Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: supercapacitors

38 Switched Ultracapacitors for Maximizing Energy Supply

Authors: Nassouh K. Jaber


Supercapacitors (S.C.) are presently attracting attention for driving general purpose (12VDC to 220VAC) inverters in renewable energy systems. Unfortunately, when the voltage of the S.C supplying the inverter reaches the minimal threshold of 7-8VDC the inverter shuts down leaving the remaining 40% of the valuable energy stored inside the ultracapacitor un-usable. In this work a power electronic circuit is proposed which switches 2 banks of supercapacitors from parallel connection when both are fully charged at 14VDC to serial connection when their voltages drop down to 7 volts, thus keeping the inverter working within its operating limits for a longer time and advantageously tapping almost 92% of the stored energy in the supercapacitors.

Keywords: ultra capacitor, switched ultracapacitors, inverter, supercapacitor, parallel connection, serial connection, battery limitation

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37 Carbon Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: Yu. Mateyshina, A. Ulihin, N. Uvarov


Supercapacitors are one of the most promising devices for energy storage applications as they can provide higher power density than batteries and higher energy density than conventional dielectric capacitors. Carbon materials with various microtextures are considered as main candidates for supercapacitors in terms of high surface area, interconnected pore structure, controlled pore size, high electrical conductivity and environmental friendliness. The specific capacitance (C) of the electrode material of the Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) is known to depend on the specific surface area (Ss) and the pore structure. Activated carbons are most commonly used in supercapacitors because of their high surface area (Ss ≥ 1000 m2/g), good adhesion to electrolytes and low cost. In this work, electrochemical properties of new microporous and mesoporous carbon electrode materials were studied. The aim of the work was to investigate the relationship between the specific capacitance and specific surface area in a series of materials prepared from different organic precursors.. As supporting matrixes different carbon samples with Ss = 100-2000 m2/g were used. The materials were modified by treatment in acids (H2SO4, HNO3, acetic acid) in order to enable surface hydrophilicity. Then nanoparticles of transition metal oxides (for example NiO) were deposited on the carbon surfaces using methods of salts impregnation, mechanical treatment in ball mills and the precursors decomposition. The electrochemical characteristics of electrode hybrid materials were investigated in a symmetrical two-electrode cell using an impedance spectroscopy, voltammetry in both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic modes. It was shown that the value of C for the materials under study strongly depended on the preparation method of the electrode and the type of electrolyte (1 M H2SO4, 6 M KOH, 1 M LiClO4 in acetonitryl). Specific capacity may be increased by the introduction of nanoparticles from 50-100 F/g for initial carbon materials to 150-300 F/g for nanocomposites which may be used in supercapacitors. The work is supported by the по SC-14.604.21.0013.

Keywords: supercapacitors, carbon electrode, mesoporous carbon, electrochemistry

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36 High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Deivasigamani Ranjith Kumar, Jae-Jin Shim


The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.

Keywords: cobalt manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
35 Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output

Authors: Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Sabu John, Sania Waqar, Lijing Wang, Mac Fergusson, Ilija Najdovski


Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.

Keywords: yarn supercapacitors, activated carbon, dip coating, caustic soda, electrolyte, electrochemical characterization

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34 Polypyrrole Integrated MnCo2O4 Nanorods Hybrid as Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Santimoy Khilari, Debabrata Pradhan


Ever−increasing energy demand and growing energy crisis along with environmental issues emphasize the research on sustainable energy conversion and storage systems. Recently, supercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors emerge as a promising energy storage technology for future generation. The activity of supercapacitors generally depends on the efficiency of its electrode materials. So, the development of cost−effective efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors is one of the challenges to the scientific community. Transition metal oxides with spinel crystal structure receive much attention for different electrochemical applications in energy storage/conversion devices because of their improved performance as compared to simple oxides. In the present study, we have synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) supported manganese cobaltite nanorods (MnCo2O4 NRs) hybrid electrode material for supercapacitor application. The MnCo2O4 NRs were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal and calcination approach. The MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid was prepared by in situ impregnation of MnCo2O4 NRs during polymerization of pyrrole. The surface morphology and microstructure of as−synthesized samples was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The crystallographic phase of MnCo2O4 NRs, PPy and hybrid was determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical charge storage activity of MnCo2O4 NRs, PPy and MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid was evaluated from cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Significant improvement of specific capacitance was achieved in MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid as compared to the individual components. Furthermore, the mechanically mixed MnCo2O4 NRs, and PPy shows lower specific capacitance as compared to MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid suggesting the importance of in situ hybrid preparation. The stability of as prepared electrode materials was tested by cyclic charge-discharge measurement for 1000 cycles. Maximum 94% capacitance was retained with MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid electrode. This study suggests that MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid can be used as a low cost electrode material for charge storage in supercapacitors.

