Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 963

Search results for: compound parabolic concentrator

963 Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance

Authors: R. Abd-Rahman, M. M. Isa, H. H. Goh

Abstract:

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a well known non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height, H=193.4mm with concentration ratio, C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using ray-tracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.

Keywords: compound parabolic trough concentrator, optical modelling, ray-tracing analysis, improved performance

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962 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Keywords: compound parabolic concentrator, energy, photovoltaic thermal, temperature dependent electrical efficiency

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961 Effects of Concentrator and Encapsulated Phase Change Material for Desalination: An Experimental Study

Authors: Arunkumar Thirugnanasambantham, Velraj Ramalingam

Abstract:

An experimental attempt has been made to study the effect of system integration by two different concentrator assisted desalting systems. The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and compound conical concentrator (CCC) are used in this research work. Two solar desalination systems, the single slope solar still (SSSS) and pyramid solar still (PSS), have been integrated with a CCC and compound parabolic concentrator-concentric circular tubular solar still (CPC-CCTSS). To study the effect of system integration, a thick cloth prevents the entry of sunlight into the solar still top. Additionally, the concentrator assisted desalting systems are equipped with phase change material (PCM) for enhancement. In CCC-SSSS, PCM has been filled inside copper balls and placed on the SSSS basin. The PCM is loaded in the specially designed circular trough of the tubular solar still. Here, the used concentrators and distillers are not the same. Two methodologies are followed here to produce the fresh water even while the distillers are blocked from the sunlight. They are (1) thermosyphon effect in CCC-SSSS and (2) waste heat recovery from CPC-CCTSS. The results showed that the productivity of CCC-SSSS, CCC-SSSS with PCM and CCC-SSSS (PCM) top cover shaded were found as 2680 ml / m² / day, 3240 ml / m² / day, and 1646 ml / m² / day. Similarly, the productivity of the CPC-CCTSS-PSS, CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS and CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS top cover shaded were found as 7160 ml / m² / day, 7346 ml / m² / day, and ml / m² / day. The productivity of the CCC-SSSS and CPC-CCTSS-PSS is examined, and conclusions are drawn such as the solar radiation blocked distillers productivity did not drop to zero.

Keywords: compound conical concentrator, compound parabolic concentrator, desalination, system integration

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960 Performance Evaluation of Conical Solar Concentrator System with Different Flow Rate

Authors: Gwi Hyun Lee, Mun Soo Na

Abstract:

Solar energy has many advantages of infinite and clean source, and also it can be used for reduction of greenhouse gases and environment pollution. Concentrated solar system is a very useful to achieve reasonably high thermal efficiency. Different types of solar concentrating systems have been developed such as parabolic trough and parabolic dish. Conical solar concentrator is one of the most reliable and promising renewable energy systems for higher temperature applications. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of flow rate affecting the thermal efficiency of a conical solar collector, which has a double tube absorber placed at focal axis for collecting solar radiation. A conical solar concentrator consists of a conical reflector, which reflects direct solar radiation into an absorber. A double tube absorber was placed at the center of focal axis for collecting the solar radiation reflected from a conical reflector. A dual tracking system consists of a linear actuator and slew drive with driving cycle of 6 seconds. Water was used as circulating fluid, which flows from inlet to outlet of an absorber for collecting solar radiation. Three identical conical solar concentrator systems were installed side by side at the same place for the accurate performance analysis under the same environmental conditions. Performance evaluations were carried out with different volumetric flow rate of 2, 4 and 6 L/min to find the influence of flow rate affecting on thermal efficiency. The results indicated that average thermal efficiency was 73.24%, 81.96%, and 79.78% for each flow rate of 2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min. It shows that the flow rate of circulating water has a significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conical solar concentrator. It is concluded that an optimum flow rate of conical solar concentrator is 6 L/min.

Keywords: conical solar concentrator, performance evaluation, solar energy, solar energy system

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959 Investigation of Solar Concentrator Prototypes under Tunisian Conditions

Authors: Moncef Balghouthi, Mahmoud Ben Amara, Abdessalem Ben Hadj Ali, Amenallah Guizani

Abstract:

Concentrated solar power technology constitutes an interesting option to meet a part of future energy demand, especially when considering the high levels of solar radiation and clearness index that are available particularly in Tunisia. In this work, we present three experimental prototypes of solar concentrators installed in the research center of energy CRTEn in Tunisia. Two are medium temperature parabolic trough solar collector used to drive a cooling installation and for steam generation. The third is a parabolic dish concentrator used for hybrid generation of thermal and electric power. Optical and thermal evaluations were presented. Solutions and possibilities to construct locally the mirrors of the concentrator were discussed. In addition, the enhancement of the performances of the receivers by nano selective absorption coatings was studied. The improvement of heat transfer between the receiver and the heat transfer fluid was discussed for each application.

