Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: denitrification

21 Study of Biological Denitrification using Heterotrophic Bacteria and Natural Source of Carbon

Authors: Benbelkacem Ouerdia


Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from wastewater and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables the transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on the initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

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20 Valorization of Dates Nodes as a Carbon Source Using Biological Denitrification

Authors: Ouerdia Benbelkacem Belouanas


Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from waste water and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

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19 Investigation of Wood Chips as Internal Carbon Source Supporting Denitrification Process in Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lorivi, Jianzheng Li, John J. Ambuchi, Kaiwen Deng


Nitrogen removal from wastewater is accomplished by nitrification and denitrification processes. Successful denitrification requires carbon, therefore, if placed after biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrification process, a carbon source has to be re-introduced into the water. To avoid adding a carbon source, denitrification is usually placed before BOD and nitrification processes. This process however involves recycling the nitrified effluent. In this study wood chips were used as internal carbon source which enabled placement of denitrification after BOD and nitrification process without effluent recycling. To investigate the efficiency of a wood packed aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor on carbon and nutrients removal from domestic wastewater, a three compartment baffled reactor was presented. Each of the three compartments was packed with 329 g wood chips 1x1cm acting as an internal carbon source for denitrification. The proposed mode of operation was aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic (OAA) with no effluent recycling. The operating temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 24 ± 2 , 24 h, less than 4 mg/L and 7 ± 1 respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) attained was 99, 87 and 83% respectively. TN removal rate was limited by nitrification as 97% of ammonia converted into nitrate and nitrite was denitrified. These results show that application of wood chips in wastewater treatment processes is an efficient internal carbon source. 

Keywords: aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor, denitrification, nitrification, wood chip

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18 Nitrification and Denitrification Kinetic Parameters of a Mature Sanitary Landfill Leachate

Authors: Tânia F. C. V. Silva, Eloísa S. S. Vieira, João Pinto da Costa, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


Sanitary landfill leachates are characterized as a complex mixture of diverse organic and inorganic contaminants, which are usually removed by combining different treatment processes. Due to its simplicity, reliability, high cost-effectiveness and high nitrogen content (mostly under the ammonium form) inherent in this type of effluent, the activated sludge biological process is almost always applied in leachate treatment plants (LTPs). The purpose of this work is to assess the effect of the main nitrification and denitrification variables on the nitrogen's biological removal, from mature leachates. The leachate samples were collected after an aerated lagoon, at a LTP nearby Porto, presenting a high amount of dissolved organic carbon (1.0-1.3 g DOC/L) and ammonium nitrogen (1.1-1.7 g NH4+-N/L). The experiments were carried out in a 1-L lab-scale batch reactor, equipped with a pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) control system, in order to determine the reaction kinetic constants at unchanging conditions. The nitrification reaction rate was evaluated while varying the (i) operating temperature (15, 20, 25 and 30ºC), (ii) DO concentration interval (0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0 and 2.0-4.0 mg/L) and (iii) solution pH (not controlled, 7.5-8.5 and 6.5-7.5). At the beginning of most assays, it was verified that the ammonium stripping occurred simultaneously to the nitrification, reaching up to 37% removal of total dissolved nitrogen. The denitrification kinetic constants and the methanol consumptions were calculated for different values of (i) volatile suspended solids (VSS) content (25, 50 and 100 mL of centrifuged sludge in 1 L solution), (ii) pH interval (6.5-7.0, 7.5-8.0 and 8.5-9.0) and (iii) temperature (15, 20, 25 and 30ºC), using effluent previously nitrified. The maximum nitrification rate obtained was 38±2 mg NH4+-N/h/g VSS (25ºC, 0.5-1.0 mg O2/L, pH not controlled), consuming 4.4±0.3 mg CaCO3/mg NH4+-N. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 19±1 mg (NO2--N+NO3--N)/h/g VSS (30ºC, 50 mL of sludge and pH between 7.5 and 8.0), with a C/N consumption ratio of 1.1±0.1 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2--N+NO3--N) and an overall alkalinity production of 3.7±0.3 mg CaCO3/mg (NO2--N+NO3--N). The denitrification process showed to be sensitive to all studied parameters, while the nitrification reaction did not suffered significant change when DO content was changed.