Keywords: supercapacitors, nanorods, spinel, MnCo2O4, polypyrrole

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33 High-Performance Li Doped CuO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: Ruey-Chi Wang, Po-Hsiang Huang, Ping-Chang Chuang, Shu-Jen Chen


High-performance Li: CuO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated via a low-temperature and low-cost route. To increase energy density while maintaining high power density and long-term cyclability, Li was doped to increase the electrical conductivity of CuO particles between RGO flakes. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrical conductivity, specific capacitance, energy density, and rate capability were all enhanced by Li incorporation. The optimized Li:CuO/RGO electrodes show a high energy density of 179.9 Wh/kg and a power density of 900.0 W/kg at a current density of 1 A/g. Cyclic life tests show excellent stability over 10,000 cycles with a capacitance retention of 93.2%. Li doping improves the electrochemical performance of CuO, making CuO a promising pseudocapacitive material for fabricating low-cost excellent supercapacitors.

Keywords: supercapacitor, CuO, RGO, lithium

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
32 A Novel All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor Based on Carbon Nanotube Sheets

Authors: Behnoush Dousti, Ye Choi, Gil S. Lee


Supercapacitors which are also known as ultra supercapacitors play a significant role in development of energy storage devices owing to their high power density and rate capability. Nobel research has been conducted on micro scale energy storage systems currently to address the demand for smaller wearable technology and portable devices. Improving the performance of these microsupercapacitors have been always a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a facile fabrication of a microsupercapacitor (MSC) with interdigitated electrodes using novel structure of carbon nanotube sheets which are spun directly from as-grown carbon nanotube forests. Stability and performance of the device was tested using an aqueous PVA-H3PO4 gel electrolyte that also offers desirable electrochemical capacitive properties. High Coulombic efficiency around 100%, great rate capability and excellent capacitance retention over 15,000 cycles were obtained. Capacitive performance greatly improved with surface modification with acid and nitrogen doping of the CNT sheets. The high power density and stable cycling performance make this microsupercapacitor a suitable candidate for verity of energy storage application.

Keywords: carbon nanotube sheet, energy storage, solid state electrolyte, supercapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
31 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim


Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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30 Nanoporous Activated Carbons for Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Volperts, G. Dobele, A. Zhurinsh, I. Kruusenberg, A. Plavniece, J. Locs


