutathione (GSH) has been examined. Also, the reactivity of these complexes towards the DNA/RNA (Ribonucleic acid) duplexes was investigated. Obtained results show that the newly synthesized complexes exhibit good affinity towards the studied ligands. Results also show that the complexes react faster with the RNA duplex than with the DNA and that in the DNA duplex reaction is faster with 15mer GG than with the 22mer GG. The UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy) is absorption spectroscopy, and the EB (Ethidium bromide) displacement studies were used to examine the interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA and BSA (Bovine serum albumin). All studied complex showed good interaction ability with both the DNA and BSA. Furthermore, the DFT (Density-functional theory) calculation and docking studies were performed. The impact of the metal complex on the cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) on HCT-116 lines (human colon cancer cell line). In addition, all these tests were repeated in the presence of several water-soluble biologically active ionic liquids. Attained results indicate that the ionic liquids increase the activity of the investigated complexes. All obtained results in this study imply that the introduction of different spectator ligand can be used to improve the reactivity of rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes. Finally, these results indicate that the examined complexes show reactivity characteristics needed for potential anti-tumor agents, with possible targets being both the DNA and proteins. Every new contribution in this field is highly warranted due to the current lack of clinically used Metallo-based alternatives to cisplatin.

Keywords: biomolecules, ionic liquids, osmium(III), rhodium(III)

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204 Potential Use of Local Materials as Synthesizing One Part Geopolymer Cement

Authors: Areej Almalkawi, Sameer Hamadna, Parviz Soroushian, Nalin Darsana

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The work on indigenous binders in this paper focused on the following indigenous raw materials: red clay, red lava and pumice (as primary aluminosilicate precursors), wood ash and gypsum (as supplementary minerals), and sodium sulfate and lime (as alkali activators). The experimental methods used for evaluation of these indigenous raw materials included laser granulometry, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and chemical reactivity. Formulations were devised for transforming these raw materials into alkali aluminosilicate-based hydraulic cements. These formulations were processed into hydraulic cements via simple heating and milling actions to render thermal activation, mechanochemical and size reduction effects. The resulting hydraulic cements were subjected to laser granulometry, heat of hydration and reactivity tests. These cements were also used to prepare mortar mixtures, which were evaluated via performance of compressive strength tests. The measured values of strength were correlated with the reactivity, size distribution and microstructural features of raw materials. Some of the indigenous hydraulic cements produced in this reporting period yielded viable levels of compressive strength. The correlation trends established in this work are being evaluated for development of simple and thorough methods of qualifying indigenous raw materials for use in production of indigenous hydraulic cements.

Keywords: one-part geopolymer cement, aluminosilicate precursors, thermal activation, mechanochemical

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203 Quantification of Global Cerebrovascular Reactivity in the Principal Feeding Arteries of the Human Brain

Authors: Ravinder Kaur

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Introduction Global cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) mapping is a promising clinical assessment for stress-testing the brain using physiological challenges, such as CO₂, to elicit changes in perfusion. It enables real-time assessment of cerebrovascular integrity and health. Conventional imaging approaches solely use steady-state parameters, like cerebral blood flow (CBF), to evaluate the integrity of the resting parenchyma and can erroneously show a healthy brain at rest, despite the underlying pathogenesis in the presence of cerebrovascular disease. Conversely, coupling CO₂ inhalation with phase-contrast MRI neuroimaging interrogates the capacity of the vasculature to respond to changes under stress. It shows promise in providing prognostic value as a novel health marker to measure neurovascular function in disease and to detect early brain vasculature dysfunction. Objective This exploratory study was established to:(a) quantify the CBF response to CO₂ in hypocapnia and hypercapnia,(b) evaluate disparities in CVR between internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA), and (c) assess sex-specific variation in CVR. Methodology Phase-contrast MRI was employed to measure the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO₂ (±10 mmHg). The respiratory interventions were presented using the prospectively end-tidal targeting RespirActTM Gen3 system. Post-processing and statistical analysis were conducted. Results In 9 young, healthy subjects, the CBF increased from hypocapnia to hypercapnia in all vessels (4.21±0.76 to 7.20±1.83 mL/sec in ICA, 1.36±0.55 to 2.33±1.31 mL/sec in VA, p < 0.05). The CVR was quantitatively higher in ICA than VA (slope of linear regression: 0.23 vs. 0.07 mL/sec/mmHg, p < 0.05). No statistically significant effect was observed in CVR between male and female (0.25 vs 0.20 mL/sec/mmHg in ICA, 0.09 vs 0.11 mL/sec/mmHg in VA, p > 0.05). Conclusions The principal finding in this investigation validated the modulation of CBF by CO₂. Moreover, it has indicated that regional heterogeneity in hemodynamic response exists in the brain. This study provides scope to standardize the quantification of CVR prior to its clinical translation.

