Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 97

Search results for: cantilever

97 The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever

Authors: Mehdi Shekarzadeh, Pejman Taghipour Birgani


In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, AFM, vibration analysis, flexural vibration, cantilever

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
96 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi, Geetika Srivastava


Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: actuators, cantilever, piezoelectric, sensors, PVDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
95 Elastic Stress Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam Loaded Uniformly

Authors: Merve Tunay Çetin, Ali Kurşun, Erhan Çetin, Halil Aykul


In this investigation an elastic stress analysis is carried out a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beam loaded uniformly at the upper surface. The composite beam material consists of low density polyethylene as a thermoplastic (LDFE, f.2.12) and woven steel fibers. Granules of the polyethylene is put into the moulds and they are heated up to 160°C by using electrical resistance. Subsequently, the material is held for 5min under 2.5 MPa at this temperature. The temperature is decreased to 30°C under 15 MPa pressure in 3 min. Closed form solution is found satisfying both the governing differential equation and boundary conditions. We investigated orientation angle effect on stress distribution of composite cantilever beams. The results show that orientation angle play an important role in determining the responses of a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beams and an optimal design of these structures.

Keywords: cantilever beam, elastic stress analysis, orientation angle, thermoplastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
94 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: Manjula Sutagundar, B. G. Sheeparamatti, D. S. Jangamshetti


Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: MEMS resonator, genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
93 Influence of Wall Stiffness and Embedment Depth on Excavations Supported by Cantilever Walls

Authors: Muhammad Naseem Baig, Abdul Qudoos Khan, Jamal Ali


Ground deformations in deep excavations are affected by wall stiffness and pile embedment ratio. This paper presents the findings of a parametric study of 64ft deep excavation in mixed stiff soil conditions supported by a cantilever pile wall. A series of finite element analyses have been carried out in Plaxis 2D by varying pile embedment ratio and wall stiffness. It has been observed that maximum wall deflections decrease by increasing the embedment ratio up to 1.50; however, any further increase in pile length does not improve the performance of wall. Similarly, increasing wall stiffness reduces the wall deformations and affects the deflection patterns of wall. The finite element analysis results are compared with field data of 25 case studies of cantilever walls. Analysis results fall within the range of normalized wall deflections of 25 case studies. It has been concluded that deep excavations can be supported by cantilever walls provided the system stiffness is increased significantly.

Keywords: excavations, support systems, wall stiffness, cantilever walls

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
92 Experimental Study on Strengthening Systems of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Slabs

Authors: Aymen H. Khalil, Ashraf M. Heniegal, Bassam A. Abdelsalam


There are many problems related to cantilever slabs such as the time-dependent deformation, corrosion problems of steel reinforcement, and lack of experimental studies on the strength of strengthened cantilever slabs. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilever slabs after strengthening with different techniques. Six medium scale specimens, divided into three groups, were tested along with a control slab. The first group consists of two specimens which were repaired and strengthened using reinforced concrete jacket above with and without shear connector bars, whereas the second group contained two slabs which were strengthened using two strips of two layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) covering 60% and 90% from the cantilever length. The last group involves two specimens strengthened with two steel plates. In one specimen, the steel plates were glued to the surface using epoxy resin. The second specimen, the steel plates were affixed to the concrete surface using expansion bolts. The loading was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the samples were subjected to 40% of the ultimate load of the control slab. Secondly, the specimens reloaded after being strengthened up to failure. The load-deflection, steel strain, concrete strain, failure mode, toughness, and ductility index are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: repair, strengthened, GFRP layers, reloaded, jacketing, cantilever slabs

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
91 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares


Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
90 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam with External Prestressing

Authors: R. I. Liban, N. Tayşi


This paper deals with a nonlinear finite element analysis to examine the behavior up to failure of cantilever composite steel-concrete beams which are prestressed externally. 'Pre-' means stressing the high strength external tendons in the steel beam section before the concrete slab is added. The composite beam contains a concrete slab which is connected together with steel I-beam by means of perfect shear connectors between the concrete slab and the steel beam which is subjected to static loading. A finite element analysis will be done to study the effects of external prestressed tendons on the composite steel-concrete beams by locating the tendons in different locations (profiles). ANSYS version 12.1 computer program is being used to analyze the represented three-dimensional model of the cantilever composite beam. This model gives all these outputs, mainly load-displacement behavior of the cantilever end and in the middle span of the simple support part.