Keywords: mature sanitary landfill leachate, nitrogen removal, nitrification and denitrification parameters, lab-scale activated sludge biological reactor

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17 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang


Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

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16 Evaluating the Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry of Gaza Coastal Aquifer Using Hydrochemical and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

Authors: Madhat Abu Al-Naeem, Ismail Yusoff, Ng Tham Fatt, Yatimah Alias


Groundwater in Gaza strip is increasingly being exposed to anthropic and natural factors that seriously impacted the groundwater quality. Physiochemical data of groundwater can offer important information on changes in groundwater quality that can be useful in improving water management tactics. An integrative hydrochemical and statistical techniques (Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA)) have been applied on the existence ten physiochemical data of 84 samples collected in (2000/2001) using STATA, AquaChem, and Surfer softwares to: 1) Provide valuable insight into the salinization sources and the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of groundwater. 2) Differentiate the influence of natural processes and man-made activities. The recorded large diversity in water facies with dominance Na-Cl type that reveals a highly saline aquifer impacted by multiple complex hydrochemical processes. Based on WHO standards, only (15.5%) of the wells were suitable for drinking. HCA yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 is the highest in salinity, mainly due to the impact of Eocene saline water invasion mixed with human inputs. Cluster 2 is the lowest in salinity also due to Eocene saline water invasion but mixed with recent rainfall recharge and limited carbonate dissolution and nitrate pollution. Cluster 3 is similar in salinity to Cluster 2, but with a high diversity of facies due to the impact of many sources of salinity as sea water invasion, carbonate dissolution and human inputs. Factor analysis yielded two factors accounting for 88% of the total variance. Factor 1 (59%) is a salinization factor demonstrating the mixing contribution of natural saline water with human inputs. Factor 2 measure the hardness and pollution which explained 29% of the total variance. The negative relationship between the NO3- and pH may reveal a denitrification process in a heavy polluted aquifer recharged by a limited oxygenated rainfall. Multivariate statistical analysis combined with hydrochemical analysis indicate that the main factors controlling groundwater chemistry were Eocene saline invasion, seawater invasion, sewage invasion and rainfall recharge and the main hydrochemical processes were base ion and reverse ion exchange processes with clay minerals (water rock interactions), nitrification, carbonate dissolution and a limited denitrification process.

Keywords: dendrogram and cluster analysis, water facies, Eocene saline invasion and sea water invasion, nitrification and denitrification

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15 Selected Macrophyte Populations Promotes Coupled Nitrification and Denitrification Function in Eutrophic Urban Wetland Ecosystem

Authors: Rupak Kumar Sarma, Ratul Saikia


Macrophytes encompass major functional group in eutrophic wetland ecosystems. As a key functional element of freshwater lakes, they play a crucial role in regulating various wetland biogeochemical cycles, as well as maintain the biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The high carbon-rich underground biomass of macrophyte populations may harbour diverse microbial community having significant potential in maintaining different biogeochemical cycles. The present investigation was designed to study the macrophyte-microbe interaction in coupled nitrification and denitrification, considering Deepor Beel Lake (a Ramsar conservation site) of North East India as a model eutrophic system. Highly eutrophic sites of Deepor Beel were selected based on sediment oxygen demand and inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen (P&N) concentration. Sediment redox potential and depth of the lake was chosen as the benchmark for collecting the plant and sediment samples. The average highest depth in winter (January 2016) and summer (July 2016) were recorded as 20ft (6.096m) and 35ft (10.668m) respectively. Both sampling depth and sampling seasons had the distinct effect on variation in macrophyte community composition. Overall, the dominant macrophytic populations in the lake were Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Utricularia flexuosa, Vallisneria spiralis, Najas indica, Monochoria hastaefolia, Trapa bispinosa, Ipomea fistulosa, Hygrorhiza aristata, Polygonum hydropiper, Eichhornia crassipes and Euryale ferox. There was a distinct correlation in the variation of major sediment physicochemical parameters with change in macrophyte community compositions. Quantitative estimation revealed an almost even accumulation of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment samples dominated by the plant species Eichhornia crassipes, Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Euryale ferox and Monochoria hastaefolia, which might have signified a stable nitrification and denitrification process in the sites dominated by the selected aquatic plants. This was further examined by a systematic analysis of microbial populations through culture dependent and independent approach. Culture-dependent bacterial community study revealed the higher population of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the sediment samples dominated by the six macrophyte species. However, culture-independent study with bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 metagenome sequencing revealed the overall similar type of bacterial phylum in all the sediment samples collected during the study. Thus, there might be the possibility of uneven distribution of nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers among the sediment samples collected during the investigation. The diversity and abundance of the nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers in the sediment samples are under investigation. Thus, the role of different aquatic plant functional types in microorganism mediated nitrogen cycle coupling could be screened out further from the present initial investigation.

