Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4059

Search results for: urban transformation

4059 A Conceptual Approach for Evaluating the Urban Renewal Process

Authors: Muge Unal, Ahmet Cilek


Urban identity, having a dynamic characteristic spatial and semantic aspects, is a phenomenon in an ever-changing. Urban identity formation includes not only a process of physical nature but also development and change processes that take place in the political, economic, social and cultural values, whether national and international level. Although the concept of urban transformation is basically regarded as the spatial transformation; in fact, it reveals a holistic perspective and transformation based on dialectical relationship existing between the spatial and social relationship. For this reason, urban renewal needs to address as not only spatial but also the impact of spatial transformation on social, cultural and economic. Implementation tools used in the perception of urban transformation are varied concepts such as urban renewal, urban resettlement, urban rehabilitation, urban redevelopment, and urban revitalization. The phenomenon of urban transformation begins with the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1980s, it was interpreted as reconsidering physical fossil on urban environment factor like occurring in rapid urbanization, changing in the spatial structure of the city, concentrating of the population in urban areas. However, after the 1980s, it has resided in a conceptual structure which requires to be addressed physical, economic, social, technological and integrity of information. In conclusion, urban transformation, when it enter the literature as a practice of planning, has been up to date in terms of the conceptual structure and content and also hasn’t remained behind converting itself. Urban transformation still maintains its simplest expression, while it transforms so fast converts the contents. In this study, the relationship between urban design and components of urban transformation were discussed with strategies used as a place in the historical process of urban transformation besides a general evaluation of the concept of urban renewal.

Keywords: conceptual approach, urban identity, urban regeneration, urban renewal

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4058 Urban Transformation as a Process for Inner-City Slums in Turkey the Experience of Gaziantep City, Turkey

Authors: Samer Katerji, Mustafa Ozakça, Esra Demircioğlu


The inner-city slums become a global phenomenon problem. It is widely distributed in separate zones through the urban textures, threatens cities in physical, economic and social aspects. It often has illegal settlements with unsafe and unhealthy conditions. By the time, it grown up rapidly followed by growing in its problems. According to United Nations, in some cities, up to 80 percent of the population lives in slums. Fifty-five million new slum dwellers have been added to the global population since 2000. Both developed and developing countries started to figure out mechanics to find solutions, which is suitable to solve the inner-city slums problems. In turn, the planning agenda of Turkey has been focused on urban transformation as a solution for inner-city slums problems since the 2000s. The current laws after 2004 changed all of the statements on the urban transformation of the country. This paper come to explain the urban transformation approach as qualified presses in dealing with inner-city slums problems of turkey. After that, it highlights one of the earliest ongoing transformation projects in Gaziantep city, which is adopted by the local municipalities. The study includes assessment of the pros and cons of pursuing the project and identifying the potential consequences. This is more likely to keep up with the efforts of Gaziantep Municipality in developing and transforming slum areas.

Keywords: transformation, urban, slums, Gaziantep

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4057 Developing a Theory for Study of Transformation of Historic Cities

Authors: Sana Ahrar


Cities are undergoing rapid transformation with the change in lifestyle and technological advancements. These transformations may be experienced or physically visible in the built form. This paper focuses on the relationship between the social, physical environment, change in lifestyle and the interrelated factors influencing the transformation of any historic city. Shahjahanabad as a city has undergone transformation under the various political powers as well as the various policy implementations after independence. These visible traces of transformation diffused throughout the city may be due to socio-economic, historic, political factors and due to the globalization process. This study shall enable evolving a theory for the study of transformation of Historic cities such as Shahjahanabad: which has been plundered, rebuilt, and which still thrives as a ‘living heritage city’. The theory developed will be the process of studying the transformation and can be used by planners, policy makers and researchers in different urban contexts.

Keywords: heritage, historic cities, Shahjahanabad, transformation

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4056 Urban Life on the Go: Urban Transformation of Public Space

Authors: E. Zippelius


Urban design aims to provide a stage for public life that, when once brought to life, is right away subject to subtle but continuous transformation. This paper explores such transformations and searches for ways how public life can be reinforced in the case of a housing settlement for the displaced in Nicosia, Cyprus. First, a sound basis of theoretical knowledge is established through literature review, notably the theory of the Production of Space by Henri Lefebvre, exploring its potential and defining key criteria for the following empirical analysis. The analysis is pinpointing the differences between spatial practice, representation of space and spaces of representation as well as their interaction, alliance, or even conflict. In doing so uncertainties, chances and challenges are unraveled that will be consequently linked to practice and action and lead to the formulation of a design strategy. A strategy, though, that does not long for achieving an absolute, finite certainty but understands the three dimensions of space formulated by Lefebvre as equal and space as continuously produced, hence, unfinished.