Keywords: solar concentrators, optical and thermal evaluations, cooling and process heat, hybrid thermal and electric generation

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958 Electric Power Generation by Thermoelectric Cells and Parabolic Solar Concentrators

Authors: A. Kianifar, M. Afzali, I. Pishbin

Abstract:

In this paper, design details, theoretical analysis and thermal performance analysis of a solar energy concentrator suited to combined heat and thermoelectric power generation are presented. The thermoelectric device is attached to the absorber plate to convert concentrated solar energy directly into electric energy at the focus of the concentrator. A cooling channel (water cooled heat sink) is fitted to the cold side of the thermoelectric device to remove the waste heat and maintain a high temperature gradient across the device to improve conversion efficiency.

Keywords: concentrator thermoelectric generator, CTEG, solar energy, thermoelectric cells

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957 Simulation Modelling of the Transmission of Concentrated Solar Radiation through Optical Fibres to Thermal Application

Authors: M. Rahou, A. J. Andrews, G. Rosengarten

Abstract:

One of the main challenges in high-temperature solar thermal applications transfer concentrated solar radiation to the load with minimum energy loss and maximum overall efficiency. The use of a solar concentrator in conjunction with bundled optical fibres has potential advantages in terms of transmission energy efficiency, technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness compared to a conventional heat transfer system employing heat exchangers and a heat transfer fluid. In this paper, a theoretical and computer simulation method is described to estimate the net solar radiation transmission from a solar concentrator into and through optical fibres to a thermal application at the end of the fibres over distances of up to 100 m. A key input to the simulation is the angular distribution of radiation intensity at each point across the aperture plane of the optical fibre. This distribution depends on the optical properties of the solar concentrator, in this case, a parabolic mirror with a small secondary mirror with a common focal point and a point-focus Fresnel lens to give a collimated beam that pass into the optical fibre bundle. Since solar radiation comprises a broad band of wavelengths with very limited spatial coherence over the full range of spectrum only ray tracing models absorption within the fibre and reflections at the interface between core and cladding is employed, assuming no interference between rays. The intensity of the radiation across the exit plane of the fibre is found by integrating across all directions and wavelengths. Results of applying the simulation model to a parabolic concentrator and point-focus Fresnel lens with typical optical fibre bundle will be reported, to show how the energy transmission varies with the length of fibre.

Keywords: concentrated radiation, fibre bundle, parabolic dish, fresnel lens, transmission

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956 An Investigation of System and Operating Parameters on the Performance of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Power Generation

Authors: Umesh Kumar Sinha, Y. K. Nayak, N. Kumar, Swapnil Saurav, Monika Kashyap

Abstract:

The authors investigate the effect of system and operating parameters on the performance of high temperature solar concentrator for power generation. The effects of system and operating parameters were investigated using the developed mathematical expressions for collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature and power, etc. The results were simulated using C++program. The simulated results were plotted for investigation like effect of thermal loss parameter and radiative loss parameters on the collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature, rise of temperature and effect of mass flow rate of the fluid outlet temperature. In connection with the power generation, plots were drawn for the effect of (TM–TAMB) on the variation of concentration efficiency, concentrator irradiance on PM/PMN, evaporation temperature on thermal to electric power efficiency (Conversion efficiency) of the plant and overall efficiency of solar power plant.

Keywords: parabolic trough solar collector, radiative and thermal loss parameters, collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet and inlet temperatures, rise of temperature, mass flow rate, conversion efficiency, concentrator irradiance

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955 A Model-Based Approach for Energy Performance Assessment of a Spherical Stationary Reflector/Tracking Absorber Solar Concentrator

Authors: Rosa Christodoulaki, Irene Koronaki, Panagiotis Tsekouras

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the energy performance of a spherical Stationary Reflector / Tracking Absorber (SRTA) solar concentrator. This type of collector consists of a segment of a spherical mirror placed in a stationary position facing the sun and a cylindrical absorber that tracks the sun by a simple pivoting motion about the center of curvature of the reflector. The energy analysis is performed through the development of a dynamic simulation model in TRNSYS software that calculates the annual heat production and the efficiency of the SRTA solar concentrator. The effect of solar concentrator design features and characteristics, such the reflector material, the reflector diameter, the receiver type, the solar radiation level and the concentration ratio, are discussed in details. Moreover, the energy performance curve of the SRTA solar concentrator, for various temperature differences between the mean fluid temperature and the ambient temperature and radiation intensities is drawn. The results are shown in diagrams, visualizing the effect of solar, optical and thermal parameters to the overall performance of the SRTA solar concentrator throughout the year. The analysis indicates that the SRTA solar concentrator can operate efficiently under a wide range of operating conditions.