Nowadays energy consumption constantly increases and development of effective and cheap electrochemical sources of power, such as fuel cells and electrochemical capacitors, is topical. Due to their high specific power, charge and discharge rates, working lifetime supercapacitor based energy accumulation systems are more and more extensively being used in mobile and stationary devices. Lignocellulosic materials are widely used as precursors and account for around 45% of the total raw materials used for the manufacture of activated carbon which is the most suitable material for supercapacitors. First part of our research is devoted to study of influence of main stages of wood thermochemical activation parameters on activated carbons porous structure formation. It was found that the main factors governing the properties of carbon materials are specific surface area, volume and pore size distribution, particles dispersity, ash content and oxygen containing groups content. Influence of activated carbons attributes on capacitance and working properties of supercapacitor are demonstrated. The correlation between activated carbons porous structure indices and electrochemical specifications of supercapacitors with electrodes made from these materials has been determined. It is shown that if synthesized activated carbons are used in supercapacitors then high specific capacitances can be reached – more than 380 F/g in 4.9M sulfuric acid based electrolytes and more than 170 F/g in 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile electrolyte. Power specifications and minimal price of H₂-O₂ fuel cells are limited by the expensive platinum-based catalysts. The main direction in development of non-platinum catalysts for the oxygen reduction is the study of cheap porous carbonaceous materials which can be obtained by the pyrolysis of polymers including renewable biomass. It is known that nitrogen atoms in carbon materials to a high degree determine properties of the doped activated carbons, such as high electrochemical stability, hardness, electric resistance, etc. The lack of sufficient knowledge on the doping of the carbon materials calls for the ongoing researches of properties and structure of modified carbon matrix. In the second part of this study, highly porous activated carbons were synthesized using alkali thermochemical activation from wood, cellulose and cellulose production residues – craft lignin and sewage sludge. Activated carbon samples were doped with dicyandiamide and melamine for the application as fuel cell cathodes. Conditions of nitrogen introduction (solvent, treatment temperature) and its content in the carbonaceous material, as well as porous structure characteristics, such as specific surface and pore size distribution, were studied. It was found that efficiency of doping reaction depends on the elemental oxygen content in the activated carbon. Relationships between nitrogen content, porous structure characteristics and electrodes electrochemical properties are demonstrated.

Keywords: activated carbons, low-temperature fuel cells, nitrogen doping, porous structure, supercapacitors

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29 Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides Doped Graphene for High Performance Solid-State Supercapacitor Electrodes

Authors: G. Nyongombe, Guy L. Kabongo, B. M. Mothudi, M. S. Dhlamini


A series of Transition Metals Oxides (TMOs) doped graphene were synthesized and successfully used as supercapacitor electrode materials. The as-synthesized materials exhibited exceptional electrochemical properties owing to the combined properties of its constituents; high surface area and good conductivity were achieved. Several analytical characterization techniques were employed to investigate the morphology, crystal structure atomic arrangement and elemental chemical state in the materials for which scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted, respectively. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized materials were examined by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, the effect of doping concentration on the interlayer distance of the graphene materials and the charge transfer resistance are investigated and correlated to the exceptional current density which was multiplied by a factor of ~80 after TMOs doping in graphene. Finally, the resulting high capacitance obtained confirms the contribution of grapheme exceptional electronic conductivity and large surface area on the electrode materials. Such good-performing electrode materials are highly promising for supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

Keywords: energy density, graphene, supercapacitors, TMOs

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28 Peak Shaving in Microgrids Using Hybrid Storage

Authors: Juraj Londák, Radoslav Vargic, Pavol Podhradský


In this contribution, we focus on the technical and economic aspects of using hybrid storage in microgrids for peak shaving. We perform a feasibility analysis of hybrid storage consisting of conventional supercapacitors and chemical batteries. We use multiple real-life consumption profiles from various industry-oriented microgrids. The primary purpose is to construct a digital twin model for reserved capacity simulation and prediction. The main objective is to find the equilibrium between technical innovations, acquisition costs and energy cost savings

Keywords: microgrid, peak shaving, energy storage, digital twin

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27 Sizing of Hybrid Source Battery/Supercapacitor for Automotive Applications

Authors: Laid Degaa, Bachir Bendjedia, Nassim Rizoug, Abdelkader Saidane


Energy storage system is a key aspect for the development of clean cars. The work proposed here deals with the modeling of hybrid storage sources composed of a combination of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitors. Simulation results show the performance of the active model for a hybrid source and confirm the feasibility of our approach. In this context, sizing of the electrical energy supply is carried out. The aim of this sizing is to propose an 'optimal' solution that improves the performance of electric vehicles in term of weight, cost and aging.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, energy, hybrid storage, supercapacitor

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26 Lithium and Sodium Ion Capacitors with High Energy and Power Densities based on Carbons from Recycled Olive Pits