Keywords: production of space, public space, urban life, urban transformation

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4055 Decision-Making Process Based on Game Theory in the Process of Urban Transformation

Authors: Cemil Akcay, Goksun Yerlikaya


Buildings are the living spaces of people with an active role in every aspect of life in today's world. While some structures have survived from the early ages, most of the buildings that completed their lifetime have not transported to the present day. Nowadays, buildings that do not meet the social, economic, and safety requirements of the age return to life with a transformation process. This transformation is called urban transformation. Urban transformation is the renewal of the areas with a risk of disaster and the technological infrastructure required by the structure. The transformation aims to prevent damage to earthquakes and other disasters by rebuilding buildings that have completed their non-earthquake-resistant economic life. It is essential to decide on other issues related to conversion and transformation in places where most of the building stock should transform into the first-degree earthquake belt, such as Istanbul. In urban transformation, property owners, local authority, and contractor must deal at a common point. Considering that hundreds of thousands of property owners are sometimes in the areas of transformation, it is evident how difficult it is to make the deal and decide. For the optimization of these decisions, the use of game theory is foreseeing. The main problem in this study is that the urban transformation is carried out in place, or the building or buildings are transport to a different location. There are many stakeholders in the Istanbul University Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Campus, which is planned to be carried out in the process of urban transformation, was tried to solve the game theory applications. An analysis of the decisions given on a real urban transformation project and the logical suitability of decisions taken without the use of game theory were also supervised using game theory. In each step of this study, many decision-makers are classifying according to a specific logical sequence, and in the game trees that emerged as a result of this classification, Nash balances were tried to observe, and optimum decisions were determined. All decisions taken for this project have been subjected to two significant differentiated comparisons using game theory, and as decisions are taken without the use of game theory, and according to the results, solutions for the decision phase of the urban transformation process introduced. The game theory model developed from beginning to the end of the urban transformation process, particularly as a solution to the difficulty of making rational decisions in large-scale projects with many participants in the decision-making process. The use of a decision-making mechanism can provide an optimum answer to the demands of the stakeholders. In today's world for the construction sector, it is also seeing that the game theory is a non-surprising consequence of the fact that it is the most critical issues of planning and making the right decision in future years.

Keywords: urban transformation, the game theory, decision making, multi-actor project

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4054 Transforming Space to Place: Best-Practice Approaches and Initiatives

Authors: Juanee Cilliers


Urban citizens have come to expect more from their cities, demanding optimal conditions for business creativity and professional development, along with efficient, sustainable transportation and energy systems that feed robust economic development and healthy job markets. Urban public spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life and quality thereof. The transformation of space into successful public places are crucial in this regard as planning must safeguard flexibility towards future changes, whilst simultaneously be capable of acting on short-term demands in order to address the complexity of public spaces within urban areas. This research evaluated two case studies of different cities in Belgium which successfully transformed spaces into lively public places. The transformation was illustrated and evaluated by means of visual analyses and space usage analyses of the original and redesigned space, along with the experience and value that the redesign brought to the area. Selected design elements were identified and evaluated based on the role in the transformation process, in an attempt to draw conclusions with regards to theory-practice relevance and to guide the transformation of space to place of (similar) public spaces.

Keywords: space, place, transformation, case studies

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4053 The Effects of Urbanization on Peri-Urban Livelihood in Ghana: A Case of Kumasi Peri-Urban Communities

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong


The research linked urban expansion resulting from urbanization with changing morphology processes happening in peri-urban communities. Two villages of Kumasi City peri-urban were used as a case study. Appropriate analytical framework and methodology (literature review and empirical evidence) were employed to ensure that all pertinent issues of peri-urban interface are brought to light. It was discovered from the study that since peri-urban livelihood is linked with assets base; it has been found that stock of asset, as well as transformation processes, were major factors in the shaping of livelihoods strategies. For that reason, success or failure of household livelihoods was seen to relate to the kind of livelihood strategy employed. With efforts to mitigate for livelihoods failure due to peri-urban development, households' recourse to remittances, land disposal, and other means as an alternative livelihood approach. The study calls for local government policy interventions in regulating peri-urban transformation process and providing safety nets for the vulnerable.

Keywords: urban expansion, peri-urban interface, livelihoods, asset

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4052 Resilience and Urban Transformation: A Review of Recent Interventions in Europe and Turkey