Keywords: composite steel-concrete beams, external prestressing, finite element analysis, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
89 Tapered Double Cantilever Beam: Evaluation of the Test Set-up for Self-Healing Polymers

Authors: Eleni Tsangouri, Xander Hillewaere, David Garoz Gómez, Dimitrios Aggelis, Filip Du Prez, Danny Van Hemelrijck


Tapered Double Cantilever Beam (TDCB) is the most commonly used test set-up to evaluate the self-healing feature of thermoset polymers autonomously activated in the presence of crack. TDCB is a modification of the established fracture mechanics set-up of Double Cantilever Beam and is designed to provide constant strain energy release rate with crack length under stable load evolution (mode-I). In this study, the damage of virgin and autonomously healed TDCB polymer samples is evaluated considering the load-crack opening diagram, the strain maps provided by Digital Image Correlation technique and the fractography maps given by optical microscopy. It is shown that the pre-crack introduced prior to testing (razor blade tapping), the loading rate and the length of the side groove are the features that dominate the crack propagation and lead to inconstant fracture energy release rate.

Keywords: polymers, autonomous healing, fracture, tapered double cantilever beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
88 Micro-Cantilever Tests on Hydride Blister and Zirconium Matrix of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tube

Authors: Ho-A Kim, Jae-Soo Noh


During reactor operation, hydride blister can occur in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) claddings, and it could worsen the integrity of the claddings locally. Hydride blister can be critical when a pinch-type load is applied in the process of SNF handling and transportation. Micro-cantilever tests were performed to evaluate the risk of local hydride blister by comparing the fracture toughness of local hydride blister and pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix of SNF cladding on a microscale. Hydride blister was generated by a gaseous charging procedure to simulate an SNF cladding. Micro-cantilevers and pre-cracks were ion-milled with the Ga+ ion beam of FEI Helios 600 at 30kV acceleration voltage. Micro-cantilever tests were conducted using PI 85 pico-indenter (HYSTRON) with for sided conductive diamond flat tip (1 μm x 1 μm) at a speed of 5 nm/sec. The results show that the hydride blister specimen could be fractured in the elastic deformation region, and the fracture toughness of the hydride blister specimen could drop up to 60% of that of the pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix. Therefore, local hydride blister can degrade the integrity of SNF cladding, and the effect of hydride blister should be taken into account when evaluating failure criteria of claddings during handling, storage, and transportation of SNF.

Keywords: fracture toughness, hydride blister, micro-cantilever test, spent nuclear fuel cladding.

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
87 Mean Square Responses of a Cantilever Beam with Various Damping Mechanisms

Authors: Yaping Zhao, Yimin Zhang


In the present paper, the stationary random vibration of a uniform cantilever beam is investigated. Two types of damping mechanism, i.e. the external and internal viscous dampings, are taken into account simultaneously. The excitation form is the support motion, and it is ideal white. Because two type of damping mechanism are considered concurrently, the product of the modal damping ratio and the natural frequency is not a constant anymore. As a result, the infinite definite integral encountered in the process of computing the mean square response is more complex than that in the existing literature. One signal progress of this work is to have calculated these definite integrals accurately. The precise solution of the mean square response is thus obtained in the infinite series form finally. Numerical examples are supplied and the numerical outcomes acquired confirm the validity of the theoretical analyses.

Keywords: random vibration, cantilever beam, mean square response, white noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
86 Dielectric Study of Ethanol Water Mixtures at Different Concentration Using Hollow Channel Cantilever Platform