Authors: Jon Ajuria, Edurne Redondo, Roman Mysyk, Eider Goikolea


Hybrid capacitor configurations are now of increasing interest to overcome the current energy limitations of supercapacitors entirely based on non-Faradaic charge storage. Among them, Li-ion capacitors including a negative battery-type lithium intercalation electrode and a positive capacitor-type electrode have achieved tremendous progress and have gone up to commercialization. Inexpensive electrode materials from renewable sources have recently received increased attention since cost is a persistently major criterion to make supercapacitors a more viable energy solution, with electrode materials being a major contributor to supercapacitor cost. Additionally, Na-ion battery chemistries are currently under development as less expensive and accessible alternative to Li-ion based battery electrodes. In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitor (LIC & NIC) entirely based on electrodes prepared from carbon materials derived from recycled olive pits. Yearly, around 1 million ton of olive pit waste is generated worldwide, of which a third originates in the Spanish olive oil industry. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized at different temperatures to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the Li/Na ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. The best hard carbon delivers a total capacity of 270mAh/g vs Na/Na+ in 1M NaPF6 and 350mAh/g vs Li/Li+ in 1M LiPF6. On the other hand, the same hard carbon is chemically activated with KOH to obtain high specific surface area -about 2000 m2g-1- activated carbon that is further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. In a voltage window of 1.5-4.2V, activated carbon delivers a specific capacity of 80 mAh/g vs. Na/Na+ and 95 mAh/g vs. Li/Li+ at 0.1A /g. Both electrodes were assembled in the same hybrid cell to build a LIC/NIC. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5M Et4NBF4 electrolyte was also built. Both LIC & NIC demonstrates considerable improvements in the energy density over its EDLC counterpart, delivering a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg AM and a maximum power density of 6200W/Kg at an energy density of 27 Wh/Kg in the case of NIC and a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg and a maximum power density of 18000W/Kg at an energy density of 22 Wh/Kg in the case of LIC. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the same biomass waste can be adapted to offer a hybrid capacitor/battery storage device overcoming the limited energy density of corresponding double layer capacitors.

Keywords: hybrid supercapacitor, Na-Ion capacitor, supercapacitor, Li-Ion capacitor, EDLC

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25 Evaluation of Electrophoretic and Electrospray Deposition Methods for Preparing Graphene and Activated Carbon Modified Nano-Fibre Electrodes for Hydrogen/Vanadium Flow Batteries and Supercapacitors

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Evangelos Kalamaras, Vladimir Yufit, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, C. T. John Low


In this work, we perform electrophoretic deposition of activated carbon on a number of substrates to prepare symmetrical coin cells for supercapacitor applications. From several recipes that involve the evaluation of a few solvents such as isopropyl alcohol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), or acetone to binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and charging agents such as magnesium chloride, we display a working means for achieving supercapacitors that can achieve 100 F/g in a consistent manner. We then adapt this EPD method to deposit reduced graphene oxide on SGL 10AA carbon paper to achieve cathodic materials for testing in a hydrogen/vanadium flow battery. In addition, a self-supported hierarchical carbon nano-fibre is prepared by means of electrospray deposition of an iron phthalocyanine solution onto a temporary substrate followed by carbonisation to remove heteroatoms. This process also induces a degree of nitrogen doping on the carbon nano-fibres (CNFs), which allows its catalytic performance to improve significantly as detailed in other publications. The CNFs are then used as catalysts by attaching them to graphite felt electrodes facing the membrane inside an all-vanadium flow battery (Scribner cell using serpentine flow distribution channels) and efficiencies as high as 60% is noted at high current densities of 150 mA/cm². About 20 charge and discharge cycling show that the CNF catalysts consistently perform better than pristine graphite felt electrodes. Following this, we also test the CNF as an electro-catalyst in the hydrogen/vanadium flow battery (cathodic side as mentioned briefly in the first paragraph) facing the membrane, based upon past studies from our group. Once again, we note consistently good efficiencies of 85% and above for CNF modified graphite felt electrodes in comparison to 60% for pristine felts at low current density of 50 mA/cm² (this reports 20 charge and discharge cycles of the battery). From this preliminary investigation, we conclude that the CNFs may be used as catalysts for other systems such as vanadium/manganese, manganese/manganese and manganese/hydrogen flow batteries in the future. We are generating data for such systems at present, and further publications are expected.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nano-fibres, all-vanadium redox flow battery, hydrogen-vanadium fuel cell, electrocatalysis