Authors: Bilge Ozel


Cities are high-complex living organisms and are subjects to continuous transformations produced by the stress that derives from changing conditions. Today the metropolises are seen like “development engines” of the countries and accordingly they become the centre of better living conditions that encourages demographic growth which constitutes the main reason of the changes. Indeed, the potential for economic advancement of the cities directly represents the economic status of their countries. The term of “resilience”, which sees the changes as natural processes and represents the flexibility and adaptability of the systems in the face of changing conditions, becomes a key concept for the development of urban transformation policies. The term of “resilience” derives from the Latin word ‘resilire’, which means ‘bounce’, ‘jump back’, refers to the ability of a system to withstand shocks and still maintain the basic characteristics. A resilient system does not only survive the potential risks and threats but also takes advantage of the positive outcomes of the perturbations and ensures adaptation to the new external conditions. When this understanding is taken into the urban context - or rather “urban resilience” - it delineates the capacity of cities to anticipate upcoming shocks and changes without undergoing major alterations in its functional, physical, socio-economic systems. Undoubtedly, the issue of coordinating the urban systems in a “resilient” form is a multidisciplinary and complex process as the cities are multi-layered and dynamic structures. The concept of “urban transformation” is first launched in Europe just after World War II. It has been applied through different methods such as renovation, revitalization, improvement and gentrification. These methods have been in continuous advancement by acquiring new meanings and trends over years. With the effects of neoliberal policies in the 1980s, the concept of urban transformation has been associated with economic objectives. Subsequently this understanding has been improved over time and had new orientations such as providing more social justice and environmental sustainability. The aim of this research is to identify the most applied urban transformation methods in Turkey and its main reasons of being selected. Moreover, investigating the lacking and limiting points of the urban transformation policies in the context of “urban resilience” in a comparative way with European interventions. The emblematic examples, which symbolize the breaking points of the recent evolution of urban transformation concepts in Europe and Turkey, are chosen and reviewed in a critical way.

Keywords: resilience, urban dynamics, urban resilience, urban transformation

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4051 Extraction of Urban Land Features from TM Landsat Image Using the Land Features Index and Tasseled Cap Transformation

Authors: R. Bouhennache, T. Bouden, A. A. Taleb, A. Chaddad


In this paper we propose a method to map the urban areas. The method uses an arithmetic calculation processed from the land features indexes and Tasseled cap transformation TC of multi spectral Thematic Mapper Landsat TM image. For this purpose the derived indexes image from the original image such SAVI the soil adjusted vegetation index, UI the urban Index, and EBBI the enhanced built up and bareness index were staked to form a new image and the bands were uncorrelated, also the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification approaches were first applied on the new image TM data using the reference spectra of the spectral library and subsequently the four urban, vegetation, water and soil land cover categories were extracted with their accuracy assessment.The urban features were represented using a logic calculation applied to the brightness, UI-SAVI, NDBI-greenness and EBBI- brightness data sets. The study applied to Blida and mentioned that the urban features can be mapped with an accuracy ranging from 92 % to 95%.

Keywords: EBBI, SAVI, Tasseled Cap Transformation, UI

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4050 A Geographical Information System Supported Method for Determining Urban Transformation Areas in the Scope of Disaster Risks in Kocaeli

Authors: Tayfun Salihoğlu


Following the Law No: 6306 on Transformation of Disaster Risk Areas, urban transformation in Turkey found its legal basis. In the best practices all over the World, the urban transformation was shaped as part of comprehensive social programs through the discourses of renewing the economic, social and physical degraded parts of the city, producing spaces resistant to earthquakes and other possible disasters and creating a livable environment. In Turkish practice, a contradictory process is observed. In this study, it is aimed to develop a method for better understanding of the urban space in terms of disaster risks in order to constitute a basis for decisions in Kocaeli Urban Transformation Master Plan, which is being prepared by Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. The spatial unit used in the study is the 50x50 meter grids. In order to reflect the multidimensionality of urban transformation, three basic components that have spatial data in Kocaeli were identified. These components were named as 'Problems in Built-up Areas', 'Disaster Risks arising from Geological Conditions of the Ground and Problems of Buildings', and 'Inadequacy of Urban Services'. Each component was weighted and scored for each grid. In order to delimitate urban transformation zones Optimized Outlier Analysis (Local Moran I) in the ArcGIS 10.6.1 was conducted to test the type of distribution (clustered or scattered) and its significance on the grids by assuming the weighted total score of the grid as Input Features. As a result of this analysis, it was found that the weighted total scores were not significantly clustering at all grids in urban space. The grids which the input feature is clustered significantly were exported as the new database to use in further mappings. Total Score Map reflects the significant clusters in terms of weighted total scores of 'Problems in Built-up Areas', 'Disaster Risks arising from Geological Conditions of the Ground and Problems of Buildings' and 'Inadequacy of Urban Services'. Resulting grids with the highest scores are the most likely candidates for urban transformation in this citywide study. To categorize urban space in terms of urban transformation, Grouping Analysis in ArcGIS 10.6.1 was conducted to data that includes each component scores in significantly clustered grids. Due to Pseudo Statistics and Box Plots, 6 groups with the highest F stats were extracted. As a result of the mapping of the groups, it can be said that 6 groups can be interpreted in a more meaningful manner in relation to the urban space. The method presented in this study can be magnified due to the availability of more spatial data. By integrating with other data to be obtained during the planning process, this method can contribute to the continuation of research and decision-making processes of urban transformation master plans on a more consistent basis.