Authors: Maryam S. Ghoraishi, John E. Hawk, Thomas Thundat


Understanding liquid properties in small scale has become important in recent decades as immerging new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices have been widely used for micro pumps, drug delivery, and many other laboratory-on-microchips analysis. Often in microfluidic devices, fluids are transported electrokinetically. Therefore, extensive knowledge of fluid flow, heat transport, electrokinetics and electrochemistry are key to successful lab on a chip design. Among different microfluidic devices, recently developed hollow channel cantilever offers an ideal platform to study different fluid properties simultaneously without drastic decrease in quality factor which normally occurs when traditional cantilevers operate in the liquid phase. Using hollow channel cantilever, we monitor changes in density and viscosity of liquid while simultaneously investigating dielectric properties of alcohol water binary mixtures. Considerable research has been conducted on alcohol-water mixtures since such a mixture is a typical prototype for biomolecules, Micelle formation, and structural stability of proteins (to name a few). Here we show that hollow channel cantilever can be employed to investigate dielectric properties of ethanol/water mixtures in different concentrations. We study dynamic amplitude shifts of hollow channel cantilever oscillation at different concentrations of ethanol/water for different voltages. Our results show how interactions between solute and solvent, and possibly cluster formation, could change dielectric properties and dipole reorientation of the mixture, as well as the resulting force on the hollow cantilever. For comparison, we also examine higher conductivity ionic mixtures of sodium sulfate solution under the same conditions as low conductivity ethanol/water mixtures. We will show the results from systematic investigation of solvent effects on dielectric properties of the binary mixture. We will also address the question of resolution limits in dielectric study of analyte molecules imposed by solvent concentrations.

Keywords: dielectric constant, cantilever sensors, ethanol water mixtures, low frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
85 Evaluation of Minimization of Moment Ratio Method by Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz


Under active stress conditions, a rigid cantilever retaining wall tends to rotate about a pivot point located within the embedded depth of the wall. For purely granular and cohesive soils, a methodology was previously reported called minimization of moment ratio to determine the location of the pivot point of rotation. The usage of this new methodology is to estimate the rotational stability safety factor. Moreover, the degree of improvement required in a backfill to get a desired safety factor can be estimated by the concept of the shear strength demand. In this article, the accuracy of this method for another type of cantilever walls called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is evaluated by using physical modeling technique. Based on observations, the results of moment ratio minimization method are in good agreement with the results of the carried out physical modeling.

Keywords: cantilever retaining wall, physical modeling, minimization of moment ratio method, pivot point

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
84 A Broadband Tri-Cantilever Vibration Energy Harvester with Magnetic Oscillator

Authors: Xiaobo Rui, Zhoumo Zeng, Yibo Li


A novel tri-cantilever energy harvester with magnetic oscillator was presented, which could convert the ambient vibration into electrical energy to power the low-power devices such as wireless sensor networks. The most common way to harvest vibration energy is based on the use of linear resonant devices such as cantilever beam, since this structure creates the highest strain for a given force. The highest efficiency will be achieved when the resonance frequency of the harvester matches the vibration frequency. The limitation of the structure is the narrow effective bandwidth. To overcome this limitation, this article introduces a broadband tri-cantilever harvester with nonlinear stiffness. This energy harvester typically consists of three thin cantilever beams vertically arranged with Neodymium Magnets ( NdFeB)magnetics at its free end and a fixed base at the other end. The three cantilevers have different resonant frequencies by designed in different thicknesses. It is obviously that a similar advantage of multiple resonant frequencies as piezoelectric cantilevers array structure is built. To achieve broadband energy harvesting, magnetic interaction is used to introduce the nonlinear system stiffness to tune the resonant frequency to match the excitation. Since the three cantilever tips are all free and the magnetic force is distance dependent, the resonant frequencies will be complexly changed with the vertical vibration of the free end. Both model and experiment are built. The electromechanically coupled lumped-parameter model is presented. An electromechanical formulation and analytical expressions for the coupled nonlinear vibration response and voltage response are given. The entire structure is fabricated and mechanically attached to a electromagnetic shaker as a vibrating body via the fixed base, in order to couple the vibrations to the cantilever. The cantilevers are bonded with piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) materials (Model: M8514P2). The size of the cantilevers is 120*20mm2 and the thicknesses are separately 1mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. The prototype generator has a measured performance of 160.98 mW effective electrical power and 7.93 DC output voltage via the excitation level of 10m/s2. The 130% increase in the operating bandwidth is achieved. This device is promising to support low-power devices, peer-to-peer wireless nodes, and small-scale wireless sensor networks in ambient vibration environment.

