Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3356

Search results for: private sector

3356 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

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3355 Empirical Study on the Organizational Role Stress and its Effect on Private and Government Sector Employees

Authors: Rashmi Shahu

Abstract:

This is a comparative study of the Organizational Role Stress among the private and government sector employees. There was no known similar kind of Organizational Role Stress study in the field area i.e. Nagpur city. Hence, in order to understand the ORS level pertaining to the government and private sector employees in various offices it was taken as the subject for this study. The Method used for this study was the incidental sampling method. The Organizational Role Scale containing 50 statements related to the ten different ORS areas was used for observations. All 60 participants were tested. The results of the study show that there was a significant difference in only one area of ORS i.e. Personal Inadequacy for the participants. The employees from the private sector showed higher Personal Inadequacy than the government employees. Rest of the ORS areas showed no significant difference meaning that the employees were well adjusted in the respective areas.

Keywords: organozational role stress, private sector, government sector, personal inadequacy

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3354 Barriers to Job Localization Policy in Private Sector: Case Study from Oman

Authors: Yahya Al Nahdi

Abstract:

Even though efforts to increase the participation of nationals in the workforce have been in place for more than a decade in the Sultanate of Oman, the results are not impressive. Citizens’ workforce participation – it is argued in the literature – is hindered by institutional, as well as attitudinal concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers to Omanization (employment of Omani nationals) in the private sector as perceived by the senior managers in government and private sector. Data were collected predominantly through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with managers who directly deal with Omanization policies from both the public and private sector. Results from the data analysis have shown that the majority of participants acknowledged a work preference in the movement (public sector). The private sector employees' compensation and benefits package was perceived to be less attractive than that offered in the government (public sector). The negative perceptions (stereotypes) shared by expatriates regarding work attitudes and competencies of citizens in the local labour market was also overwhelmingly perceived as a major hindrance. Furthermore, institutional issues such as, ineffectiveness of rules and regulation regarding Omanization, inappropriate quota system and lack of public awareness towards private sector’s jobs, are also perceived problematic to successful Omanization. Finally, results from the data analysis were used in recommending strategies for potential consideration in the pursuit of a successful Omanization programme.

Keywords: localization, job security, labour force structure, Omanization, private sector, public sector

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3353 The Nature of Problems Faced by Organization in Recruitment: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Sector of Russia

Authors: Zarema Urustamova, Chunsheng Shi, Ghulam Mujtaba Kayani 

Abstract:

This research paper helps to understand the comparative analysis of recruitment problems which majorly faced by HRD of Public/Semi-Govt. and private sectors of Russia. The natures of different recruitment problems faced by HRD are different in both sector of Russia. Recruitment is one of very critical and important decision taken by HR department and some recruitment problems are highly faced by HR department of public/semi Govt. sector but are not major problems for private sector. Moreover, some problems are majorly influence in private sector but are not major problems in public/semi-govt. sector of Russia in recruitment. It is also identified that some recruitment problems are majorly affect in recruitment in both sectors. This paper helps to understand the recruitment problems faced by HR department while recruiting the new employee in both sectors. This paper also identified that “environment” and “prejudice” in public sector have higher affect and considered as a major problems in employee recruitment and “reference”, “selection standards” are considered as a least affecting problems of recruitment in public sector. Further, in private sector, “prejudice” and “culture” are major issues and “selection standards” and “reference” is considered as least affecting recruitment problems in private sector of Russia. So, HR department will be able to hire right person on right time, and it is possible when different HR departments focus to overcome these recruitment problems more efficiently and effectively.

Keywords: Govt. /Semi-Govt. vs. private sector, HR department, recruitment problems, Russia

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3352 Delay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Initiation of TB Treatment in the Private and Public Health Sectors, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India, Nov 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, R. S. Gupta, K. F. Laserson

Abstract:

Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of TB facilitates disease transmission in the community, so we conducted a study to evaluate the burden of and risk factors for delay in TB diagnosis and initiation of TB treatment among patients in the private and public sectors in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 100 new sputum-positive TB. Patients were interviewed in the intensive phase of treatment September 2013-November 2013 Long total diagnosis delay (TDD) was defined as a time interval between first symptom to confirmed diagnosis > 30 days. Long health treatment delay (HTD) was defined as a time interval between confirmed diagnosis to treatment initiation > 7 days. Results: We observed a median TDD of 55 days (range: 7-136 days) in the public sector and of 92 days (11-380 days) in the private sector. Long TDD in the private sector was significantly associated with middle-higher socio-economic status (Risk Ratio (RR): 2;95% CI: 1.3-3). The reasons reported from the private sector for long TDD were suspect TB patients not advised for sputum examination (RR: 42; 95% CI:2.6-660), practise of self-medication (RR: 17.4; 95% CI: 1.1-267), or lack of awareness (RR: 9.7;95% CI: 0.6-145). The median HTD in the public sector was 3 days (range: 0-14 days), and in the private sector, 2 days (range: 0-11 days) (non-significant difference). Conclusions: Long TDD in private sector may be improved through sputum referral for all suspect TB cases and better education to all regarding TB.