Keywords: urban transformation, GIS, disaster risk assessment, Kocaeli

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4049 Transformation of Traditional Marketplaces in an Urban Context: Case of Chalai Market, Thiruvananthapuram

Authors: Aswathy Vijayan, Sharath Sunder Rajeev


Trade has been fundamental in the footprint of human civilization since ancient time. In most of the historic cities, city development was along trading routes, where marketplaces are the major entrance to a city and hence a major element of the urban fabric. Marketplaces are where the commercial activities flourish, people, having a sense of belonging to the place, where they easily fit in. Acknowledging the built environment in and around the market in a way, creating a sense of place is an important factor in the success of public spaces. Local markets are developed in an organic manner, which adds on to the people experience and perception of urban space. With the city development, the commercial needs within the city increase, hence marketplaces flourish, irrespective of the functional segregation within. The work-live culture in the marketplaces diminishes as the commercial expansion washes away the residential patches within it. Real estate flourishes as the newer infills are without considering the carrying capacity of the place. Chalai market is a prominent business center serving the regional level of Thiruvananthapuram city. The transformation trend of marketplaces in city cores are understood from case study on Fatimid Cairo Marketplace. The parameters that led to transformation of marketplaces in a global context is considered for the analysis of the Chalai market. The structure of the marketplace over the years is analyzed in terms of transformation in location, transformation in the land- use, change in commodity, and transformation in movement and activity. The aim of the research is to emphasize the need to understand the transformation trend, in creating a suitable development pattern for the city. The unregulated transformation within the city core has led to tremendous transformation in the user group and user pattern and eventually to the commercial trend. With the change in lifestyle and need for new amenities have led to addition of new infills leading to the degradation of the native commerce. Hence addressing the transformation of marketplaces are crucial to maintaining the locational significance and cultural importance and heritage of the place.

Keywords: bazaar, market centers, marketplaces, traditional city, traditional market, urban fabric

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4048 From Ritual City to Modern City: The City Space Transformation of Xi’an in the Early 20th Century

Authors: Zhang Bian, Zhao Jijun


The urban layout of Xi’an city (the capital Chang’an in the Tang dynasty) was shaped by feudal etiquette, but this dominant factor was replaced by modern city planning during the period of the Republic of China. This makes Xi’an a representative case to explore the transformation process of Chinese cities in the early 20th century. By analyzing the contrast and connection between the historical texts of city planning and the realistic construction activities recorded by the maps and images, this paper reviews the transformation process of the urban space of Xi’an in the early 20th century and divides it into four phases according to important events that significantly impacted planning and construction activities. Based on this, the entire transformation of Xi’an’s city planning and practices can be characterized by three aspects: 1) the dominant force of the city plan and construction changed with the establishment of modern city administrations; 2) the layout of the city was continuously broadened to meet the demand of modern economy and city life; and, 3) the ritual space was transformed into practical space for commercial and recreational activities.

Keywords: city space, the early 20th century, transformation, Xi’an city

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4047 Analysing Modern City Heritage through Modernization Transformation: A Case of Wuhan, China

Authors: Ziwei Guo, Liangping Hong, Zhiguo Ye


The exogenous modernization process in China and other late-coming countries, is not resulted from a gradual growth of their own modernity features, but a conscious response to external challenges. Under this context, it had been equally important for Chinese cities to make themselves ‘Chinese’ as well as ‘modern’. Wuhan was the first opened inland treaty port in late Qing Dynasty. In the following one hundred years, Wuhan transferred from a feudal town to a modern industrial city. It is a good example to illustrate the urban construction and cultural heritage through the process and impact of social transformation. An overall perspective on transformation will contribute to develop the city`s uniqueness and enhance its inclusive development. The study chooses the history of Wuhan from 1861 to 1957 as the study period. The whole transformation process will be divided into four typical periods based on key historical events, and the paper analyzes the changes on urban structure and constructions activities in each period. Then, a lot of examples are used to compare the features of Wuhan modern city heritage in the four periods. In this way, three characteristics of Wuhan modern city heritage are summarized. The paper finds that globalization and localization worked together to shape the urban physical space environment. For Wuhan, social transformation has a profound and comprehensive impact on urban construction, which can be analyzed in the aspects of main construction, architecture style, location and actors. Moreover, the three towns of Wuhan have a disparate cityscape that is reflected by the varied heritages and architecture features over different transformation periods. Lastly, the protection regulations and conservation planning of heritage in Wuhan are discussed, and suggestions about the conservation of Wuhan modern heritage are tried to be drawn. The implications of the study are providing a new perspective on modern city heritage for cities like Wuhan, and the future local planning system and heritage conservation policies can take into consideration the ‘Modern Cultural Transformation Route’ in this paper.