Keywords: tri-cantilever, ambient vibration, energy harvesting, magnetic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
83 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Microcantilever Beam

Authors: S. B. Kerur, B. S. Murgayya


The development of micro and nano particle is challenging task and the study of the behavior of material at the micro level is gaining importance as their behavior at micro/nano level is different. These micro particle are being used as a sensing element to measure and detects the hazardous chemical, gases, explosives and biological agents. In the present study, finite element method is used for static and dynamic analysis of simple and composite cantilever beams of different shapes. The present FE model is validated with available analytical results and various parameters like shape, materials properties, damped and undamped conditions are considered for the numerical study. The results show the effects of shape change on the natural frequency and as these are used with fluid for chemical applications, the effect of damping due to viscous nature of fluid are simulated by considering different damping coefficient effect on the dynamic behavior of cantilever beams. The obtained results show the effect of these parameters can be effectively utilized based on system requirements.

Keywords: micro, FEM, dynamic, cantilever beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
82 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran


Lateral torsional buckling is a global stability loss which should be considered in the design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice. Such equations can be obtained by using energy method. Unfortunately, this method has a vital drawback. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. The accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties, and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for the concentrated load at the free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases.

Keywords: buckling mode, cantilever, lateral-torsional buckling, I-beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
81 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Easa Ali Abbasi, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Reza Jahangiri, Behnam Dadashzadeh


Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
80 Experimental and Theoratical Methods to Increase Core Damping for Sandwitch Cantilever Beam

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Moouyad Ibrahim Abbood


The purpose behind this study is to predict damping effect for steel cantilever beam by using two methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. First method is Matlab Program, this method depend on the Ross, Kerwin and Unger (RKU) model for passive viscoelastic damping. Second method is experimental lab (frequency domain method), in this method used the half-power bandwidth method and can be used to determine the system loss factors for damped steel cantilever beam. The RKU method has been applied to a cantilever beam because beam is a major part of a structure and this prediction may further leads to utilize for different kinds of structural application according to design requirements in many industries. In this method of damping a simple cantilever beam is treated by making sandwich structure to make the beam damp, and this is usually done by using viscoelastic material as a core to ensure the damping effect. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings. The main ideas of this thesis are to find the transition region for damped steel cantilever beam (4mm and 8mm thickness) from experimental lab and theoretical prediction (Matlab R2011a). Experimentally and theoretically proved that the transition region for two specimens occurs at modal frequency between mode 1 and mode 2, which give the best damping, maximum loss factor and maximum damping ratio, thus this type of viscoelastic material core (3M468) is very appropriate to use in automotive industry and in any mechanical application has modal frequency eventuate between mode 1 and mode 2.

Keywords: 3M-468 material core, loss factor and frequency, domain method, bioinformatics, biomedicine, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
79 Damage Detection in a Cantilever Beam under Different Excitation and Temperature Conditions

Authors: A. Kyprianou, A. Tjirkallis


Condition monitoring of structures in service is very important as it provides information about the risk of damage development. One of the essential constituents of structural condition monitoring is the damage detection methodology. In the context of condition monitoring of in service structures a damage detection methodology analyses data obtained from the structure while it is in operation. Usually, this means that the data could be affected by operational and environmental conditions in a way that could mask the effects of a possible damage on the data. This, depending on the damage detection methodology, could lead to either false alarms or miss existing damages. In this article a damage detection methodology that is based on the Spatio-temporal continuous wavelet transform (SPT-CWT) analysis of a sequence of experimental time responses of a cantilever beam is proposed. The cantilever is subjected to white and pink noise excitation to simulate different operating conditions. In addition, in order to simulate changing environmental conditions, the cantilever is subjected to heating by a heat gun. The response of the cantilever beam is measured by a high-speed camera. Edges are extracted from the series of images of the beam response captured by the camera. Subsequent processing of the edges gives a series of time responses on 439 points on the beam. This sequence is then analyzed using the SPT-CWT to identify damage. The algorithm proposed was able to clearly identify damage under any condition when the structure was excited by white noise force. In addition, in the case of white noise excitation, the analysis could also reveal the position of the heat gun when it was used to heat the structure. The analysis could identify the different operating conditions i.e. between responses due to white noise excitation and responses due to pink noise excitation. During the pink noise excitation whereas damage and changing temperature were identified it was not possible to clearly identify the effect of damage from that of temperature. The methodology proposed in this article for damage detection enables the separation the damage effect from that due to temperature and excitation on data obtained from measurements of a cantilever beam. This methodology does not require information about the apriori state of the structure.

Keywords: spatiotemporal continuous wavelet transform, damage detection, data normalization, varying temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
78 An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances

Authors: Pakorn Uttayopas, Chawalit Kittichaikarn


This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.