Keywords: diagnosis delay, treatment delay, privatesector, public sector

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3351 Trends of Public-Private Partnership Infrastructure in Thailand

Authors: Wasaporn Techapeeraparnich

Abstract:

Bringing private investor involving in providing public infrastructure have been increasingly used worldwide, and there is no exception for developing countries like Thailand. Recently, there is a huge investment opportunity for public-private partnership (PPP) in Thailand, especially in the transportation sector. This paper analyses the development of the PPP since the early beginning of PPP in different service sectors. It also summarizes the development of PPP and its application in terms of usage, opportunities and trends particularly in the transport sector. The results are aimed to draw some lessons learned for future development.

Keywords: case study, public-private partnership, transportation, Thailand

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3350 Evaluation Synthesis of Private Sector Engagement in International Development

Authors: Valerie Habbel, Magdalena Orth, Johanna Richter, Steffen Schimko

Abstract:

Cooperation between development actors and the private sector is becoming increasingly important, as it is expected to mobilize additional resources to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among other things. However, whether the goals of cooperation are achieved has so far only been explored in evaluations and studies of individual projects and instruments. The evaluation synthesis attempts to close this gap by systematically analyzing existing evidence (evaluations and academic studies) from national and international development cooperation on private sector engagement. Overall, the evaluations and studies considered report mainly positive effects on investors and donors, intermediaries, partner countries, and target groups. However, various analyses, including on the quality of the evaluations, point to a positive bias in the results. The evaluation synthesis makes recommendations on the definition of indicators, the measurement and evaluation of impacts and additionality, knowledge management, and the consideration of transaction costs in cooperation with private actors.

Keywords: evaluation synthesis, private sector engagement, international development, sustainable development

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3349 Conflicts of Interest in the Private Sector and the Significance of the Public Interest Test

Authors: Opemiposi Adegbulu

Abstract:

Conflicts of interest is an elusive, diverse and engaging subject, a cross-cutting problem of governance; all levels of governance, ranging from local to global, public to corporate or financial sectors. In all these areas, its mismanagement could lead to the distortion of decision-making processes, corrosion of trust and the weakening of administration. According to Professor Peters, an expert in the area, conflict of interest, a problem at the root of many scandals has “become a pervasive ethical concern in our professional, organisational, and political life”. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. However, conflicts of interest in the private sector are distinct and must be treated in like manner when regulatory efforts are made to address them. The research looks at identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector and differentiating them from those in the public sector. The public interest is submitted as a criterion which allows for such differentiation. This is significant because it would for the use of tailor-made or sector-specific approaches to addressing this complex issue. This is conducted through extensive review of literature and theories on the definition of conflicts of interest. This study will employ theoretical, doctrinal and comparative methods. The nature of conflicts of interest in the private sector will be explored, through an analysis of the public sector where the notion of conflicts of interest appears more clearly identified, reasons, why they are of business ethics concern, will be advanced, and then, once again, looking at public sector solutions and other solutions, the study will identify ways of mitigating and managing conflicts in the private sector. An exploration of public sector conflicts of interest and solutions will be carried out because the typologies of conflicts of interest in both sectors appear very similar at the core and thus, lessons can be learnt with regards to the management of these issues in the private sector. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. This research will then focus on some specific challenges to understanding and identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector; origin, diverging theories, the psychological barrier to the definition, similarities with public sector conflicts of interest due to the notions of corrosion of trust, ‘being in a particular kind of situation,’ etc. The notion of public interest will be submitted as a key element at the heart of the distinction between public sector and private sector conflicts of interests. It will then be proposed that the appreciation of the notion of conflicts of interest differ according to sector, country to country, based on the public interest test, using the United Kingdom (UK), the United States of America (US), France and the Philippines as illustrations.