Keywords: concentrating solar collector, energy analysis , stationary reflector, tracking absorber

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954 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

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953 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: parabolic trough collector, reflectors, air flow rates, solar power, aluminum sheet

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952 Highly Concentrated Photo Voltaic using Multi-Junction Concentrator Cell

Authors: Oriahi Love Ndidi

Abstract:

High concentration photovoltaic promises a more efficient, higher power output than traditional photovoltaic modules. One of the driving forces of this high system efficiency has been the continuous improvement of III-V multi-junction solar cell efficiencies. Multi-junction solar cells built from III-V semiconductors are being evaluated globally in concentrated photovoltaic systems designed to supplement electricity generation for utility companies. The high efficiency of this III-V multi-junction concentrator cells, with demonstrated efficiency over 40 percent since 2006, strongly reduces the cost of concentrated photovoltaic systems, and makes III-V multi-junction cells the technology of choice for most concentrator systems today.

Keywords: cost of multi-junction solar cell, efficiency, photovoltaic systems, reliability

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951 An Approach to Solving Some Inverse Problems for Parabolic Equations

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Aliya S. Azhibekova

Abstract:

Problems concerning the interpretation of the well testing results belong to the class of inverse problems of subsurface hydromechanics. The distinctive feature of such problems is that additional information is depending on the capabilities of oilfield experiments. Another factor that should not be overlooked is the existence of errors in the test data. To determine reservoir properties, some inverse problems for parabolic equations were investigated. An approach to solving the inverse problems based on the method of regularization is proposed.

Keywords: iterative approach, inverse problem, parabolic equation, reservoir properties

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950 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

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949 Study on the Stability of Large Space Expandable Parabolic Cylindrical Antenna

Authors: Chuanzhi Chen, Wenjing Yu

Abstract:

Parabolic cylindrical deployable antenna has the characteristics of wide cutting width, strong directivity, high gain, and easy automatic beam scanning. While, due to its large size, high flexibility, and strong coupling, the deployment process of parabolic cylindrical deployable antenna presents such problems as unsynchronized deployment speed, large local deformation and discontinuous switching of deployment state. A large deployable parabolic cylindrical antenna is taken as the research object, and the problem of unfolding process instability of cylindrical antenna is studied in the paper, which is caused by multiple factors such as multiple closed loops, elastic deformation, motion friction, and gap collision. Firstly, the multi-flexible system dynamics model of large-scale parabolic cylindrical antenna is established to study the influence of friction and elastic deformation on the stability of large multi-closed loop antenna. Secondly, the evaluation method of antenna expansion stability is studied, and the quantitative index of antenna configuration design is proposed to provide a theoretical basis for improving the overall performance of the antenna. Finally, through simulation analysis and experiment, the development dynamics and stability of large-scale parabolic cylindrical antennas are verified by in-depth analysis, and the principles for improving the stability of antenna deployment are summarized.

Keywords: multibody dynamics, expandable parabolic cylindrical antenna, stability, flexible deformation

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948 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: phase formation, binary systems, interfacial reaction, diffusion, compound layers, growth kinetics

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947 Numerical Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Authors: Alibakhsh Kasaeian, Mohammad Sameti, Zahra Noori, Mona Rastgoo Bahambari

Abstract:

Nowadays, the parabolic trough solar collector technology has become the most promising large-scale technology among various solar thermal generations. In this paper, a detailed numerical heat transfer model for a parabolic trough collector with nanofluid is presented based on the finite difference approach for which a MATLAB code was developed. The model was used to simulate the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector’s linear receiver, called a heat collector element (HCE). In this model, the heat collector element of the receiver was discretized into several segments in axial directions and energy balances were used for each control volume. All the heat transfer correlations, the thermodynamic equations and the optical properties were considered in details and the set of algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using iterative numerical solutions. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, numerical analysis, trough

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
946 Polygeneration Solar Air Drying

Authors: Binoy Chandra Sarma, S. K. Deb

Abstract:

Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study. Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study.

