Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: tablet

107 Investigating Students’ Acceptance Perception Level of Tablet PCs by a Variety of Variables

Authors: Baris Sezer

Abstract:

A great number of projects have been implemented by Turkey in order to integrate technologies into education. The FATİH Project is intended to integrate technology into all levels of education in Turkey. As part of the FATİH Project that is aimed to complete in 2016, it is intended to initially deliver a tablet PC to every student and teacher. We aimed to detect grade 9 students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs during the 2014 – 2015 school year in this study where quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques were used in combination. The study group consisted of 228 grade 9 students of high schools in Istanbul, Ankara, Zonguldak and Bursa in Turkey. Study data was obtained through the “Tablet PC Acceptance Scale” and structured interview forms. Given the results obtained from the study, the mean overall score was 70.08 (3.72 out of 5), which was derived from all the dimensions of the acceptance perception level of tablet PCs in the students’ view. Findings of the study indicate that mean scores for students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs did not differ by their gender and their level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Focus group interviews with students suggest that students did not effectively and actively use the tablet PCs; instead they used the interactive board during classes.

Keywords: acceptance of technology, student’s view, FATIH project, tablet PCs

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106 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
105 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
104 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
103 Optimizing Performance of Tablet's Direct Compression Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie

Abstract:

This paper aims at improving the performance of the tableting process using statistical quality control and fuzzy goal programming. The tableting process was studied. Statistical control tools were used to characterize the existing process for three critical responses including the averages of a tablet’s weight, hardness, and thickness. At initial process factor settings, the estimated process capability index values for the tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were 0.58, 3.36, and 0.88, respectively. The L9 array was utilized to provide experimentation design. Fuzzy goal programming was then employed to find the combination of optimal factor settings. Optimization results showed that the process capability index values for a tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were improved to 1.03, 4.42, and 1.42, respectively. Such improvements resulted in significant savings in quality and production costs.

Keywords: fuzzy goal programming, control charts, process capability, tablet optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
102 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

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101 Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone

Authors: K. Shimazaki, M. Mishina, A. Fujii

Abstract:

In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.

Keywords: hazard perception, smartphone, tablet devices, driver education

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
100 Performance Comparison of Tablet Devices and Medical Diagnostic Display Devices Using Digital Object Patterns in PACS Environment

Authors: Yan-Lin Liu, Cheng-Ting Shih, Jay Wu

Abstract:

Tablet devices have been introduced into the medical environment in recent years. The performance of display can be varied based on the use of different hardware specifications and types of display technologies. Therefore, the differences between tablet devices and medical diagnostic LCDs have to be verified to ensure that image quality is not jeopardized for clinical diagnosis in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In this study, a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) were developed, which included randomly located spheres in abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were asked to independently review the CT images on different generations of iPads and a diagnostic monochrome medical LCD monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed by using a five-point rating scale, and the average area under curve (AUC) and average reading time (ART) were calculated. The AUC values for the second generation iPad, iPad mini, iPad Air, and monochrome medical monitor were 0.712, 0.717, 0.725, and 0.740, respectively. The differences between iPads were not significant. The ARTs were 177 min and 127 min for iPad mini and medical LCD monitor, respectively. A significant difference appeared (p = 0.04). The results show that the iPads were slightly inferior to the monochrome medical LCD monitor. However, tablet devices possess advantages in portability and versatility, which can improve the convenience of rapid diagnosis and teleradiology. With advances in display technology, the applicability of tablet devices and mobile devices may be more diversified in PACS.

Keywords: tablet devices, PACS, receiver operating characteristic, LCD monitor

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99 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

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Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

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98 Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablet of Ketorolac Tromethamine by Using Natural Superdisintegrants

Authors: J. P. Lavande, A. V.Chandewar

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Mouth dissolving tablet is the speedily growing and highly accepted drug delivery system. This study was aimed at development of Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablet (MDTs), which can disintegrate or dissolve rapidly once placed in the mouth. Conventional Ketorolac tromethamine tablet requires water to swallow it and has limitation like low disintegration rate, low solubility etc. Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablets (formulation) consist of super-disintegrate like Heat Modified Karaya Gum, Co-treated Heat Modified Agar & Filler microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, hardness, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro drug release profile, content uniformity. The obtained results showed that low weight variation, good hardness, acceptable friability, fast wetting time. Tablets in all batches disintegrated within 15-50 sec. The formulation containing superdisintegrants namely heat modified karaya gum and heat modified agar showed better performance in disintegration and drug release profile.

Keywords: mouth dissolving tablet, Ketorolac tromethamine, disintegration time, heat modified karaya gum, co-treated heat modified agar

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
97 Optimization of Moisture Content for Highest Tensile Strength of Instant Soluble Milk Tablet and Flowability of Milk Powder

Authors: Siddharth Vishwakarma, Danie Shajie A., Mishra H. N.