Keywords: conflicts of interest, corporate governance, global governance, public interest

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3348 Price Compensation Mechanism with Unmet Demand for Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Zhuo Feng, Ying Gao

Abstract:

Public-private partnership (PPP), as an innovative way to provide infrastructures by the private sector, is being widely used throughout the world. Compared with the traditional mode, PPP emerges largely for merits of relieving public budget constraint and improving infrastructure supply efficiency by involving private funds. However, PPP projects are characterized by large scale, high investment, long payback period, and long concession period. These characteristics make PPP projects full of risks. One of the most important risks faced by the private sector is demand risk because many factors affect the real demand. If the real demand is far lower than the forecasting demand, the private sector will be got into big trouble because operating revenue is the main means for the private sector to recoup the investment and obtain profit. Therefore, it is important to study how the government compensates the private sector when the demand risk occurs in order to achieve Pareto-improvement. This research focuses on price compensation mechanism, an ex-post compensation mechanism, and analyzes, by mathematical modeling, the impact of price compensation mechanism on payoff of the private sector and consumer surplus for PPP toll road projects. This research first investigates whether or not price compensation mechanisms can obtain Pareto-improvement and, if so, then explores boundary conditions for this mechanism. The research results show that price compensation mechanism can realize Pareto-improvement under certain conditions. Especially, to make the price compensation mechanism accomplish Pareto-improvement, renegotiation costs of the government and the private sector should be lower than a certain threshold which is determined by marginal operating cost and distortionary cost of the tax. In addition, the compensation percentage should match with the price cut of the private investor when demand drops. This research aims to provide theoretical support for the government when determining compensation scope under the price compensation mechanism. Moreover, some policy implications can also be drawn from the analysis for better risk-sharing and sustainability of PPP projects.

Keywords: infrastructure, price compensation mechanism, public-private partnership, renegotiation

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3347 Assets Misappropriation in the Malaysian Public and Private Sectors

Authors: I. K. Norziaton, M. D. Ridhuan, A. N. Nur Adura

Abstract:

Assets misappropriation is becoming a major concern in organizations. Over the years, the Malaysian Auditor General has reported high occurrences of assets misappropriation at the federal, state and even local governments. It is surprising that assets misappropriation is not the only major concern in the public sector but it has also indicates a common sight in private sector. The current situation is rather disconcerting because employees are accountable to perform their jobs at the interest of the organizations. Various researches in the past has found that the incidence of assets misappropriation occurs when employees used the official vehicles, internet connection, computers, stationery and facilities for personal and family benefits. The issue of assets misappropriation has continue to be a major concern for organizations and its impact on the reputation and financial health can be enormous. Even though the issue seems to be trivial, yet, if it is left untreated, the symptoms will become an incurable disease that it will cause major leakages to the organizations. Hence, this paper highlights the common practices of assets misappropriation in public and private sectors. It also discusses why the acts of assets misappropriation occurs. Using the data through questionnaire survey, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to the private and public sectors employees. However 173 (69.2%) were returned and usable. This paper concludes that it is vital to promote awareness to the public and private sectors employees on issues of assets misappropriation. Assets misappropriation could have been avoided provided that the officers in charge are more vigilant, competent and practice high level of integrity in discharging their responsibilities towards the organizations.

Keywords: assets misappropriation, fraud, public sector, private sector

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3346 Infrastructure Investment Law Formulation to Ensure Low Transaction Cost at Policy Level: Case Study of Public Private Partnership Project at the Ministry of Public Works and Housing of the Republic of Indonesia

Authors: Yolanda Indah Permatasari, Sudarsono Hardjosoekarto

Abstract:

Public private partnership (PPP) scheme was considered as an alternative source of funding for infrastructure provision. However, the performance of PPP scheme and interest of private sector to participate in the provision of infrastructure was still practically low. This phenomenon motivates the research to reconstruct the form of collaborative governance at the policy level from the perspective of transaction cost of the PPP scheme. Soft-system methodology (SSM)-based action research was used as this research methodology. The result of this study concludes that the emergence of transaction cost sources at the policy level is caused by the absence of a law that governs infrastructure investment, especially the implementation of PPP scheme. This absence is causing the imbalance in risk allocation and risk mitigation between the public and private sector. Thus, this research recommended the formulation of infrastructure investment law that aims to minimize asymmetry information, to anticipate the principal-principal problems, and to provide legal basis that ensures risk certainty and guarantee fair risk allocation between public and private sector.