Keywords: modern city heritage, transformation, identity, Wuhan

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4046 The Importance of Urban Pattern and Planting Design in Urban Transformation Projects

Authors: Mustafa Var, Yasin Kültiğin Yaman, Elif Berna Var, Müberra Pulatkan


This study deals with real application of an urban transformation project in Trabzon, Turkey. It aims to highlight the significance of using native species in terms of planting design of transformation projects which will also promote sustainability of urban identity. Urban identity is a phenomenon shaped not only by physical, but also by natural, spatial, social, historical and cultural factors. Urban areas face with continuous change which can be whether positive or negative way. If it occurs in a negative way that may have some destructive effects on urban identity. To solve this problematic issue, urban renewal movements initally started after 1840s around the world especially in the cities with ports. This process later followed by the places where people suffered a lot from fires and has expanded to all over the world. In Turkey, those processes have been experienced mostly after 1980s as country experienced the worst effects of unplanned urbanization especially in 1950-1990 period. Also old squares, streets, meeting points, green areas, Ottoman bazaars have changed slowly. This change was resulted in alienation of inhabitants to their environments. As a solution, several actions were taken like Mass Housing Laws which was enacted in 1981 and 1984 or urban transformation projects. Although projects between 1990-2000 were tried to satisfy the expectations of local inhabitants by the help of several design solutions to promote cultural identity; unfortunately those modern projects has also been resulted in alienation of urban environments to the inhabitants. Those projects were initially done by TOKI (Housing Development Administration of Turkey) and later followed by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization after 2011. Although they had significant potentials to create healthy urban environments, they could not use this opportunity in an effective way. The reason for their failure is that their architectural styles and planting designs are unrespectful to local identity and environments. Generally, it can be said that the most of the urban transformation projects implementing in Turkey nearly have no concerns about the locality. However, those projects can be used as a positive tool for enhanching the urban identity of cities by means of local planting material. For instance, Kyoto can be identified by Japanese Maple trees or Seattle can be specified by Dahlia. In the same way, in Turkey, Istanbul city can be identified by Judas and Stone Pine trees or Giresun city can be identified by Cherry trees. Thus, in this paper, the importance of conserving urban identity is discussed specificly with the help of using local planting elements. After revealing the mistakes that are made during urban transformation projects, the techniques and design criterias for preserving and promoting urban identity are examined. In the end, it is emphasized that every city should have their own original, local character and specific planting design which can be used for highlighting its identity as well as architectural elements.

Keywords: urban identity, urban transformation, planting design, landscape architecture

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4045 Urban Design for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Narjis Zehra


After automobile revolution 1.0, we have automobile revolution 2.0 standing at the horizon, Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). While the technology is developing into more adaptable form, the conversations around its impact on our cities have already started on multiple scales, from academic institutions and community town halls, to the offices of mayors. In order to explore more the AVs impact on Urban transformation, we first inquire if cities can be redesigned or rebuilt. Secondly, we discuss expectation management for the public and policy in terms of what people think/believe AV technology will deliver, and what the current technological evidence suggests the technology and its adoption will look like. Thirdly, based on these discussions, we take Pittsburgh, PA, as a case study to extrapolate what other cities might need to do in order to prepare themselves for the upcoming technological revolution, that may impact more than just the research institutes. Finally, we conclude by suggesting a political way forward to embed urban design with AV technology for equitable cities of tomorrow.

Keywords: urban design, autonomous vehicles, transformation, policy

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4044 Evaluation of the Urban Regeneration Project: Land Use Transformation and SNS Big Data Analysis

Authors: Ju-Young Kim, Tae-Heon Moon, Jung-Hun Cho


Urban regeneration projects have been actively promoted in Korea. In particular, Jeonju Hanok Village is evaluated as one of representative cases in terms of utilizing local cultural heritage sits in the urban regeneration project. However, recently, there has been a growing concern in this area, due to the ‘gentrification’, caused by the excessive commercialization and surging tourists. This trend was changing land and building use and resulted in the loss of identity of the region. In this regard, this study analyzed the land use transformation between 2010 and 2016 to identify the commercialization trend in Jeonju Hanok Village. In addition, it conducted SNS big data analysis on Jeonju Hanok Village from February 14th, 2016 to March 31st, 2016 to identify visitors’ awareness of the village. The study results demonstrate that rapid commercialization was underway, unlikely the initial intention, so that planners and officials in city government should reconsider the project direction and rebuild deliberate management strategies. This study is meaningful in that it analyzed the land use transformation and SNS big data to identify the current situation in urban regeneration area. Furthermore, it is expected that the study results will contribute to the vitalization of regeneration area.

Keywords: land use, SNS, text mining, urban regeneration

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4043 The Extent to Which Social Factors Affect Urban Functional Mutations and Transformations

Authors: Skirmante Mozuriunaite


Contemporary metropolitan areas and large cities are dynamic, rapidly growing and continuously changing. Thus, urban transformations and mutations are not a new phenomenon, but rather a continuous process. Basic factors of urban transformation are related to development of technologies, globalisation, lifestyle, etc., which, in combination with local factors, have generated an extremely great variety of urban development conditions. This article discusses the main urbanisation processes in Lithuania during last 50 year period and social factors affecting urban functional mutations.