Keywords: dryer, polygeneration, moisture, equilibrium, humidity

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945 Polygeneration Solar Thermal System

Authors: S. K. Deb, B. C. Sarma

Abstract:

The concentrating solar thermal devices using low cost thin metallic reflector sheet of moderate reflectance can generate heat both at higher temperature for the receiver at it’s focus and at moderate temperature through direct solar irradiative heat absorption by the reflector sheet itself. Investigation on well insulated rear surface of the concentrator with glass covers at it’s aperture plane for waste heat recovery against the conventional radiative, convective & conductive heat losses for a bench model with a thermal analysis is the prime motivation of this study along with an effort to popularize a compact solar thermal polygeneration system.

Keywords: concentrator, polygeneration, aperture, renewable energy, exergy, solar energy

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944 Quintic Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Parabolic Equations Arising in Beam Theory

Authors: Reza Mohammadi, Mahdieh Sahebi

Abstract:

We develop a method based on polynomial quintic spline for numerical solution of fourth-order non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation with variable coefficient. By using polynomial quintic spline in off-step points in space and finite difference in time directions, we obtained two three level implicit methods. Stability analysis of the presented method has been carried out. We solve four test problems numerically to validate the derived method. Numerical comparison with other methods shows the superiority of presented scheme.

Keywords: fourth-order parabolic equation, variable coefficient, polynomial quintic spline, off-step points

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
943 Design and Fabrication of a Parabolic trough Collector and Experimental Investigation of Direct Steam Production in Tehran

Authors: M. Bidi, H. Akhbari, S. Eslami, A. Bakhtiari

Abstract:

Due to the high potential of solar energy utilization in Iran, development of related technologies is of great necessity. Linear parabolic collectors are among the most common and most efficient means to harness the solar energy. The main goal of this paper is design and construction of a parabolic trough collector to produce hot water and steam in Tehran. To provide precise and practical plans, 3D models of the collector under consideration were developed using Solidworks software. This collector was designed in a way that the tilt angle can be adjusted manually. To increase concentraion ratio, a small diameter absorber tube is selected and to enhance solar absorbtion, a shape of U-tube is used. One of the outstanding properties of this collector is its simple design and use of low cost metal and plastic materials in its manufacturing procedure. The collector under consideration was installed in Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran and the values of solar irradiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and collector steam production rate were measured in different days and hours of July. Results revealed that a 1×2 m parabolic trough collector located in Tehran is able to produce steam by the rate of 300ml/s under the condition of atmospheric pressure and without using a vacuum cover over the absorber tube.

Keywords: desalination, parabolic trough collector, direct steam production, solar water heater, design and construction

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942 Finite Time Blow-Up and Global Solutions for a Semilinear Parabolic Equation with Linear Dynamical Boundary Conditions

Authors: Xu Runzhang, Yang Yanbing, Niu Yi, Zhang Mingyou, Liu Yu

Abstract:

For a class of semilinear parabolic equations with linear dynamical boundary conditions in a bounded domain, we obtain both global solutions and finite time blow-up solutions when the initial data varies in the phase space H1(Ω). Our main tools are the comparison principle, the potential well method and the concavity method. In particular, we discuss the behavior of the solutions with the initial data at critical and high energy level.

Keywords: high energy level, critical energy level, linear dynamical boundary condition, semilinear parabolic equation

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941 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee

Abstract:

Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

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940 Research on Configuration of Large-Scale Linear Array Feeder Truss Parabolic Cylindrical Antenna of Satellite

Authors: Chen Chuanzhi, Guo Yunyun

Abstract:

The large linear array feeding parabolic cylindrical antenna of the satellite has the ability of large-area line focusing, multi-directional beam clusters simultaneously in a certain azimuth plane and elevation plane, corresponding quickly to different orientations and different directions in a wide frequency range, dual aiming of frequency and direction, and combining space power. Therefore, the large-diameter parabolic cylindrical antenna has become one of the new development directions of spaceborne antennas. Limited by the size of the rocked fairing, the large-diameter spaceborne antenna is required to be small mass and have a deployment function. After being orbited, the antenna can be deployed by expanding and be stabilized. However, few types of structures can be used to construct large cylindrical shell structures in existing structures, which greatly limits the development and application of such antennas. Aiming at high structural efficiency, the geometrical characteristics of parabolic cylinders and mechanism topological mapping law to the expandable truss are studied, and the basic configuration of deployable truss with cylindrical shell is structured. Then a modular truss parabolic cylindrical antenna is designed in this paper. The antenna has the characteristics of stable structure, high precision of reflecting surface formation, controllable motion process, high storage rate, and lightweight, etc. On the basis of the overall configuration comprehensive theory and optimization method, the structural stiffness of the modular truss parabolic cylindrical antenna is improved. And the bearing density and impact resistance of support structure are improved based on the internal tension optimal distribution method of reflector forming. Finally, a truss-type cylindrical deployable support structure with high constriction-deployment ratio, high stiffness, controllable deployment, and low mass is successfully developed, laying the foundation for the application of large-diameter parabolic cylindrical antennas in satellite antennas.