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24 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian


The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

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23 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim


We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: chemical reduction, electrochemical, graphene, green synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
22 Unique NiO Based 1 D Core/Shell Nano-Heterostructure Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar


Unique one-dimensional (1D) Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures are fabricated by combining the electrochemical deposition and annealing. The high-performance pseudo-capacitor electrode based on the Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures is designed and demonstrated. The Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures exhibit high specific capacitance (2013 Fg-1 at 2.5 Ag-1), high energy and power density (23 Wh kg-1 and 5.5 kW kg-1, at the discharge current density of 20.8 A g-1.), good capacitance retention, and long cyclicality. The remarkable electrochemical property of the large surface area nano-heterostructures is demonstrated based on the novel nano-architectural design of the electrode with the coexistence of the two highly redox active materials at the surface supported by highly conducting metal alloy channel at the core for faster charge transport.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, energy storage, supercapacitors, electrochemical deposition

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21 Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposite Prepared by Microwave Method and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim


Supercapacitors are energy storage devices capable of storing more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further use of a post-heat treatment unlike the conventional processes, in which calcination is generally employed after obtaining the initial product. Furthermore, it also offers a shorter reaction time at low temperatures and low power requirements, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an electrode material. The as-prepared electrode exhibited a high capacitance of 953 F•g^−1 at 1 A•g^−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. Moreover, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg^−1 at a power density of 720 W•kg^−1, and a high power density of 7200 W•kg^−1 at an energy density of 38 Wh•kg^−1. The successful methodology was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, thereby providing an active electrode material with very promising electrochemical performance.

Keywords: cobalt-manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

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20 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Prepared From Nostoc Commune Cyanobacteria Exopolysaccharides

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Omar P. Troncoso


A wide range of bacteria synthesizes and secretes polymeric substances composed of a mixture of high-molecular-mass heteropolysaccharides. Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in colonial spherules of 10-20 mm in diameter. These spherules are filled with an internal gel made from a variety of polysaccharides known as Nostoc commune exopolysaccharides (NCE). In this paper, we report the use of these exopolysaccharides as a raw material for the preparation of a solid polymer electrolyte. Ammonium iodide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) salts were used to provide NCE films with ionic conductivity. In addition, a carboxymethylation treatment was used to further increase the conductivity of NCE films. The structural characterization of the NCE films was assessed by FTIR, XRD, and DSC tests. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and dielectric thermal analysis (DETA) were used to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the samples. The results showed that NCE can be used to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films and that carboxymethylation improves their ionic conductivity. These NCE films can be used in the development of novel energy storage devices such as flat batteries or supercapacitors.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, Nostoc commune, cyanobacteria, exopolysaccharides

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19 Evaluation of Iron Oxide-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Self-Standing Electrode for Symmetric Supercapacitor Application

Authors: B. V. Bhaskara Rao, Rodrigo Espinoza


The rapid development of renewable energy sources has drawn great attention to energy storage devices, especially supercapacitors, because of their high power density and rate performance. This work focus on Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation and MWCNTs functionalized by –COOH acid functionalization. The results show that Optimized 25wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT show high specific capacitance 100 mF/cm² at one mA/cm² whereas 15wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT showed high stability (80% retention capacity) over 5000 cycles. The electrolyte used in the coin cell is LiPF6 and the thickness of the electrode is 30 microns. The optimized Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT bucky papers coin cell electrochemical studies suggest that 25wt% Fe₃O₄@FMWCNT could be a good candidate for high-capacity supercapacitor devices. This could be further tested for flexible and planar supercapacitor device application with gel electrolytes.