Keywords: denitrification, macrophyte, metagenome, microorganism, nitrification

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14 Hydrodynamics of Periphyton Biofilters in Recirculating Aquaculture

Authors: Adam N. Bell, Sarina J. Ergas, Michael Nystrom, Nathan P. Brennan, Kevan L. Main


Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture systems (IMTA) have the potential to improve the sustainability of seafood production, generate organic fertilizer and feed, remove waste discharges and reduce energy use. IMTA can include periphyton biofilters where algae and microbes grow on surfaces, along with caught detritus and amphipods. Periphyton biofilters provide many advantages: nitrification, denitrification, primary production and ecological diversity. The goal of this study was to determine how biofilter hydraulic residence time (τ) effects periphyton biomass production, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient removal. A pilot scale recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was designed, constructed and operated at different hydraulic residence times (τ= 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours per tank). For each τ, a conservative tracer study was conducted to investigate system hydrodynamics. Data on periphyton weights, pH, nitrogen species, phosphorus, temperature and DO were collected. The tracer study for τ =1 hour revealed that the normalized time < τ, indicating short-circuiting. Periphyton biomass production rate was relatively unaffected by τ (R_e<1 for all τ). Average ammonia nitrogen removal was > 75% for all trials. Nitrate and nitrite did not accumulate in the RAS for τ≥4 hours due to enhanced denitrification in anoxic zones. For τ≥4 hours DO concentration was at a maximum of 4 mg L-1 after 14:00, and decreased to 0 mg L-1 during nighttime. At τ=1 hour, the RAS stayed > 2 mg L-1 and DO was more evenly distributed. For the validation trial, the culture tank was stocked with Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and the system was operated at τ= 1 hr. Preliminary results showed that a RAS with an integrated periphyton biofilter could support fish health with low nutrient concentrations DO > 6 mg L-1.

Keywords: sustainable aquaculture, resource recovery, nitrogen, microalgae, hydrodynamics, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

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13 Development of an Integrated System for the Treatment of Rural Domestic Wastewater: Emphasis on Nutrient Removal

Authors: Prangya Ranjan Rout, Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh Roshan Dash


In a developing country like India, providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment facilities in rural areas is a huge challenge. With the aim of enhancing the nutrient removal from rural domestic wastewater while reducing the cost of treatment process, a novel, integrated treatment system consisting of a multistage bio-filter with drop aeration and a post positioned attached growth carbonaceous denitrifying-bioreactor was designed and developed in this work. The bio-filter was packed with ‘dolochar’, a sponge iron industry waste, as an adsorbent mainly for phosphate removal through physiochemical approach. The Denitrifying bio-reactor was packed with many waste organic solid substances (WOSS) as carbon sources and substrates for biomass attachment, mainly to remove nitrate in biological denitrification process. The performance of the modular system, treating real domestic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 60 days and the average removal efficiencies during the period were as follows: phosphate, 97.37%; nitrate, 85.91%, ammonia, 87.85%, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.73, 9.86, and 9.46 mg/L, respectively. The multistage bio-filter played an important role in ammonium oxidation and phosphate adsorption. The multilevel drop aeration with increasing oxygenation, and the special media used, consisting of certain oxides were likely beneficial for nitrification and phosphorus removal, respectively, whereas the nitrate was effectively reduced by biological denitrification in the carbonaceous bioreactor. This treatment system would allow multipurpose reuse of the final effluent. Moreover, the saturated dolochar can be used as nutrient suppliers in agricultural practices and the partially degraded carbonaceous substances can be subjected to composting, and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer. Thus, the system displays immense potential for treating domestic wastewater significantly decreasing the concentrations of nutrients and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: nutrient removal, denitrifying bioreactor, multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar, waste organic solid substances