Keywords: cerebrovascular disease, neuroimaging, phase contrast MRI, cerebrovascular reactivity, carbon dioxide

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202 The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States

Authors: Nadine Sammy, Mark Wilson, Samuel Vine

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The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.

Keywords: cardiovascular, challenge, performance, threat

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201 Development and Analysis of SFR Control Rod Design

Authors: Lenka Dujčíková, Laurent Buiron, Ján Haščík

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The study is dedicated to safety management of SFR CAPRA core with CFV design improvements. In the case of CAPRA core, demands for reactivity control are higher than for reference core. There are two possible ways how to ensure the certain amount of negative reactivity. One option is to boost control rods worth. The Greater part of the study is aimed at the proposal of appropriate control rod design. At first, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) control rod design with high-enriched boron carbide B4C as absorber material was tested. Considering costly and difficult enrichment process, usage of natural boron carbide absorbator is desired. Obviously, the use of natural boron leads to CR worth reduction. In order to increase it to required value, moderator material was inserted inside the control rod. Various materials and geometric configurations were examined to find optimal solution corresponding with EFR based CR worth value.

Keywords: boron carbide, CAPRA core, control rod design, low void effect design, melting temperature, moderator material

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200 Nuclear Fuel Safety Threshold Determined by Logistic Regression Plus Uncertainty

Authors: D. S. Gomes, A. T. Silva

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Analysis of the uncertainty quantification related to nuclear safety margins applied to the nuclear reactor is an important concept to prevent future radioactive accidents. The nuclear fuel performance code may involve the tolerance level determined by traditional deterministic models producing acceptable results at burn cycles under 62 GWd/MTU. The behavior of nuclear fuel can simulate applying a series of material properties under irradiation and physics models to calculate the safety limits. In this study, theoretical predictions of nuclear fuel failure under transient conditions investigate extended radiation cycles at 75 GWd/MTU, considering the behavior of fuel rods in light-water reactors under reactivity accident conditions. The fuel pellet can melt due to the quick increase of reactivity during a transient. Large power excursions in the reactor are the subject of interest bringing to a treatment that is known as the Fuchs-Hansen model. The point kinetic neutron equations show similar characteristics of non-linear differential equations. In this investigation, the multivariate logistic regression is employed to a probabilistic forecast of fuel failure. A comparison of computational simulation and experimental results was acceptable. The experiments carried out use the pre-irradiated fuels rods subjected to a rapid energy pulse which exhibits the same behavior during a nuclear accident. The propagation of uncertainty utilizes the Wilk's formulation. The variables chosen as essential to failure prediction were the fuel burnup, the applied peak power, the pulse width, the oxidation layer thickness, and the cladding type.

Keywords: logistic regression, reactivity-initiated accident, safety margins, uncertainty propagation

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199 Optical Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials with Tunable Explosion Reactivity

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Man Kim, Hyung Woo Lee, Soo Hyung Kim

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The applications of nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) could be extended by developing more convenient and reliable ignition methods. However, the underwater ignition of nEMs is a significant challenge because water perturbs the reactants prior to ignition and also quenches the subsequent combustion reaction of nEMs upon ignition. In this study, we developed flash and laser-ignitable nEMs for underwater explosion. This was achieved by adding various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the optical igniter into an nEM matrix, composed of Al/CuO nanoparticles. The CNTs absorb the irradiated optical energy and rapidly convert it into thermal energy, and then the thermal energy is concentrated to ignite the core catalysts and neighboring nEMs. The maximum burn rate was achieved by adding 1 wt% CNTs into the nEM matrix. The burn rate significantly decreased with increasing amount of CNTs (≥ 2 wt%), indicating that the optical ignition and controlled-explosion reactivity of nEMs are possible by incorporating an appropriate amount of CNTs.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, carbon nanotubes, optical ignition, tunable explosion

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198 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq

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Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: rice husk, rice husk ash, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, pozzolanic reactivity, crystalline silica, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence

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197 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

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Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

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196 Redirection of Cytokine Production Patterns by Dydrogesterone, an Orally-Administered Progestogen

Authors: Raj Raghupathy

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Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriage (RSM) is a common form of pregnancy loss, 50% of which are due to ‘unexplained’ causes. Evidence exists to suggest that RSM may be caused by immunologic factors such as cytokines which are critical molecules of the immune system, with an impressive array of capabilities. An association appears to exist between Th2-type reactivity (mediated by Th2 or anti-inflammatory cytokines) and normal, successful pregnancy, and between unexplained RSM and Th1 cytokine dominance. If pro-inflammatory cytokines are indeed associated with pregnancy loss, the suppression of these cytokines, and thus the ‘redirection’ of maternal reactivity, may help prevent cytokine-mediated pregnancy loss. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of modulating cytokine production using Dydrogesterone (Duphaston®), an orally-administered progestogen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 34 women with a history of at least 3 unexplained recurrent miscarriages were stimulated in vitro with a mitogen (to elicit cytokine production) in the presence and absence of dydrogesterone. Levels of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured after exposure to these progestogens. Dydrogesterone down-regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 cytokines are markedly elevated in the presence of dydrogesterone, indicating a shift from potentially harmful maternal Th1 reactivity to a more pregnancy-conducive Th2 profile. We used a progesterone receptor antagonist to show that this cytokine-modulating effect of dydrogesterone is mediated via the progesterone receptor. Dydrogesterone also induces the production of the Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor (PIBF); lymphocytes exposed to PIBF produce higher levels of Th2 cytokines, affecting a Th1 → Th2 cytokine shift which could be favourable to the success of pregnancy. We conclude that modulation of maternal cytokine production profiles is possible with dydrogesterone which has the merits that it can be administered orally and that it is safe.

Keywords: cytokines, dydrogesterone, progesterone, recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
195 Characterization of Particle Charge from Aerosol Generation Process: Impact on Infrared Signatures and Material Reactivity

Authors: Erin M. Durke, Monica L. McEntee, Meilu He, Suresh Dhaniyala

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Aerosols are one of the most important and significant surfaces in the atmosphere. They can influence weather, absorption, and reflection of light, and reactivity of atmospheric constituents. A notable feature of aerosol particles is the presence of a surface charge, a characteristic imparted via the aerosolization process. The existence of charge can complicate the interrogation of aerosol particles, so many researchers remove or neutralize aerosol particles before characterization. However, the charge is present in real-world samples, and likely has an effect on the physical and chemical properties of an aerosolized material. In our studies, we aerosolized different materials in an attempt to characterize the charge imparted via the aerosolization process and determine what impact it has on the aerosolized materials’ properties. The metal oxides, TiO₂ and SiO₂, were aerosolized expulsively and then characterized, using several different techniques, in an effort to determine the surface charge imparted upon the particles via the aerosolization process. Particle charge distribution measurements were conducted via the employment of a custom scanning mobility particle sizer. The results of the charge distribution measurements indicated that expulsive generation of 0.2 µm SiO₂ particles produced aerosols with upwards of 30+ charges on the surface of the particle. Determination of the degree of surface charging led to the use of non-traditional techniques to explore the impact of additional surface charge on the overall reactivity of the metal oxides, specifically TiO₂. TiO₂ was aerosolized, again expulsively, onto a gold-coated tungsten mesh, which was then evaluated with transmission infrared spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The TiO₂ aerosols were exposed to O₂, H₂, and CO, respectively. Exposure to O₂ resulted in a decrease in the overall baseline of the aerosol spectrum, suggesting O₂ removed some of the surface charge imparted during aerosolization. Upon exposure to H₂, there was no observable rise in the baseline of the IR spectrum, as is typically seen for TiO₂, due to the population of electrons into the shallow trapped states and subsequent promotion of the electrons into the conduction band. This result suggests that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization fills the trapped states, therefore no rise is seen upon exposure to H₂. Dosing the TiO₂ aerosols with CO showed no adsorption of CO on the surface, even at lower temperatures (~100 K), indicating the additional charge on the aerosol surface prevents the CO molecules from adsorbing to the TiO₂ surface. The results observed during exposure suggest that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization impacts the interaction with each probe gas.