Keywords: self-standing electrode, Fe₃[email protected], supercapacitor, symmetric coin-cell

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18 High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim


The ever-increasing energy demand has made research to develop high performance energy storage systems that are able to fulfill energy needs. Supercapacitors have potential applications as portable energy storage devices. In recent years, there have been huge research interests to enhance the performances of supercapacitors via exploiting novel promising carbon precursors, tailoring textural properties of carbons, exploiting various electrolytes and device types. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited BET surface area of 1,901 m² g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The high surface area OP-AC accommodates more ions in the electrodes and its well-developed porous structure facilitates fast diffusion of ions which subsequently enhance electrochemical performance. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg⁻¹. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 8.0 Wh kg⁻¹ and 16.3 Wh kg⁻¹, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g⁻¹ were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry analysis, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments. The presence of functional groups is also corroborated from the FTIR spectroscopy. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. Overall, the intriguing properties of OP-AC make it a new alternative promising electrode material for the development of high energy lithium ion capacitors from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste. The authors gratefully acknowledge Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)/ Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore for funding support.

Keywords: energy storage, lithium-ion capacitors, orange peels, porous activated carbon

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17 The Prospects of Optimized KOH/Cellulose 'Papers' as Hierarchically Porous Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor Devices

Authors: Dina Ibrahim Abouelamaiem, Ana Jorge Sobrido, Magdalena Titirici, Paul R. Shearing, Daniel J. L. Brett


Global warming and scarcity of fossil fuels have had a radical impact on the world economy and ecosystem. The urgent need for alternative energy sources has hence elicited an extensive research for exploiting efficient and sustainable means of energy conversion and storage. Among various electrochemical systems, supercapacitors attracted significant attention in the last decade due to their high power supply, long cycle life compared to batteries and simple mechanism. Recently, the performance of these devices has drastically improved, as tuning of nanomaterials provided efficient charge and storage mechanisms. Carbon materials, in various forms, are believed to pioneer the next generation of supercapacitors due to their attractive properties that include high electronic conductivities, high surface areas and easy processing and functionalization. Cellulose has eco-friendly attributes that are feasible to replace man-made fibers. The carbonization of cellulose yields carbons, including activated carbon and graphite fibers. Activated carbons successively are the most exploited candidates for supercapacitor electrode materials that can be complemented with pseudocapacitive materials to achieve high energy and power densities. In this work, the optimum functionalization conditions of cellulose have been investigated for supercapacitor electrode materials. The precursor was treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at different KOH/cellulose ratios prior to the carbonization process in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at 850 °C. The chalky products were washed, dried and characterized with different techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray tomography and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The morphological characteristics and their effect on the electrochemical performances were investigated in two and three-electrode systems. The KOH/cellulose ratios of 0.5:1 and 1:1 exhibited the highest performances with their unique hierarchal porous network structure, high surface areas and low cell resistances. Both samples acquired the best results in three-electrode systems and coin cells with specific gravimetric capacitances as high as 187 F g-1 and 20 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and retention rates of 72% and 70%, respectively. This is attributed to the morphology of the samples that constituted of a well-balanced micro-, meso- and macro-porosity network structure. This study reveals that the electrochemical performance doesn’t solely depend on high surface areas but also an optimum pore size distribution, specifically at low current densities. The micro- and meso-pore contribution to the final pore structure was found to dominate at low KOH loadings, reaching ‘equilibrium’ with macropores at the optimum KOH loading, after which macropores dictate the porous network. The wide range of pore sizes is detrimental for the mobility and penetration of electrolyte ions in the porous structures. These findings highlight the influence of various morphological factors on the double-layer capacitances and high performance rates. In addition, they open a platform for the investigation of the optimized conditions for double-layer capacitance that can be coupled with pseudocapacitive materials to yield higher energy densities and capacities.

Keywords: carbon, electrochemical performance, electrodes, KOH/cellulose optimized ratio, morphology, supercapacitor

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16 Internet of Things Edge Device Power Modelling and Optimization Simulator

Authors: Cian O'Shea, Ross O'Halloran, Peter Haigh


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. They are becoming widely adopted in many industries, including health care, building energy management, and conditional monitoring. As the scale of WSN deployments increases, the cost and complexity of battery replacement and disposal become more significant and in time may become a barrier to adoption. Harvesting ambient energies provide a pathway to reducing dependence on batteries and in the future may lead to autonomously powered sensors. This work describes a simulation tool that enables the user to predict the battery life of a wireless sensor that utilizes energy harvesting to supplement the battery power. To create this simulator, all aspects of a typical WSN edge device were modelled including, sensors, transceiver, and microcontroller as well as the energy source components (batteries, solar cells, thermoelectric generators (TEG), supercapacitors and DC/DC converters). The tool allows the user to plug and play different pre characterized devices as well as add user-defined devices. The goal of this simulation tool is to predict the lifetime of a device and scope for extension using ambient energy sources.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, IoT, edge device, simulation, solar cells, TEG, supercapacitor, energy harvesting