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12 Current Status of Nitrogen Saturation in the Upper Reaches of the Kanna River, Japan

Authors: Sakura Yoshii, Masakazu Abe, Akihiro Iijima


Nitrogen saturation has become one of the serious issues in the field of forest environment. The watershed protection forests located in the downwind hinterland of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are believed to be facing nitrogen saturation. In this study, we carefully focus on the balance of nitrogen between load and runoff. Annual nitrogen load via atmospheric deposition was estimated to 461.1 t-N/year in the upper reaches of the Kanna River. Annual nitrogen runoff to the forested headwater stream of the Kanna River was determined to 184.9 t-N/year, corresponding to 40.1% of the total nitrogen load. Clear seasonal change in NO3-N concentration was still observed. Therefore, watershed protection forest of the Kanna River is most likely to be in Stage-1 on the status of nitrogen saturation.

Keywords: atmospheric deposition, nitrogen accumulation, denitrification, forest ecosystems

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11 Nutrients Removal Control via an Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Junior B. N. Adohinzin, Ling Xu


Nitrogen is among the main nutrients encouraging the growth of organic matter and algae which cause eutrophication in water bodies. Therefore, its removal from wastewater has become a worldwide emerging concern. In this research, an innovative Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system named “moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR)” was developed and investigated under intermittently-aerated mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen. Results indicated that the variation of the intermittently aerated duration did not have an apparent impact on COD and NH4+–N removal rate, yielding the effluent with average COD and NH4+–N removal efficiency of more than 92 and 91% respectively. However, in the intermittently aerated cycle of (continuously aeration/0s mix), (aeration 90s/mix 90s) and (aeration 90s/mix 180s); the average TN removal efficiency was 67.6%, 69.5% and 87.8% respectively. At the same time, their nitrite accumulation rate was 4.5%, 49.1% and 79.4% respectively. These results indicate that the intermittently aerated mode is an efficient way to controlling the nitrification to stop at nitrition; and also the length of anoxic duration is a key factor in improving TN removal.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), nutrients removal, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

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10 Impact of Calcium Carbide Waste Dumpsites on Soil Chemical and Microbial Characteristics

Authors: C. E. Ihejirika, M. I. Nwachukwu, R. F. Njoku-Tony, O. C. Ihejirika, U. O. Enwereuzoh, E. O. Imo, D. C. Ashiegbu


Disposal of industrial solid wastes in the environment is a major environmental challenge. This study investigated the effects of calcium carbide waste dumpsites on soil quality. Soil samples were collected with hand auger from three different dumpsites at varying depths and made into composite samples. Samples were subjected to standard analytical procedures. pH varied from 10.38 to 8.28, nitrate from 5.6mg/kg to 9.3mg/kg, phosphate from 8.8mg/kg to 12.3mg/kg, calcium carbide reduced from 10% to to 3%. Calcium carbide was absent in control soil samples. Bacterial counts from dumpsites ranged from 1.8 x 105cfu/g - 2.5 x 105cfu/g while fungal ranged from 0.8 x 103cfu/g - 1.4 x 103cfu/g. Bacterial isolates included Pseudomonas spp, Flavobacterium spp, and Achromobacter spp, while fungal isolates include Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus stolonifer. No organism was isolated from the dumpsites at soil depth of 0-15 cm, while there were isolates from other soil depths. Toxicity might be due to alkaline condition of the dumpsite. Calcium carbide might be bactericidal and fungicidal leading to cellular physiology, growth retardation, death, general loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem processes. Detoxification of calcium carbide waste before disposal on soil might be the best option in management.