Keywords: aerosols, charge, reactivity, infrared

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194 Gold–M Heterobimetallic Complexes: Synthesis and Initial Reactivity Studies

Authors: Caroline Alice Rouget-Virbel, F. Dean Toste

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Heterobimetallic systems have been precedented in a wide array of bioinorganic and heterogeneous catalytic settings, in which cooperative bond-breaking and bond-forming events mediated by neighboring metal sites have been proposed but are challenging to study and characterize. Heterodinuclear transition-metal catalysis has recently emerged as a promising strategy to tackle challenging chemical transformations, including C−C and C−X couplings as well as small molecule activation. It has been shown that these reactions can traverse nontraditional mechanisms, reactivities, and selectivities when homo- and heterobimetallic systems are employed. Moreover, stoichiometric studies of transmetallation from gold complexes have demonstrated that R transfer from PPh3–Au(I)R to Cp- and Cp*-ligated group 8/9 complexes is a viable elementary step. With these considerations in mind, we hypothesized that heterobimetallic Au–M complexes could serve as a viable and tunable catalyst platform to explore mechanisms and reactivity. In this work, heterobimetallic complexes containing Au(I) centers tethered to Ir(III) and Rh(III) piano stool moieties were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary application of these complexes to a catalytic allylic arylation reaction demonstrates bimetallic cooperativity relative to their monomeric metal components.

Keywords: heterobimetallic, catalysis, gold, rhodium

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193 Investigations on Enhancement of Fly Ash in Cement Manufacturing through Optimization of Clinker Quality and Fly Ash Fineness

Authors: Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, K. V. Kalyani, S. K. Chaturvedi, B. N. Mohapatra

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Enhancing the fly ash utilization in the manufacture of cement is identified as one of the key areas to mitigate the Green House Gas emissions from the cement industry. Though increasing the fly ash content in cement has economic and environmental benefits, it results in a decrease in the compressive strength values, particularly at early ages. Quality of clinker and fly ash were identified as predominant factors that govern the extent of absorption of fly ash in the manufacturing of cement. This paper presents systematic investigations on the effect of clinker and fly ash quality on the properties of resultant cement. Since mechanical activation alters the physicochemical properties such as particle size distribution, surface area, phase morphology, understanding the variation of these properties with activation is required for its applications. The effect of mechanical activation on fly ash surface area, specific gravity, flow properties, lime reactivity, comparative compressive strength (CCS), reactive silica and mineralogical properties were also studied. The fineness of fly ash was determined by Blaine’s method, specific gravity, lime reactivity, CCS were determined as per the method IS 1727-1967. The phase composition of fly ash was studied using the X-ray Diffraction technique. The changes in the microstructure and morphology with activation were examined using the scanning electron microscope. The studies presented in this paper also include evaluation of Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), prepared using high volume fly ash. Studies are being carried out using clinker from cement plants located in different regions/clusters in India. Blends of PPC containing higher contents of activated fly ash have been prepared and investigated for their chemical and physical properties, as per Indian Standard procedures. Changes in the microstructure of fly ash with activation and mechanical properties of resultant cement containing high volumes of fly ash indicated the significance of optimization of the quality of clinker and fly ash fineness for better techno-economical benefits.

Keywords: flow properties, fly ash enhancement, lime reactivity, microstructure, mineralogy

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192 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David

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Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, vanillin, bio-based, non-toxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
191 Benzoxaboralone: A Boronic Acid with High Oxidative Stability and Utility in Biological Contexts

Authors: Brian J. Graham, Ronald T. Raines

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The presence of a nearly vacant p orbital on boron endows boronic acids with unique abilities as a catalyst and ligand. An organocatalytic process has been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a platform chemical. Specifically, 2-carboxyphenylboronic acid (2-CPBA) has been shown to be an optimal catalyst for this process, promoting the desired transformation in the absence of metals. The attributes of 2-CPBA as a catalyst led to additional investigations of its structure and reactivity. 2-CPBA was found to exist as a cyclized benzoxaborolone adduct rather than a free carboxylic acid. This cyclization has profound consequences for the oxidative stability of the boronic acid. Stereoelectronic effects within the oxaborolone ring destabilize the oxidation transition state by reducing electron donation from the cyclic oxygen to the developing p orbital on boron. That leads to a 10,000-fold increase in oxidative stability while maintaining the normal reactivity of boronic acids toward diols (e.g., carbohydrates) and nucleophiles in proteins while also presenting numerous hydrogen-bond accepting and donating groups. Thus, benzoxaborolones are useful in catalysis, chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and allied fields.