Keywords: dispersion, functional mutations, urbanization, urban mutations, social factors

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4042 Mobile Application Set to Empower SME Farmers in Peri-Urban Sydney Region

Authors: A. Hol


Even in the well developed countries like Australia, Small to Medium Farmers do not often have the power over the market prices as they are more often than not set by the farming agents. This in turn creates problems as farmers only get to know for how much their produce has been sold for by the agents three to four weeks after the sale has taken the place. To see and identify if and how peri-urban Sydney farmers could be assisted, carefully selected group of peri-urban Sydney farmers of the stone fruit has been interviewed. Following the case based interviews collected data was analyzed in detail using the Scenario Based Transformation principles. Analyzed data was then used to create a most common transformation case. The case identified that a mobile web based system could be develop so that framers can monitor agent earnings and in turn gain more power over the markets. It is expected that after the system has been in action for six months to a year, farmers will become empowered and they will gain means to monitor the market and negotiate agent prices.

Keywords: mobile applications, farming, scenario-based analysis, scenario-based transformation, user empowerment

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4041 Study on Conservation and Regeneration of the Industrial Buildings

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker


The conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today’s urban development in the world. There are growing numbers of industrial building in which promoting heritage conservation maybe a helpful tool for a sustainable city in social, urban restructuring, environmental and economic component. This paper identifies the key attributes of conservation and regeneration industrial building from the literature, were discussed by reviewing its development at home and abroad. The authors have investigated 93 industrial buildings, which were used as industrial building before and reused into buildings with another function afterward. The data to be discussed below were mainly collected from various publications but also from available internet sources. This study focuses on green transformation, historical culture heritage, transformation techniques, and urban regeneration based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site. Moreover, we focus on social, urban environment and sustainable development. The implications of the study provide suggestions for future improvements in the conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building, and inspire new ways of use, so the building becomes flexible and can consequently be adaptable to changes in order to survive time. Therefore, the building does not take into account only its future impact in the environment and society. Instead, it focuses on its entire life cycle.

Keywords: industrial building, heritage conservation, green transformation, regeneration, sustainable development

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4040 Strengthening Urban Governance and Planning Practices for Urban Sustainability Transformations in Cambodia

Authors: Fiona Lord


This paper presents research on strengthening urban governance and planning practices for sustainable and regenerative city transformations looking at urban governance in Cambodia as a case study. Transformations to urban sustainability and regeneration require systemic and long-term transformation processes, across multiple levels of society and inclusive of multiple urban actors. This paper presents the emerging findings of a qualitative case study comparing the urban governance and planning practices in two of Cambodia's secondary cities - Battambang and Sihanoukville. The lessons learned have broader implications for how governance and planning can be strengthened to initiate and sustain urban sustainability transformations in other developing country cities of Cambodia and the Southeast Asia region.

Keywords: Cambodia, planning practices, urban governance, urban sustainability transformations

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4039 Adsorption and Transformation of Lead in Coimbatore Urban Soils

Authors: K. Sivasubramanin, S. Mahimairaja, S. Pavithrapriya


Heavy metal pollution originating from industrial wastes is becoming a serious problem in many urban environments. These heavy metals, if not properly managed, could enter into the food chain and cause a serious health hazards in animals and humans. Industrial wastes, sewage sludge, and automobile emissions also contribute to heavy metal like Pb pollution in the urban environment. However, information is scarce on the heavy metal pollution in Coimbatore urban environment. Therefore, the current study was carried out to examine the extent of lead pollution in Coimbatore urban environment the maximum Pb concentration in Coimbatore urban environment was found in ukkadam, whose concentration in soils 352 mg kg-1. In many places, the Pb concentration was found exceeded the permissible limit of 100 mg kg-1. In laboratory, closed incubation experiment showed that the concentration of different species of Pb viz., water soluble Pb(H2O-Pb), exchangeable Pb(KNO3-Pb), organic-Pb(NaOH-Pb), and organic plus metal (Fe & Al) oxides bound-Pb(Na2 EDTA-Pb) was found significantly increased during the 15 days incubation, mainly due to biotransformation processes. Both the moisture content of soil and ambient temperature exerted a profound influence on the transformation of Pb. The results of a batch experiment has shown that the sorption data was adequately described by the Freundlich equation as indicated by the high correlation coefficients (R2= 0.64) than the Langmuir equation (R2 = 0.33). A maximum of 86 mg of Pb was found adsorbed per kilogram of soil. Consistently, a soil column experiment result had shown that only a small amount of Pb( < 1.0 µg g-1 soil) alone was found leached from the soil. This might be due to greater potential of the soil towards Pb adsorption.