Keywords: downstream structures, energy harvesting, flow-induced vibration, piezoelectric material, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
77 Random Vertical Seismic Vibrations of the Long Span Cantilever Beams

Authors: Sergo Esadze


Seismic resistance norms require calculation of cantilevers on vertical components of the base seismic acceleration. Long span cantilevers, as a rule, must be calculated as a separate construction element. According to the architectural-planning solution, functional purposes and environmental condition of a designing buildings/structures, long span cantilever construction may be of very different types: both by main bearing element (beam, truss, slab), and by material (reinforced concrete, steel). A choice from these is always linked with bearing construction system of the building. Research of vertical seismic vibration of these constructions requires individual approach for each (which is not specified in the norms) in correlation with model of seismic load. The latest may be given both as deterministic load and as a random process. Loading model as a random process is more adequate to this problem. In presented paper, two types of long span (from 6m – up to 12m) reinforcement concrete cantilever beams have been considered: a) bearing elements of cantilevers, i.e., elements in which they fixed, have cross-sections with large sizes and cantilevers are made with haunch; b) cantilever beam with load-bearing rod element. Calculation models are suggested, separately for a) and b) types. They are presented as systems with finite quantity degree (concentrated masses) of freedom. Conditions for fixing ends are corresponding with its types. Vertical acceleration and vertical component of the angular acceleration affect masses. Model is based on assumption translator-rotational motion of the building in the vertical plane, caused by vertical seismic acceleration. Seismic accelerations are considered as random processes and presented by multiplication of the deterministic envelope function on stationary random process. Problem is solved within the framework of the correlation theory of random process. Solved numerical examples are given. The method is effective for solving the specific problems.

Keywords: cantilever, random process, seismic load, vertical acceleration

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
76 Improved Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to Design Problem

Authors: Kapse Swapnil, K. Shankar


Aiming at optimizing the weight and deflection of cantilever beam subjected to maximum stress and maximum deflection, Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) with Utopia Point based local search is implemented. Utopia point is used to govern the search towards the Pareto Optimal set. The elite candidates obtained during the iterations are stored in an archive according to non-dominated sorting and also the archive is truncated based on least crowding distance. Local search is also performed on elite candidates and the most diverse particle is selected as the global best. This method is implemented on standard test functions and it is observed that the improved algorithm gives better convergence and diversity as compared to NSGA-II in fewer iterations. Implementation on practical structural problem shows that in 5 to 6 iterations, the improved algorithm converges with better diversity as evident by the improvement of cantilever beam on an average of 0.78% and 9.28% in the weight and deflection respectively compared to NSGA-II.

Keywords: Utopia point, multi-objective particle swarm optimization, local search, cantilever beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
75 A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers

Authors: H. Ozbasaran


IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.

Keywords: cantilever, IPN, IPE, lateral torsional buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
74 Quantitative Analysis of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Using Micromechanical Piezoresistive Cantilever

Authors: Meisam Omidi, M. Mirijalili, Mohammadmehdi Choolaei, Z. Sharifi, F. Haghiralsadat, F. Yazdian


In this work, we have used arrays of micromechanical piezoresistive cantilever with different geometries to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is known as an important biomarker associated with various cancers such as the colorectal, lung, breast, pancreatic, and bladder cancer. The sensing principle is based on the surface stress changes induced by antigen–antibody interaction on the microcantilevers surfaces. Different concentrations of CEA in a human serum albumin (HSA) solution were detected as a function of the deflection of the beams. According to the experiments, it was revealed that microcantilevers have surface stress sensitivities in the order of 8 (mJ/m). This matter allows them to detect CEA concentrations as low as 3 ng/mL or 18 pM. This indicates the fact that the self-sensing microcantilever approach is beneficial for pathological tests.