Keywords: public governance, public private partnership, soft system methodology, transaction cost

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3345 Financial Analysis of Selected Private Healthcare Organizations with Special Referance to Guwahati City, Assam

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

Abstract:

The private sector investments and quantum of money required in this sector critically hinges on the financial risk and returns the sector offers to providers of capital. Therefore, it becomes important to understand financial performance of hospitals. Financial Analysis is useful for decision makers in a variety of settings. Consider the small proprietary hospitals, say, Physicians Clinic. The managers of such clinic need the information that financial statements provide. Attention to Financial Statements of healthcare Organizations can provide answers to questions like: How are they doing? What is their rate of profit? What is their solvency and liquidity position? What are their sources and application of funds? What is their Operational Efficiency? The researcher has studied Financial Statements of 5 Private Healthcare Organizations in Guwahati City.

Keywords: not-for-profit organizations, financial analysis, ratio analysis, profitability analysis, liquidity analysis, operational efficiency, capital structure analysis

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3344 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

Abstract:

Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

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3343 Implications of Private Military Security Companies on Stewardship of the Profession of Arms

Authors: Kevin Krupski

Abstract:

Private Military Security Companies have grown to become a major force contributor to nations in military operations. Scholars have debated the implications of this in relation to control and efficiency related to the privatization of violence, but there has been little discussion on how these companies affect the profession of arms. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how the privatization of violence influences the military’s stewardship, whether private military security companies are capable of stewardship of the military profession, and whether there are aspects of stewardship of the military profession that private military security companies are capable of emulating. This paper reviews literature on stewardship, the relationship of the military to the state, and private military security companies in order to identify overlap between uniformed military services and the private sector. Then, it offers a typology for determining under what conditions an organization would act as a steward. Ultimately, there are insufficient reasons for private military security companies to act as stewards of the profession of arms.

Keywords: stewardship, military profession, civil-military, security

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3342 Private and Public Health Sector Difference on Client Satisfaction: Results from Secondary Data Analysis in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Wajiha Javed, Arsalan Jabbar, Nelofer Mehboob, Muhammad Tafseer, Zahid Memon

Abstract:

Introduction: Researchers globally have strived to explore diverse factors that augment the continuation and uptake of family planning methods. Clients’ satisfaction is one of the core determinants facilitating continuation of family planning methods. There is a major debate yet scanty evidence to contrast public and private sectors with respect to client satisfaction. The objective of this study is to compare quality-of-care provided by public and private sectors of Pakistan through a client satisfaction lens. Methods: We used Pakistan Demographic Heath Survey 2012-13 dataset (Sindh province) on a total of 3133 Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA) aged 15-49 years. Source of family planning (public/private sector) was the main exposure variable. Outcome variable was client satisfaction judged by ten different dimensions of client satisfaction. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variable while for categorical variable frequencies and percentages were computed. For univariate analysis, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test was used to find an association between clients’ satisfaction in public and private sectors. Ten different multivariate models were made. Variables were checked for multi-collinearity, confounding, and interaction, and then advanced logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between client satisfaction and dependent outcome after adjusting for all known confounding factors and results are presented as OR and AOR (95% CI). Results: Multivariate analyses showed that clients were less satisfied in contraceptive provision from private sector as compared to public sector (AOR 0.92,95% CI 0.63-1.68) even though the result was not statistically significant. Clients were more satisfied from private sector as compared to the public sector with respect to other determinants of quality-of-care (follow-up care (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.95-5.55), infection prevention (AOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.60-3.62), counseling services (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.18, timely treatment (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 2.20-5.15), attitude of staff (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.33), punctuality of staff (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.92-4.13), timely referring (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.35), staff cooperation (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.22-2.51) and complications handling (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.56-3.29).

Keywords: client satisfaction, family planning, public private partnership, quality of care

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3341 Challenges and Opportunities for Implementing Integrated Project Delivery Method in Public Sector Construction

Authors: Ahsan Ahmed, Ming Lu, Syed Zaidi, Farhan Khan

Abstract:

The Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) method has been proposed as the solution to tackle complexity and fragmentation in the real world while addressing the construction industry’s growing needs for productivity and sustainability. Although the private sector has taken the initiative in implementing IPD and taken advantage of new technology such as building information modeling (BIM) in delivering projects, IPD remains less known and rarely used in public sector construction. The focus of this paper is set on the use of IPD in projects in public sector, which is potentially complemented by the use of analytical functionalities for workface planning and construction oriented design enabled by recent research advances in BIM. Experiences and lessons learned from implementing IPD in the private sector and in BIM-based construction automation research would play a vital role in reducing barriers and eliminating issues in connection with project delivery in the public sector. The paper elaborates issues challenges, contractual relationships and the interactions throughout the planning, design and construction phases in the context of implementing IPD on construction projects in the public sector. A slab construction case is used as a ‘sandbox’ model to elaborate (1) the ideal way of communication, integration, and collaboration among all the parties involved in project delivery in planning and (2) the execution of projects by using IDP principles and optimization, simulation analyses.