Keywords: lead pollution, adsorption, transformation, heavy metal pollution

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4038 Urban Security through Urban Transformation: Case of Saraycik District

Authors: Emir Sunguroglu, Merve Sunguroglu, Yesim Aliefendioglu, Harun Tanrivermis


Basic human needs range from physiological needs such as food, water and shelter to safety needs such as security, protection from natural disasters and even urban terrorism which are extant and not fulfilled even in urban areas where people live civilly in large communities. These basic needs when arose in urban life lead to a different kind of crime set defined as urban crimes. Urban crimes mostly result from differences between socioeconomic conditions in society. Income inequality increases tendency towards urban crimes. Especially in slum areas and suburbs, urban crimes not only threaten public security but they also affect deliverance of public services. It is highlighted that, construction of urban security against problems caused by urban crimes is not only achieved by involvement of urban security in security of the community but also comprises juridical development and staying above a level of legal standards concurrently. The idea of urban transformation emerged as interventions to demolishment and rebuilding of built environment to solve the unhealthy urban environment, inadequate infrastructure and socioeconomic problems came up during the industrialization process. Considering the probability of urbanization process driving citizens to commit crimes, The United Nations Commission on Human Security’s focus on this theme is conferred to be a proper approach. In this study, the analysis and change in security before, through and after urban transformation, which is one of the tools related to urbanization process, is strived to be discussed through the case of Sincan County Saraycik District. The study also aims to suggest improvements to current legislation on public safety, urban resilience, and urban transformation. In spite of Saraycik District residing in a developing County in Ankara, Turkey, from urbanization perspective as well as socioeconomic and demographic indicators the District exhibits a negative view throughout the County and the country. When related to the county, rates of intentional harm reports, burglary reports, the offense of libel and threat reports and narcotic crime reports are higher. The District is defined as ‘crime hotspot’. Interviews with residents of Saraycik claim that the greatest issue of the neighborhood is Public Order and Security (82.44 %). The District becomes prominent with negative aspects, especially with the presence of unlicensed constructions, occurrence of important social issues such as crime and insecurity and complicated lives of inhabitants from poverty and low standard conditions of living. Additionally, the social structure and demographic properties and crime and insecurity of the field have been addressed in this study. Consequently, it is claimed that urban crime rates were related to level of education, employment and household income, poverty trap, physical condition of housing and structuration, accessibility of public services, security, migration, safety in terms of disasters and emphasized that urban transformation is one of the most important tools in order to provide urban security.

Keywords: urban security, urban crimes, urban transformation, Saraycik district

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4037 Physical Planning Antidote to Urban Malice

Authors: Adelayo Akeem Jolaoye


Historically urban centers serve as the fulcrum upon which significant complex social and economic development rest. Despite their fixed geographical locations, though in different degree, cities generate self-sustenance and multiplier effects in all aspects of life. They also house inestimable human capital, which serves as a power house for future generation transformation requirements. Unfortunately, the untamed global urbanization process has resulted in an unimaginable damage to the urban social structure as well as urban environmental value. The preceding has caused cities failure in performing their expected roles worst still becoming a regional burden and national liabilities. This paper briefly discusses the ecological concept of urban settlements and reviews the world historical urban evolution and growth. Also, given the above-mentioned anomalies, the paper also raised conceptual principles of urban planning as well as administrative policies for its strategic management.

Keywords: city, urbanization, urban planning, urban malice

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4036 Mastering Digitization: A Quality-Adapted Digital Transformation Model

Authors: Franziska Schaefer, Marlene Kuhn, Heiner Otten


In the very near future, digitization will be the main challenge a company has to master to survive in a highly competitive market. Developing the right transformation strategy by considering all relevant aspects determines the success or failure of a company. Especially the digital focus on the customer plays a key role in creating sustainable competitive advantages, also leading to new tasks within the quality management. Therefore, quality management needs to be particularly addressed to support the upcoming digital change. In this paper, we present an analysis of existing digital transformation approaches and derive a transformation strategy from a quality management perspective. We identify and classify different transformation dimensions and assess their relevance to quality management tasks, resulting in a quality-adapted digital transformation model. Furthermore, we introduce applicable and customized quality management methods to support the presented digital transformation tasks. With our developed model we provide a digital transformation guideline from a quality perspective to master future disruptive changes.

Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, quality management, strategy

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4035 Research on Urban Design Method of Ancient City Guided by Catalyst Theory

Authors: Wang Zhiwei, Wang Weiwu


The process of urbanization in China has entered a critical period of transformation from urban expansion and construction to delicate urban design, thus forming a new direction in the field of urban design. So far, catalyst theory has become a prominent guiding strategy in urban planning and design. In this paper, under the background of urban renewal, catalyst theory is taken as the guiding ideology to explore the method of urban design in shouxian county. Firstly, this study briefly introduces and analyzes the catalyst theory. Through field investigation, it is found that the city has a large number of idle Spaces, such as abandoned factories and schools. In the design, the idle Spaces in the county town are utilized and interlinked in space, and functional interaction is carried out from the pattern of the county town. On the one hand, the results showed that the catalyst theory can enhance the vitality of the linear street space with a small amount of monomer construction. On the other hand, the city can also increase the cultural and economic sites of the city without damaging the historical relics and the sense of alterations of the ancient city, to improve the quality of life and quality of life of citizens. The city micro-transformation represented by catalyst theory can help ancient cities like shouxian to realize the activation of the old city and realize the gradual development.