Keywords: micromechanical biosensors, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), surface stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
73 Finite Element Analysis of Resonance Frequency Shift of Laminated Composite Beam

Authors: Cheng Yang Kwa, Yoke Rung Wong


Laminated composite materials are widely employed in automotive, aerospace, and other industries. These materials provide distinct benefits due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, and ability to be customized for a specific function. However, delamination of laminated composite materials is one of the main defects which can occur during manufacturing, regular operations, or maintenance. Delamination can bring about considerable internal damage, unobservable by visual check, that causes significant loss in strength and stability, leading to composite structure catastrophic failure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is known to be the automated method for monitoring and evaluating the condition of a monitored object. There are several ways to conduct SHM in aerospace. One of the effective methods is to monitor the natural frequency shift of structure due to the presence of defect. This study investigated the mechanical resonance frequency shift of a multi-layer composite cantilever beam due to interlaminar delamination. ANSYS Workbench® was used to create a 4-plies laminated composite cantilever finite element model with [90/0]s fiber setting. Epoxy Carbon UD (230GPA) Prepreg was chosen, and the thickness was 2.5mm for each ply. The natural frequencies of the finite element model with various degree of delamination were simulated based on modal analysis and then validated by using literature. It was shown that the model without delamination had natural frequency of 40.412 Hz, which was 1.55% different from the calculated result (41.050 Hz). Thereafter, the various degree of delamination was mimicked by changing the frictional conditions at the middle ply-to-ply interface. The results suggested that delamination in the laminated composite cantilever induced a change in its stiffness which alters its mechanical resonance frequency.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, NDT, cantilever, laminate

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72 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari


Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: blade, crack propagation, health monitoring, modal analysis

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71 Non Linear Dynamic Analysis of Cantilever Beam with Breathing Crack Using XFEM

Authors: K. Vigneshwaran, Manoj Pandey


In this paper, breathing crack is considered for the non linear dynamic analysis. The stiffness of the cracked beam is found out by using influence coefficients. The influence coefficients are calculated by using Castigliano’s theorem and strain energy release rate (SERR). The equation of motion of the beam was derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The stiffness and natural frequencies for the cracked beam has been calculated using XFEM and Eigen approach. It is seen that due to presence of cracks, the stiffness and natural frequency changes. The mode shapes and the FRF for the uncracked and breathing cracked cantilever beam also obtained and compared.

Keywords: breathing crack, XFEM, mode shape, FRF, non linear analysis

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70 Design of Rigid L-Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: Ahmed Rouili


Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0,5 to 0,7, ensure the stability requirements in most cases. However, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work, the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: cantilever wall, proportioning, numerical analysis, lateral pressure estimation

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69 Structural Behavior of Incomplete Box Girder Bridges Subjected to Unpredicted Loads

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, J. Razzaghi, K. Kujala


In general, codes and regulations consider seismic loads only for completed structures of the bridges while, evaluation of incomplete structure of bridges, especially those constructed by free cantilever method, under these loads is also of great importance. Hence, this research tried to study the behavior of incomplete structure of common bridge type (box girder bridge), in construction phase under vertical seismic loads. Subsequently, the paper provided suitable guidelines and solutions to withstand this destructive phenomena. Research results proved that use of preventive methods can significantly reduce the stresses resulted from vertical seismic loads in box cross sections to an acceptable range recommended by design codes.

Keywords: box girder bridges, prestress loads, free cantilever method, seismic loads, construction phase

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68 A Micro-Scale of Electromechanical System Micro-Sensor Resonator Based on UNO-Microcontroller for Low Magnetic Field Detection

Authors: Waddah Abdelbagi Talha, Mohammed Abdullah Elmaleeh, John Ojur Dennis


This paper focuses on the simulation and implementation of a resonator micro-sensor for low magnetic field sensing based on a U-shaped cantilever and piezoresistive configuration, which works based on Lorentz force physical phenomena. The resonance frequency is an important parameter that depends upon the highest response and sensitivity through the frequency domain (frequency response) of any vibrated micro-scale of an electromechanical system (MEMS) device. And it is important to determine the direction of the detected magnetic field. The deflection of the cantilever is considered for vibrated mode with different frequencies in the range of (0 Hz to 7000 Hz); for the purpose of observing the frequency response. A simple electronic circuit-based polysilicon piezoresistors in Wheatstone's bridge configuration are used to transduce the response of the cantilever to electrical measurements at various voltages. Microcontroller-based Arduino program and PROTEUS electronic software are used to analyze the output signals from the sensor. The highest output voltage amplitude of about 4.7 mV is spotted at about 3 kHz of the frequency domain, indicating the highest sensitivity, which can be called resonant sensitivity. Based on the resonant frequency value, the mode of vibration is determined (up-down vibration), and based on that, the vector of the magnetic field is also determined.

Keywords: resonant frequency, sensitivity, Wheatstone bridge, UNO-microcontroller

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