Keywords: integrated project delivery, IPD, building information modeling, BIM

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3340 Wage Differentials in Pakistan by Focusing on Wage Differentials in Public and Private Sectors, Formal and Informal Sectors, and Major Occupational Groups

Authors: Asghar Ali, Narjis Khatoon

Abstract:

This study focuses on the presence of wage differentials in Pakistan and also on the determinants that originate it. Since there are a smaller number of studies that are conducted on this topic in Pakistan, the current study aims to contribute in bridging the existing gap in this particular research genre. Hence, this study not only generates the desired results specific focus but it also contributes to the overall empirical work on the Pakistan economy. The preceding works which have been done to research wage determinants and wage differentials have used numerous different theories and approaches to reach their goals. The current study, in order to analyze the determinants of wage differentials in the developing economy, deals with the study of a number of such theories and approaches that are supposed as being beneficial for the purpose. This study undertakes the explanation of wage differentials in Pakistan by focusing on wage differentials in public and private sectors, formal and informal sectors, and major occupational groups. The study uses 'Wage Theory' to examine wage differentials among male and female employees in public and private sectors on varied levels of working conditions. This study also uses 'Segmented Labor Market Theory' to determine the wage differential in both public and private sectors, formal and informal, and major occupational groups in Pakistan. So the author has used various econometric techniques in order to explain and test these theories and to find out the required results. This study has employed seven different cross-sectional Labour Force Surveys for the time period between 2006-07 to 2012-13. Gender equality is not only a policy reform agenda for developing countries but also an important goal of Millennium Development Goals. This study investigates the nexus between wage inequality and economic growth and detects co-integration between gender wage differential and economic growth using ARDL bound test. It is confirmed from the empirical results that there exists long-run relationship between economic growth and wage differential. Our study indicated that half of the total female employees from fourteen major cities of Pakistan were employed in the public sector. Out of total female employees in private sector, 66 percent are employed in the formal sector, and 33 percent are working in the informal sector. Results also indicated that both men and women were paid more in the public sector compared to the private sector counterparts. Among the total female employees, only 9 percent had received any formal training, 52% were married and average years of schooling were 11 years. Further, our findings regarding wage differential between genders indicate that wage gap is lower in public sector as compared to private sector. In proportion, gender wage ratio was found to be 0.96, 0.62 and 0.66 in public, formal private and informal private sectors respectively. This suggests that in this case, private sector female employees with the same pay structure are compensated at a lower endowments rate as then public sector workers as compared to their counter parts.

Keywords: wage differentials, formal, informal, economic growth

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3339 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

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3338 Assessing the Role of Water Research and Development Investment towards Water Security in South Africa: During the Five Years Period (2009/10 - 2013/14)

Authors: Hlamulo Makelane

Abstract:

The study aims at providing new insights regarding research and development (R&D) public and private activities based on the national R&D survey of the past five years. The main question of the study is what role does water R&D plays on water security; to then analyze what lessons could be extracted to improve the security of water through R&D. In particular, this work concentrates on three main aspects of R&D investments: (i) the level of expenditures, (ii) the sources of funding related to water R&D, and (iii) the personnel working in the field, both for the public and private sectors. The nonlinear regression approached will be used for data analysis based on secondary data gathered from the South African nation R&D survey conducted annually by the Centre for science, technology and innovation indicators (CeSTII).