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15 Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim


The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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14 Thermal Reduction of Perfect Well Identified Hexagonal Graphene Oxide Nano-Sheets for Super-Capacitor Applications

Authors: A. N. Fouda


A novel well identified hexagonal graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets were synthesized using modified Hummer method. Low temperature thermal reduction at 350°C in air ambient was performed. After thermal reduction, typical few layers of thermal reduced GO (TRGO) with dimension of few hundreds nanometers were observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). GO has a lot of structure models due to variation of the preparation process. Determining the atomic structure of GO is essential for a better understanding of its fundamental properties and for realization of the future technological applications. Structural characterization was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. A comparison between exper- imental and theoretical IR spectrum were done to confirm the match between experimentally and theoretically proposed GO structure. Partial overlap of the experimental IR spectrum with the theoretical IR was confirmed. The electrochemical properties of TRGO nano-sheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. An enhancement in supercapacitance after reduction was confirmed and the area of the CV curve for the TRGO electrode is larger than those for the GO electrode indicating higher specific capacitance which is promising in super-capacitor applications

Keywords: hexagonal graphene oxide, thermal reduction, cyclic voltammetry

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13 Three-Dimensional Carbon Foams for the Application as Electrode Material in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: H. Beisch, J. Marx, S. Garlof, R. Shvets, I. I. Grygorchak, A. Kityk, B. Fiedler


Carbon materials, especially three-dimensional carbon foams, show very high potential in the application as electrode material for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors with unique fast charging and discharging times. Regarding their high specific surface areas (SSA) high specific capacities can be reached. Globugraphite is a newly developed carbon foam with an interconnected globular carbon morphology. Especially, this foam has a statistically distributed hierarchical pore structure resulting from the manufacturing process based on sintered ceramic templates which are synthetized during a final chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. For morphology characterization scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used. In addition, the SSA is carried out by nitrogen adsorption combined with the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Electrochemical measurements in organic and inorganic electrolyte provide high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. All values are summarized in a Ragone Diagram. Finally, power densities up to 833 W/kg and energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg could be achieved. The corresponding SSA is between 376 m²/g and 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte a specific capacity of 71 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.

Keywords: BET, CVD process, electron microscopy, Ragone diagram

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12 3D Carbon Structures (Globugraphite) with Hierarchical Pore Morphology for the Application in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hubert Beisch, Janik Marx, Svenja Garlof, Roman Shvets, Ivan Grygorchak, Andriy Kityk, Bodo Fiedler


Three-dimensional carbon materials can be used as electrode materials for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors. Fast charging and discharging times are realizable without reducing the performance due to aging processes. Furthermore high specific surface area (SSA) of three-dimensional carbon structures leads to high specific capacities. One newly developed carbon foam is Globugraphite. This interconnected globular carbon morphology with statistically distributed hierarchical pores is manufactured by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process from ceramic templates resulting from a sintering process. Via scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the morphology is characterized. Moreover, the SSA was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Measurements of Globugraphite in an organic and inorganic electrolyte show high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. A comparison of the specific values is summarized in a Ragone diagram. Energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg and power densities to 833 W/kg could be achieved for an SSA from 376 m²/g to 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte, a specific capacity of 100 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.