Keywords: biodiversity, calcium-carbide, denitrification, toxicity

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9 Understanding Integrated Removal of Heavy Metals, Organic Matter and Nitrogen in a Constructed Wetland System Receiving Simulated Landfill Leachate

Authors: A. Mohammed, A. Babatunde


This study investigated the integrated removal of heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen from landfill leachate using a novel laboratory scale constructed wetland system. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the overall effectiveness of the constructed wetland system for treating landfill leachate; (ii) to examine the interactions and impact of key leachate constituents (heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen) on the overall removal dynamics and efficiency. The constructed wetland system consisted of four stages operated in tidal flow and anoxic conditions. Results obtained from 215 days of operation have demonstrated extraordinary heavy metals removal up to 100%. Analysis of the physico- chemical data reveal that the controlling factors for metals removal were the anoxic condition and the use of the novel media (dewatered ferric sludge which is a by-product of drinking water treatment process) as the main substrate in the constructed wetland system. Results show that the use of the ferric sludge enhanced heavy metals removal and brought more flexibility to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification which occurs within the microbial flocs. Furthermore, COD and NH4-N were effectively removed in the system and this coincided with enhanced aeration in the 2nd and 3rd stages of the constructed wetland system. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ferric dewatered sludge constructed wetland system would be an effective solution for integrated removal of pollutants from landfill leachates.

Keywords: constructed wetland, ferric dewatered sludge, heavy metals, landfill leachate

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8 Temperature Dependence and Seasonal Variation of Denitrifying Microbial Consortia from a Woodchip Bioreactor in Denmark

Authors: A. Jéglot, F. Plauborg, M. K. Schnorr, R. S. Sørensen, L. Elsgaard


Artificial wetlands such as woodchip bioreactors are efficient tools to remove nitrate from agricultural wastewater with a minimized environmental impact. However, the temperature dependence of the microbiological nitrate removal prevents the woodchip bioreactors from being an efficient system when the water temperature drops below 8℃. To quantify and describe the temperature effects on nitrate removal efficiency, we studied nitrate-reducing enrichments from a woodchip bioreactor in Denmark based on samples collected in Spring and Fall. Growth was quantified as optical density, and nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in time-course experiments to compare the growth of the microbial population and the nitrate conversion efficiencies at different temperatures. Ammonia was measured to indicate the importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) in nitrate conversion for the given denitrifying community. The temperature responses observed followed the increasing trend proposed by the Arrhenius equation, indicating higher nitrate removal efficiencies at higher temperatures. However, the growth and the nitrous oxide production observed at low temperature provided evidence of the psychrotolerance of the microbial community under study. The assays conducted showed higher nitrate removal from the microbial community extracted from the woodchip bioreactor at the cold season compared to the ones extracted during the warmer season. This indicated the ability of the bacterial populations in the bioreactor to evolve and adapt to different seasonal temperatures.

Keywords: agricultural waste water treatment, artificial wetland, denitrification, psychrophilic conditions

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7 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt


Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: explosives, mining, nitrification, water

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6 Microalgae Bacteria Granules, an Alternative Technology to the Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Structural and Metabolic Characterization

Authors: M. Nita-Lazar, E. Manea, C. Bumbac, A. Banciu, C. Stoica


The population and economic growth have generated a significant new number of pollutant compounds which have to be degraded before reaching the environment. The wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been the last barrier between the domestic and/or industrial wastewaters and the environment. At present, the conventional WWTPs have very high operational costs, most of them linked to the aeration process (60-65% from total energy costs related to wastewater treatment). In addition, they have had a low efficiency in pollutants removal such as pharmaceutical and other resilient anthropogenic compounds. In our study, we have been focused on new wastewater treatment strategies to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal and decrease the wastewater treatment operational costs. The usage of mixed microalgae-bacteria granules technology generated high efficiency and low costs by a better harvesting and less expensive aeration. The intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria have been characterized by the structure of the population community to their metabolic relationships. The results, obtained by microscopic studies, showed well-organized and stratified microalgae-bacteria granules where bacteria have been enveloped in the microalgal structures. Moreover, their population community structure has been modulated as well as their nitrification, denitrification processes (analysis based on qPCR genes expression) by the type of the pollutant compounds and amounts. In conclusion, the understanding and modulation of intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria could be an economical and technological viable alternative to the conventional wastewater treatment. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grant PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0865 from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation CNCS/CCCDI-UEFISCDI.