Keywords: catalytic theory, urban design, China's ancient city, Renaissance

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4034 The Integrated Urban Regeneration Implemented through the Reuse, Enhancement and Transformation of Disused Industrial Areas

Authors: Sara Piccirillo


The integrated urban regeneration represents a great opportunity to deliver correct management of the territory if implemented through the reuse, enhancement, and transformation of abandoned industrial areas, according to sustainability strategies. In environmental terms, recycling abandoned sites by demolishing buildings and regenerating the urban areas means promoting adaptation to climate change and a new sensitivity towards city living. The strategic vision of 'metabolism' can be implemented through diverse actions made on urban settlements, and planning certainly plays a primary role. Planning an urban transformation in a sustainable way is more than auspicable. It is necessary to introduce innovative urban soil management actions to mitigate the environmental costs associated with current land use and to promote projects for the recovery/renaturalization of urban or non-agricultural soils. However, by freeing up these through systematic demolition of the disused heritage, new questions open up in terms of environmental costs deriving from the inevitable impacts caused by the disposal of waste. The mitigation of these impacts involves serious reflection on the recycling supply chains aimed at the production and reuse of secondary raw materials in the construction industry. The recent developments in R&D of recycling materials are gradually becoming more and more pivotal in consideration of environmental issues such as increasing difficulties in exploiting natural quarries or strict regulations for the management and disposal of waste sites. Therefore, this contribution, set as a critical essay, presents the reconstruction outputs of the regulatory background on the material recycling chain up to the 'end of waste' stage, both at a national and regional scale. This extended approach to this urban design practice goes beyond the cultural dimension that has relegated urban regeneration to pure design only. It redefines its processes through an interdisciplinary system that affects human, environmental and financial resources.

Keywords: waste management, C&D waste, recycling, urban trasformation

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4033 An Automatic Model Transformation Methodology Based on Semantic and Syntactic Comparisons and the Granularity Issue Involved

Authors: Tiexin Wang, Sebastien Truptil, Frederick Benaben


Model transformation, as a pivotal aspect of Model-driven engineering, attracts more and more attentions both from researchers and practitioners. Many domains (enterprise engineering, software engineering, knowledge engineering, etc.) use model transformation principles and practices to serve to their domain specific problems; furthermore, model transformation could also be used to fulfill the gap between different domains: by sharing and exchanging knowledge. Since model transformation has been widely used, there comes new requirement on it: effectively and efficiently define the transformation process and reduce manual effort that involved in. This paper presents an automatic model transformation methodology based on semantic and syntactic comparisons, and focuses particularly on granularity issue that existed in transformation process. Comparing to the traditional model transformation methodologies, this methodology serves to a general purpose: cross-domain methodology. Semantic and syntactic checking measurements are combined into a refined transformation process, which solves the granularity issue. Moreover, semantic and syntactic comparisons are supported by software tool; manual effort is replaced in this way.

Keywords: automatic model transformation, granularity issue, model-driven engineering, semantic and syntactic comparisons

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4032 Effects of Mechanical Test and Shape of Grain Boundary on Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Ni-C Steel

Authors: Mounir Gaci, Salim Meziani, Atmane Fouathia


The purpose of the present paper is to model the behavior of metal alloy, type TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity), during solid/solid phase transition. A two-dimensional micromechanical model is implemented in finite element software (ZEBULON) to simulate the martensitic transformation in Fe-Ni-C steel grain under mechanical tensile stress of 250 MPa. The effects of non-uniform grain boundary and the criterion of mechanical shear load on the transformation and on the TRIP value during martensitic transformation are studied. The suggested mechanical criterion is favourable to the influence of the shear phenomenon on the progression of the martensitic transformation (Magee’s mechanism). The obtained results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones and show the influence of the grain boundary shape and the chosen mechanical criterion (SMF) on the transformation parameters.

Keywords: martensitic transformation, non-uniform Grain Boundary, TRIP, shear Mechanical force (SMF)

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4031 The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City

Authors: Hemadri Raut


The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.

Keywords: building facades, city, community, heritage, identity, transformation, urban

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4030 Health Transformation Program and Effects on Health Expenditures

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk


In recent years, the rise of population density and the problem of aging population took attention to the health expenditures. In Turkey, some regulations and infrastructure changes in health sector have occurred. These changes are called Health Transformation Program. The productivity of health services, patient satisfaction, quality of services are tried to be improved with this program. Some radical changes are applied in Turkish economy in this context. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures. In the first part of the paper, some information’s about health system and applications in Turkey are discussed. In the second part, the aims of Health Transformation Program are explained. And in the third part the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures are examined.

Keywords: health transformation program, Turkey, health services, health expenditures

Procedia PDF Downloads 284