Keywords: BET, carbon foam, CVD process, electrochemical cell, Ragone diagram, SEM, TEM

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11 Novel Method of In-Situ Tracking of Mechanical Changes in Composite Electrodes during Charging-Discharging by QCM-D

Authors: M. D. Levi, Netanel Shpigel, Sergey Sigalov, Gregory Salitra, Leonid Daikhin, Doron Aurbach


We have developed an in-situ method for tracking ions adsorption into composite nanoporous carbon electrodes based on quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). In these first papers QCM was used as a simple gravimetric probe of compositional changes in carbon porous composite electrodes during their charging since variation of the electrode potential did not change significantly width of the resonance. In contrast, when we passed from nanoporous carbons to a composite Li-ion battery material such as LiFePO4 olivine, the change in the resonance width was comparable with change of the resonance frequency (polymeric binder PVdF was shown to be completely rigid when used in aqueous solutions). We have provided a quantitative hydrodynamic admittance model of ion-insertion processes into electrode host accompanied by intercalation-induced dimensional changes of electrode particles, and hence the entire electrode coating. The change in electrode deformation and the related porosity modify hydrodynamic solid-liquid interactions tracked by QCM with dissipation monitoring. Using admittance modeling, we are able to evaluate the changes of effective thickness and permeability/porosity of composite electrode caused by applied potential and as a function of cycle number. This unique non-destructive technique may have great advantage in early diagnostics of cycling life durability of batteries and supercapacitors.

Keywords: Li-ion batteries, particles deformations, QCM-D, viscoelasticity

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10 Enhancement of Dielectric Properties of Co-Precipitated Spinel Ferrites NiFe₂O₄/Carbon Nano Fibers Nanohybrid

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain Gul, Syeda Aatika


Nickel ferrite was prepared via wet chemical co-precipitation route. Carbon Nano Fibers (CNFs) were used to prepare NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrids. Polar solvent (ortho-xylene) was used for the dispersion of CNFs in ferrite matrix. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrids without any impurity peak. FTIR patterns showed two consistent characteristic absorption bands for tetrahedral and octahedral sites, confirming the formation of spinel structure of NiFe₂O₄. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the coating of nickel ferrite nanoparticles on CNFs, which confirms the efficiency of deployed method. The dielectric properties were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Pure NiFe₂O₄ showed dielectric constant of 1.79 ×10³ at 100 Hz, which increased massively to 2.92 ×10⁶ at 100 Hz with the addition of 20% by weight of CNFs, proving it to be potential candidate for applications in supercapacitors. The impedance analysis showed a considerable decrease of resistance, reactance and cole-cole plot which confirms the decline of impedance on addition of CNFs. The pure NiFe₂O₄ has highest impedance values of 5.89 ×10⁷ Ohm at 100 Hz while the NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrid with CNFs (20% by weight) has the lowest impedance values of 4.25×10³ Ohm at 100 Hz, which proves this nanohybrid is useful for high-frequency applications.

Keywords: AC impedance, co-precipitation, nanohybrid, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction

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9 Towards Binder-Free and Self Supporting Flexible Supercapacitor from Carbon Nano-Onions and Their Composite with CuO Nanoparticles

Authors: Debananda Mohapatra, Subramanya Badrayyana, Smrutiranjan Parida


Recognizing the upcoming era of carbon nanostructures and their revolutionary applications, we investigated the formation and supercapacitor application of highly pure and hydrophilic carbon nano-onions (CNOs) by economical one-step flame-synthesis procedure. The facile and scalable method uses easily available organic carbon source such as clarified butter, restricting the use of any catalyst, sophisticated instrumentation, high vacuum and post processing purification procedure. The active material was conformally coated onto a locally available cotton wipe by “sonicating and drying” process to obtain novel, lightweight, inexpensive, flexible, binder-free electrodes with strong adhesion between nanoparticles and porous wipe. This interesting electrode with CNO as the active material delivers a specific capacitance of 102.16 F/g, the energy density of 14.18 Wh/kg and power density of 2448 W/kg which are the highest values reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 as an electrolyte. Incorporation of CuO nanoparticles to these functionalized CNOs by one-step hydrothermal method add up to a significant specific capacitance of 420 F/g with deliverable energy and power density at 58.33 Wh/kg and 4228 W/kg, respectively. The free standing CNOs, as well as CNO-CuO composite electrode, showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95 and 90% initial capacitance even after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A/g. This work presents a new platform for high performance supercapacitors for next generation wearable electronic devices.

Keywords: binder-free, flame synthesis, flexible, carbon nano-onion

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