Keywords: activated sludge, bacteria, granules, microalgae

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5 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan

Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi


Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.

Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, submarine groundwater discharge

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4 Impacts of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Functional Bacterial Community in Activated Sludge

Authors: I. Kamika, S. Azizi, M. Tekere


Nanotechnology promises significant improvements of advanced materials and manufacturing techniques with a vast range of applications, which are critical for the future competitiveness of national industries. The manipulations and productions of materials, whilst, controlling the optical properties and surface area to a nanosize scale enabled a birth of a new field known as nanotechnology. However, their rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, as their effects on functional bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium Oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system, which influenced its performance of this system on nutrient removal. Out of 15875 reads sequenced, a total of 13133 reads were non-chimeric. The wastewater samples were more dominant to the unclassified bacteria (51.07% of bacteria community) followed with the classified bacteria (48.93). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in both classified and unclassified bacteria, whereas 18% of bacteria could even not be assigned a phylum and remained unclassified suggesting hitherto vast untapped microbial diversity. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 1014 to 2629 over the experimental period. The denitrification related species including Diaphorobacter species, Thauera species and those in the Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix group were found to be inhibited in a high concentration of CeO-NP. The diversity indices suggested that the bacterial community inhabiting the wastewater samples were less diverse as the concentration of CeO increases. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results highlighted that the bacterial community variance had the strongest relationship with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content as well as nCeO. The results provided the relationships between the microbial community and environmental variables in the wastewater samples.

Keywords: bacterial community, next generation, cerium oxide, wastewater, activated sludge, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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3 Development of a Multi-Variate Model for Matching Plant Nitrogen Requirements with Supply for Reducing Losses in Dairy Systems

Authors: Iris Vogeler, Rogerio Cichota, Armin Werner


Dairy farms are under pressure to increase productivity while reducing environmental impacts. Effective fertiliser management practices are critical to achieve this. Determination of optimum nitrogen (N) fertilisation rates which maximise pasture growth and minimise N losses is challenging due to variability in plant requirements and likely near-future supply of N by the soil. Remote sensing can be used for mapping N nutrition status of plants and to rapidly assess the spatial variability within a field. An algorithm is, however, lacking which relates the N status of the plants to the expected yield response to additions of N. The aim of this simulation study was to develop a multi-variate model for determining N fertilisation rate for a target percentage of the maximum achievable yield based on the pasture N concentration (ii) use of an algorithm for guiding fertilisation rates, and (iii) evaluation of the model regarding pasture yield and N losses, including N leaching, denitrification and volatilisation. A simulation study was carried out using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM). The simulations were done for an irrigated ryegrass pasture in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. A multi-variate model was developed and used to determine monthly required N fertilisation rates based on pasture N content prior to fertilisation and targets of 50, 75, 90 and 100% of the potential monthly yield. These monthly optimised fertilisation rules were evaluated by running APSIM for a ten-year period to provide yield and N loss estimates from both nonurine and urine affected areas. Comparison with typical fertilisation rates of 150 and 400 kg N/ha/year was also done. Assessment of pasture yield and leaching from fertiliser and urine patches indicated a large reduction in N losses when N fertilisation rates were controlled by the multi-variate model. However, the reduction in leaching losses was much smaller when taking into account the effects of urine patches. The proposed approach based on biophysical modelling to develop a multi-variate model for determining optimum N fertilisation rates dependent on pasture N content is very promising. Further analysis, under different environmental conditions and validation is required before the approach can be used to help adjust fertiliser management practices to temporal and spatial N demand based on the nitrogen status of the pasture.

Keywords: APSIM modelling, optimum N fertilization rate, pasture N content, ryegrass pasture, three dimensional surface response function.