Keywords: water, R&D, investment, public sector, private sector

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3337 Forest Policy and Its Implications on Private Forestry Development: A Case Study in Rautahat District, Nepal

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

Abstract:

Community forestry in Nepal has got disproportionately high level of support from government and other actors in forestry sector. Even though master plan for forestry sector (1989) has highlighted community and private forestry as one component, the government policies and other intervention deliberately left out private forestry in its structure and programs. The study aimed at providing the pathway for formulating appropriate policies to address need of different kind of forest management regimes in Rautahat district, Nepal. The key areas the research focused were assessment of current status of private forestry, community forest users' understanding on private forestry; criteria for choosing species of private forestry and factors affecting establishment of private forestry in the area. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected employing questionnaire survey, rapid forest assessment and key informant interview. The study found out that forest policies are imposed due to intense pressure of exogenous forces than due to endogenous demand. Most of the local people opine that their traditional knowledge and skills are not sufficient for private forestry and hence need training on the matter. Likewise, local use, market value and rotation dictate the choice of species for plantation in private forests. Currently district forest office is the only government institution working in the area of private forestry all other governmental and non-governmental organizations have condoned. private forestry. Similarly, only permanent settlers in the area are found to establish private forests other forest users such as migrants and forest encroachers follow opportunistic behavior to meet their forest product need from community and national forests. In this regard, the study recommends taking appropriate step to support other forest management system including private forestry provide community forestry the benefits of competition as suggested by Darwin in 18th century, one and half century back and to help alleviate poverty by channelizing benefits to household level.

Keywords: community forest, forest management, poverty, private forest, users’ group

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3336 Public Private Partnership for Infrastructure Projects: Mapping the Key Risks

Authors: Julinda Keçi

Abstract:

In many countries, governments have been promoting the involvement of private sector entities to enter into long-term agreements for the development and delivery of large infrastructure projects, with a focus on overcoming the limitations upon public fund of the traditional approach. The involvement of private sector through public-private partnerships (PPP) brings in new capital investments, value for money and additional risks to handle. Worldwide research studies have shown that an objective, systematic, reliable and user-oriented risk assessment process and an optimal allocation mechanism among different stakeholders is crucial to the successful completion. In this framework this paper, which is the first stage of a research study, aims to identify the main risks for the delivery of PPP projects. A review of cross-countries research projects and case studies was performed to map the key risks affecting PPP infrastructure delivery. The matrix of mapping offers a summary of the frequency of factors, clustered in eleven categories: Construction, Design, Economic, Legal, Market, Natural, Operation, Political, Project finance, Project selection and Relationship. Results will highlight the most critical risk factors, and will hopefully assist the project managers in directing the managerial attention in the further stages of risk allocation.

Keywords: construction, infrastructure, public private partnerships, risks

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3335 Impact of Sovereign Debt Risk and Corrective Austerity Measures on Private Sector Borrowing Cost in Euro Zone

Authors: Syed Noaman Shah

Abstract:

The current paper evaluates the effect of external public debt risk on the borrowing cost of private non-financial firms in euro zone. Further, the study also treats the impact of austerity measures on syndicated-loan spreads of private firm followed by euro area member states to revive the economic growth in the region. To test these hypotheses, we follow multivariate ordinary least square estimation method to assess the effect of external public debt on the borrowing cost of private firms. By using foreign syndicated-loan issuance data of non-financial private firms from 2005 to 2011, we attempt to gauge how the private financing cost varies with high levels of sovereign external debt prevalent in the euro zone. Our results suggest significant effect of external public debt on the borrowing cost of private firm. In particular, an increase in external public debt by one standard deviation from its sample mean raises syndicated-loan spread by 89 bps. Furthermore, weak creditor rights protection prevalent in member states deepens this effect. However, we do not find any significant effect of domestic public debt on the private sector borrowing cost. In addition, the results show significant effect of austerity measures on private financing cost, both in normal and in crisis period in the euro zone. In particular, one standard deviation change in fiscal consolidation conditional mean reduces the syndicated-loan spread by 22 bps. In turn, it indicates strong presence of credibility channel due to austerity measures in euro area region.

Keywords: corporate debt, fiscal consolidation, sovereign debt, syndicated-loan spread

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3334 Behavioural-Orientation and Continuity of Informality in Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Ayerki Lamptey

Abstract:

The expanding informal sector in developing countries and in Ghana in particular from the 1980s has now been aggravated by the growing population and downsizing in both the public and private sectors, with displaced workers finding alternative livelihoods in the informal sector. Youth and graduate unemployment also swell the numbers and further promote the continuity of the sector. Formal workers and institutions facilitate the growth and complicate demarcations between informality within the formal and informal sectors. In spite of its growth and increasing importance, the informal economy does not feature in policy debates and has often been neglected by the Ghana government. The phenomenon has evolved with modernity into myriad unimaginable forms. Indeed, actors within the sector often clash with the interventions provided by policy makers - because neither the operatives nor the activities they perform can be clearly defined. This study uses in-depth interviews to explore the behavioural nature of the informal workers in Ghana to understand how the operatives describe and perceive the sector, and to identify the factors that influence their drive to stay within the sector. This paper concludes that the operatives clearly distinguish between the formal and informal sectors and identify the characteristics and conditions that constitute the informal sector. Other workers are trapped between formality and informality. The findings also enumerate the push and pull factors contributing to the growth of the sector.