Keywords: linear array feed antenna, truss type, parabolic cylindrical antenna, spaceborne antenna

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939 Quintic Spline Method for Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Reza Mohammadi, Mahdieh Sahebi

Abstract:

We develop a method based on polynomial quintic spline for numerical solution of fourth-order non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation with variable coefficient. By using polynomial quintic spline in off-step points in space and finite difference in time directions, we obtained two three level implicit methods. Stability analysis of the presented method has been carried out. We solve four test problems numerically to validate the proposed derived method. Numerical comparison with other existence methods shows the superiority of our presented scheme.

Keywords: fourth-order parabolic equation, variable coefficient, polynomial quintic spline, off-step points, stability analysis

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938 Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects

Authors: Defne Akay, Bekir S. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.

Keywords: coulomb impurity, graphene cones, graphene quantum dots, topological defects

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937 Energy Dynamics of Solar Thermionic Power Conversion with Emitter of Graphene

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip K. De, Moses Emetere, Omoje Maxwell

Abstract:

Graphene can stand very high temperature up to 4500 K in vacuum and has potential for application in thermionic energy converter. In this paper, we discuss the application of energy dynamics principles and the modified Richardson-Dushman Equation, to estimate the efficiency of solar power conversion to electrical power by a solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) containing emitter made of graphene. We present detailed simulation of power output for different solar insolation, diameter of parabolic concentrator, area of the graphene emitter (same as that of the collector), temperature of the collector, physical dimensions of the emitter-collector etc. After discussing possible methods of reduction or elimination of space charge problem using magnetic field and gate, we finally discuss relative advantages of using emitters made of graphene, carbon nanotube and metals respectively in a STEC.

Keywords: graphene, high temperature, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, solar thermionic energy converter

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936 Measure-Valued Solutions to a Class of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Degenerate Coercivity and Singular Initial Data

Authors: Flavia Smarrazzo

Abstract:

Initial-boundary value problems for nonlinear parabolic equations having a Radon measure as initial data have been widely investigated, looking for solutions which for positive times take values in some function space. On the other hand, if the diffusivity degenerates too fast at infinity, it is well known that function-valued solutions may not exist, singularities may persist, and it looks very natural to consider solutions which, roughly speaking, for positive times describe an orbit in the space of the finite Radon measures. In this general framework, our purpose is to introduce a concept of measure-valued solution which is consistent with respect to regularizing and smoothing approximations, in order to develop an existence theory which does not depend neither on the level of degeneracy of diffusivity at infinity nor on the choice of the initial measures. In more detail, we prove existence of suitably defined measure-valued solutions to the homogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations without strong coerciveness. Moreover, we also discuss some qualitative properties of the constructed solutions concerning the evolution of their singular part, including conditions (depending both on the initial data and on the strength of degeneracy) under which the constructed solutions are in fact unction-valued or not.

Keywords: degenerate parabolic equations, measure-valued solutions, Radon measures, young measures

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935 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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934 Design and Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Generating Electricity

Authors: A. A. A. Aboalnour, Ahmed M. Amasaib, Mohammed-Almujtaba A. Mohammed-Farah, Abdelhakam, A. Noreldien

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTC). Mathematical models were used in this work to find the direct and reflected solar radiation from the air layer on the surface of the earth per hour based on the total daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Also mathematical models had been used to calculate the radiation of the tilted surfaces. Most of the ingredients used in this project as previews data required on several solar energy applications, thermal simulation, and solar power systems. In addition, mathematical models had been used to study the flow of the fluid inside the tube (receiver), and study the effect of direct and reflected solar radiation on the pressure, temperature, speed, kinetic energy and forces of fluid inside the tube. Finally, the mathematical models had been used to study the (PTC) performances and estimate its thermal efficiency.

Keywords: CFD, experimental, mathematical models, parabolic trough, radiation

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