Keywords: bioisosteres, boronic acid, catalysis, oxidative stability, pharmacophore, stereoelectronic effects

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190 An Acyclic Zincgermylene: Rapid H₂ Activation

Authors: Martin Juckel

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Probably no other field of inorganic chemistry has undergone such a rapid development in the past two decades than the low oxidation state chemistry of main group elements. This rapid development has only been possible by the development of new bulky ligands. In case of our research group, super-bulky monodentate amido ligands and β-diketiminate ligands have been used to a great success. We first synthesized the unprecedented magnesium(I) dimer [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ (ᴹᵉˢNacnac = [(ᴹᵉˢNCMe)₂CH]-; Mes = mesityl, which has since been used both as reducing agent and also for the synthesis of new metal-magnesium bonds. In case of the zinc bromide precursor [L*ZnBr] (L*=(N(Ar*)(SiPri₃); (Ar* = C₆H₂{C(H)Ph₂}₂Me-2,6,4, the reduction with [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ led to such a metal-magnesium bond. This [L*ZnMg(ᴹᵉˢNacnac)] compound can be seen as an ‘inorganic Grignard reagent’, which can be used to transfer the metal fragment onto other functional groups or other metal centers; just like the conventional Grignard reagent. By simple addition of (TBoN)GeCl (TBoN = N(SiMe₃){B(DipNCH)₂) to the aforesaid compound, we were able to transfer the amido-zinc fragment to the Ge center of the germylene starting material and to synthesize the first example of a germanium(II)-zinc bond: [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)]. While these reactions typically led to complex product mixture, [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] could be isolated as dark blue crystals in a good yield. This new compound shows interesting reactivity towards small molecules, especially dihydrogen gas. This is of special interest as dihydrogen is one of the more difficult small molecules to activate, due to its strong (BDE = 108 kcal/mol) and non-polar bond. In this context, the interaction between H₂ σ-bond with the tetrelylene p-Orbital (LUMO), with concomitant donation of the tetrelylene lone pair (HOMO) into the H₂ σ* orbital are responsible for the activation of dihydrogen gas. Accordingly, the narrower the HOMO-LUMO gap of tertelylene, the more reactivity towards H₂ it typically is. The aim of a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap was reached by transferring electropositive substituents respectively metal substituents with relatively low Pauling electronegativity (zinc: 1.65) onto the Ge center (here: the zinc-amido fragment). In consideration of the unprecedented reactivity of [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)], a computational examination of its frontier orbital energies was undertaken. The energy separation between the HOMO, which has significant Ge lone pair character, and the LUMO, which has predominantly Ge p-orbital character, is narrow (40.8 kcal/mol; cf.∆S-T= 24.8 kcal/mol), and comparable to the HOMO-LUMO gaps calculated for other literature known complexes). The calculated very narrow HOMO-LUMO gap for the [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] complex is consistent with its high reactivity, and is remarkable considering that it incorporates a π-basic amide ligand, which are known to raise the LUMO of germylenes considerably.

Keywords: activation of dihydrogen gas, narrow HOMO-LUMO gap, first germanium(II)-zinc bond, inorganic Grignard reagent

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189 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Micro-Silica and Locally Produced Metakaolin and Effect on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: S. U. Khan, T. Ayub, N. Shafiq

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The properties of locally produced metakaolin (MK) as cement replacing material and the comparison of reactivity with commercially available micro-silica have been investigated. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and load-deflection behaviour under bending are the properties that have been studied. The amorphous phase of MK with micro-silica was compared through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Further, interfacial transition zone of concrete with micro-silica and MK was observed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Three mixes of concrete were prepared. One of the mix is without cement replacement as control mix, and the remaining two mixes are 10% cement replacement with micro-silica and MK. It has been found that MK, due to its irregular structure and amorphous phase, has high reactivity with portlandite in concrete. The compressive strength at early age is higher with MK as compared to micro-silica. MK concrete showed higher splitting tensile strength and higher load carrying capacity as compared to control and micro-silica concrete at all ages respectively.

Keywords: metakaolin, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, load deflection, interfacial transition zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 98