Keywords: informal employment, informal sector, informal work, informality

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3333 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence

Abstract:

Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3332 Employment Opportunities in Automobile Sector-Indian Scenario

Authors: A. K. Sarathe, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

The Indian automobile sector is comprised of independent manufacturers and joint ventures with their foreign counterpart companies by making use of the Foreign Direct Investment policy of the Government of India. These manufacturers started capturing the hearts of Indian customers with their choice of technological and innovative product features, with quality and reliability. This transformed the automobile scene from a “sellers market to buyers market”. The potential benefits from the auto sector have been recognized by the planners, managers, and administrators of both the sectors –government and private. Generation of employment for the readily available technical workforce has been achieved not only through the manufacturers, but also through the growing ancillaries and service providers of the auto industries. The main purpose of this paper is to come up with the identification of possible working areas and associated job functions of mechanical and automobile diploma holders having employment opportunities in auto sector of India.

Keywords: automobile sector, diploma holder, employment, job description

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3331 Juxtaposing South Africa’s Private Sector and Its Public Service Regarding Innovation Diffusion, to Explore the Obstacles to E-Governance

Authors: Petronella Jonck, Freda van der Walt

Abstract:

Despite the benefits of innovation diffusion in the South African public service, implementation thereof seems to be problematic, particularly with regard to e-governance which would enhance the quality of service delivery, especially accessibility, choice, and mode of operation. This paper reports on differences between the public service and the private sector in terms of innovation diffusion. Innovation diffusion will be investigated to explore identified obstacles that are hindering successful implementation of e-governance. The research inquiry is underpinned by the diffusion of innovation theory, which is premised on the assumption that innovation has a distinct channel, time, and mode of adoption within the organisation. A comparative thematic document analysis was conducted to investigate organisational differences with regard to innovation diffusion. A similar approach has been followed in other countries, where the same conceptual framework has been used to guide document analysis in studies in both the private and the public sectors. As per the recommended conceptual framework, three organisational characteristics were emphasised, namely the external characteristics of the organisation, the organisational structure, and the inherent characteristics of the leadership. The results indicated that the main difference in the external characteristics lies in the focus and the clientele of the private sector. With regard to organisational structure, private organisations have veto power, which is not the case in the public service. Regarding leadership, similarities were observed in social and environmental responsibility and employees’ attitudes towards immediate supervision. Differences identified included risk taking, the adequacy of leadership development, organisational approaches to motivation and involvement in decision making, and leadership style. Due to the organisational differences observed, it is recommended that differentiated strategies be employed to ensure effective innovation diffusion, and ultimately e-governance. It is recommended that the results of this research be used to stimulate discussion on ways to improve collaboration between the mentioned sectors, to capitalise on the benefits of each sector.

Keywords: E-governance, ICT, innovation diffusion, comparative analysis

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3330 Gendering Science, Technology and Innovation: The Case of R&D in Turkey

Authors: Setenay Nil Doğan, Ece Oztan

Abstract:

Research and development (R&D) as a term denotes the innovative studies conducted systematically to increase knowledge and its practices. As R&D intensity of Turkey (0,84%) is quite below the EU average intensity score, it has displayed a continuous increase since the 2000s. Also, the development of human capital in R&D has been one of the basic aims of National Strategy of Science, Technology, and Innovation, and National Innovation System 2023 of Turkey. R&D is considered to one of the fields in which the gender gap is wide. The reflections of the analogy of leaky pipeline, a term used for vertical differentiation in academy can also be observed in those scientific activities related with the private sector. In the private sector, the gender gap becomes wider: the percentage of female researchers in the universities (41%) decreases to 24% in the private sector. Though half of the undergraduates and gradutes are female in Turkey, a widening gender gap is observed in terms of employment in R&D. Given this background, this paper will focus on gendered dynamics of careers in R&D through the interviews conducted with 25 female and 25 male employees, working in a university technopark and some of the large RD centers in Turkey working in several sectors such as electronics, automotive etc. Focusing on some aspects of gender differences in terms of career experiences in R&D and innovation, mobility, participation to the projects, patents and inclusion to other innovatory activities, home-work balance, it aims to explore the relationships between science, technology, innovation and gender.