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2 Development of DNDC Modelling Method for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Arable Soils in European Russia

Authors: Olga Sukhoveeva


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main component of carbon biogeochemical cycle and one of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG). Agriculture, particularly arable soils, are one the largest sources of GHG emission for the atmosphere including CO2.Models may be used for estimation of GHG emission from agriculture if they can be adapted for different countries conditions. The only model used in officially at national level in United Kingdom and China for this purpose is DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition). In our research, the model DNDC is offered for estimation of GHG emission from arable soils in Russia. The aim of our research was to create the method of DNDC using for evaluation of CO2 emission in Russia based on official statistical information. The target territory was European part of Russia where many field experiments are located. At the first step of research the database on climate, soil and cropping characteristics for the target region from governmental, statistical, and literature sources were created. All-Russia Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information – World Data Centre provides open daily data about average meteorological and climatic conditions. It must be calculated spatial average values of maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation over the region. Spatial average values of soil characteristics (soil texture, bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon content) can be determined on the base of Union state register of soil recourses of Russia. Cropping technologies are published by agricultural research institutes and departments. We offer to define cropping system parameters (annual information about crop yields, amount and types of fertilizers and manure) on the base of the Federal State Statistics Service data. Content of carbon in plant biomass may be calculated via formulas developed and published by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation. At the second step CO2 emission from soil in this region were calculated by DNDC. Modelling data were compared with empirical and literature data and good results were obtained, modelled values were equivalent to the measured ones. It was revealed that the DNDC model may be used to evaluate and forecast the CO2 emission from arable soils in Russia based on the official statistical information. Also, it can be used for creation of the program for decreasing GHG emission from arable soils to the atmosphere. Financial Support: fundamental scientific researching theme 0148-2014-0005 No 01201352499 ‘Solution of fundamental problems of analysis and forecast of Earth climatic system condition’ for 2014-2020; fundamental research program of Presidium of RAS No 51 ‘Climate change: causes, risks, consequences, problems of adaptation and regulation’ for 2018-2020.

Keywords: arable soils, carbon dioxide emission, DNDC model, European Russia

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1 A Hybrid of BioWin and Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Modeling of Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants for Model-Based Control

Authors: Komal Rathore, Kiesha Pierre, Kyle Cogswell, Aaron Driscoll, Andres Tejada Martinez, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford, Aydin Sunol


Modeling of Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants requires several parameters for kinetic rate expressions, thermo-physical properties, and hydrodynamic behavior. The kinetics and associated mechanisms become complex due to several biological processes taking place in wastewater treatment plants at varying times and spatial scales. A dynamic process model that incorporated the complex model for activated sludge kinetics was developed using the BioWin software platform for an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant in Valrico, Florida. Due to the extensive number of tunable parameters, an experimental design was employed for judicious selection of the most influential parameter sets and their bounds. The model was tuned using both the influent and effluent plant data to reconcile and rectify the forecasted results from the BioWin Model. Amount of mixed liquor suspended solids in the oxidation ditch, aeration rates and recycle rates were adjusted accordingly. The experimental analysis and plant SCADA data were used to predict influent wastewater rates and composition profiles as a function of time for extended periods. The lumped dynamic model development process was coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the key units such as oxidation ditches in the plant. Several CFD models that incorporate the nitrification-denitrification kinetics, as well as, hydrodynamics was developed and being tested using ANSYS Fluent software platform. These realistic and verified models developed using BioWin and ANSYS were used to plan beforehand the operating policies and control strategies for the biological wastewater plant accordingly that further allows regulatory compliance at minimum operational cost. These models, with a little bit of tuning, can be used for other biological wastewater treatment plants as well. The BioWin model mimics the existing performance of the Valrico Plant which allowed the operators and engineers to predict effluent behavior and take control actions to meet the discharge limits of the plant. Also, with the help of this model, we were able to find out the key kinetic and stoichiometric parameters which are significantly more important for modeling of biological wastewater treatment plants. One of the other important findings from this model were the effects of mixed liquor suspended solids and recycle ratios on the effluent concentration of various parameters such as total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, etc. The ANSYS model allowed the abstraction of information such as the formation of dead zones increases through the length of the oxidation ditches as compared to near the aerators. These profiles were also very useful in studying the behavior of mixing patterns, effect of aerator speed, and use of baffles which in turn helps in optimizing the plant performance.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, flow-sheet simulation, kinetic modeling, process dynamics

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