Keywords: gender, innovation, R&D, science, technology

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3329 Deregulation of Turkish State Railways Based on Public-Private Partnership Approaches

Authors: S. Shakibaei, P. Alpkokin

Abstract:

The railway network is one of the major components of a transportation system in a country which may be an indicator of the country’s level of economic improvement. Since 2000s on, revival of national railways and development of High Speed Rail (HSR) lines are one of the most remarkable policies of Turkish government in railway sector. Within this trend, the railway age is to be revived and coming decades will be a golden opportunity. Indubitably, major infrastructures such as road and railway networks require sizeable investment capital, precise maintenance and reparation. Traditionally, governments are held responsible for funding, operating and maintaining these infrastructures. However, lack or shortage of financial resources, risk responsibilities (particularly cost and time overrun), and in some cases inefficacy in constructional, operational and management phases persuade governments to find alternative options. Financial power, efficient experiences and background of private sector are the factors convincing the governments to make a collaboration with private parties to develop infrastructures. Public-Private Partnerships (PPP or 3P or P3) and related regulatory issues are born considering these collaborations. In Turkey, PPP approaches have attracted attention particularly during last decade and these types of investments have been accelerated by government to overcome budget limitations and cope with inefficacy of public sector in improving transportation network and its operation. This study mainly tends to present a comprehensive overview of PPP concept, evaluate the regulatory procedure in Europe and propose a general framework for Turkish State Railways (TCDD) as an outlook on privatization, liberalization and deregulation of railway network.

Keywords: deregulation, high-speed railway, liberalization, privatization, public-private partnership

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
3328 Coherencing a Diametrical Interests between the State, Adat Community and Private Interests in Utilising the Land for Investment in Indonesia

Authors: L. M. Hayyan ul Haq, Lalu Sabardi

Abstract:

This research is aimed at exploring an appropriate regulatory model in coherencing a diametrical interest between the state, Adat legal community, and private interests in utilising and optimizing land in Indonesia. This work is also highly relevant to coherencing the obligation of the state to respect, to fulfill and to protect the fundamental rights of people, especially to protect the communal or adat community rights to the land. In visualizing those ideas, this research will use the normative legal research to elaborate the normative problem in land use, as well as redesigning and creating an appropriate regulatory model in bridging and protecting all interest parties, especially, the state, Adat legal community, and private parties. In addition, it will also employ an empirical legal research for identifying some operational problems in protecting and optimising the land. In detail, this research will not only identify the problems at the normative level, such as conflicted norms, the absence of the norms, and the unclear norm in land law, but also the problems at operational level, such as institutional relationship in managing the land use. At the end, this work offers an appropriate regulatory model at the systems level, which covers value and norms in land use, as well as the appropriate mechanism in managing the utilization of the land for the state, Adat legal community, and private sector. By manifesting this objective, the government will not only fulfill its obligation to regulate the land for people and private, but also to protect the fundamental rights of people, as mandated by the Indonesian 1945 Constitution.

Keywords: adat community rights, fundamental rights, investment, land law, private sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
3327 The Impact of Training on Commitment, Retention, Job Satisfaction and Performance of Private Sector Banks in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Arifur Rahman, Ummya Salma, Nazrul Islam

Abstract:

Private sector banking business is one of the leading businesses of Bangladesh as it is profitable and directly attached with the economic development of the country. Training has got very high importance in this sector for increasing the performance of the banks. It has a long term impact on a number of aspects of the bank employees and their performances. It is an investment of the organization that is permanent in nature. Study shows that there are positive relationships between training and the employee commitment, job retention, job satisfaction and company performance. Training is also concerned with promotion, compensation, work-life policies, career development, task and contextual performance of the employees. As such, this paper aims at identifying the impact of training on employee commitment, job retention, job satisfaction and the performance of the private sector banks in Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were used to conduct the study. Data were collected from the bank officers who were trained in their banks. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the present situation of the banks and their employees. Inferential statistics were used to identify the factors and their significance concerned with training. Results show that there is a significant relationship between the performance and the training of the employees. It also shows that the training can motivate employees and encourage them to work hard. However, this study did not find any relationship between the commitment of the employees and the training. This study suggests that for increasing the performance of the banks, training is a must which is to be given deliberately for improving the specific skills of the bank employees.

Keywords: training, promotion, compensation, work-life policies

Procedia PDF Downloads 216