Abstract:

Milk powder becomes very useful in the low milk supply area but the exact amount to add for one glass of milk and the handling is difficult. So, the idea of instant soluble milk tablet comes into existence for its high solubility and easy handling. The moisture content of milk tablets is increased by the direct addition of water with no additives for binding. The variation of the tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and the flowability of milk powder with the moisture content is analyzed and optimized for the highest tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and flowability, above a particular value of milk powder using response surface methodology. The flowability value is necessary for ease in quantifying the milk powder, as a feed, in the designed tablet making machine. The instant soluble nature of milk tablets purely depends upon the disintegration characteristic of tablets in water whose study is under progress. Conclusions: The optimization results are very useful in the commercialization of milk tablets.

Keywords: flowability, milk powder, response surface methodology, tablet making machine, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
96 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Gliclazide, hypromellose, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
95 Usability Testing with Children: BatiKids Case Study

Authors: Hestiasari Rante, Leonardo De Araújo, Heidi Schelhowe

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Usability testing with children is similar in many aspects to usability testing with adults. However, there are a few differences that one needs to be aware of in order to get the most out of the sessions, and to ensure that children are comfortable and enjoying the process. This paper presents the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing, with consideration on Piaget’s theory of cognitive growth. As a case study, we use BatiKids, an application developed to evoke children’s enthusiasm to be involved in culture heritage preservation. The usability test was applied to 24 children from 9 to 10 years old. The children were divided into two groups; one interacted with the application through a graphic tablet with pen, and the other through touch screen. Both of the groups had to accomplish the same amount of tasks. In the end, children were asked to give feedback. The results suggested that children who interacted using the graphic tablet with pen had more difficulties rather than children who interacted through touch screen. However, the difficulty brought by the graphic tablet with pen is an important learning objective in order to understand the difficulties of using canting, which is an important part of batik.

Keywords: batikids, children, child-computer interaction, usability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
94 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquin Salvachua, Juan Quemada

Abstract:

Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced costs and size while at the same time has increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures of a course in our university called “Communications Software”. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: recording system, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
93 Tablet Computer Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program, Injini, for Children with Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng

Abstract:

Cognitive impairment is commonly encountered problem in children with various clinical diseases, including Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, brain injury, and others. Cognitive impairment limits participation in education and society, and this further hinders development in cognition. However, young children with cognitive impairment tend not to respond well to traditional cognitive treatments, therefore alternative treatment choices are need. As a cognitive training program, touch screen technology can easily be applied to very young children by involving visual and auditory support. Injini was developed as tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program for young children or individuals with severe cognitive impairment, which targeted on cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for children with cognitive impairment. 38 children between cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months confirmed by cognitive evaluations were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=20) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group received tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for 30 minutes per session, twice a week, over a period of 12 weeks, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation program. The control group received traditional rehabilitation program only. Mental score of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of therapeutic intervention. When comparing the baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the measurements of cognitive function. After 12 weeks of treatment, both group showed improvements in all measurements. However, in comparison of improvements after treatment, the intervention group showed more improvements in the mental score of BSID II, social function domain of PEDI, observation domain of Lab-TAB, and GAS, as compared to the control group. Application of the tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) would be beneficial for improvement of cognitive function in young children with cognitive impairment.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, computer-assisted therapy, early intervention, tablets

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
92 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

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This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
91 Sustained-Release Persulfate Tablets for Groundwater Remediation

Authors: Yu-Chen Chang, Yen-Ping Peng, Wei-Yu Chen, Ku-Fan Chen

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Contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious and widespread environmental problem. In this study, sustained-release persulfate tablets were developed using persulfate powder and a modified cellulose binder for organic-contaminated groundwater remediation. Conventional cement-based persulfate-releasing materials were also synthesized for the comparison. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the release rates of the remedial tablets; (2) obtain the optimal formulas of the tablets; and (3) evaluate the effects of the tablets on the subsurface environment. The results of batch experiments show that the optimal parameter for the preparation of the persulfate-releasing tablet was persulfate:cellulose = 1:1 (wt:wt) with a 5,000 kg F/cm2 of pressure application. The cellulose-based persulfate tablet was able to release 2,030 mg/L of persulfate per day for 10 days. Compared to cement-based persulfate-releasing materials, the persulfate release rates of the cellulose-based persulfate tablets were much more stable. Moreover, since the tablets are soluble in water, no waste will be produced in the subsurface. The results of column tests show that groundwater flow would shorten the release time of the tablets. This study successfully developed unique persulfate tablets based on green remediation perspective. The efficacy of the persulfate-releasing tablets on the removal of organic pollutants needs to be further evaluated. The persulfate tablets are expected to be applied for site remediation in the future.

Keywords: sustained-release persulfate tablet, modified cellulose, green remediation, groundwater

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90 RP-HPLC Method Development and Its Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil Combination in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

Authors: S. Jain, R. Savalia, V. Saini

Abstract:

A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in bulk and tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC method has shown adequate separation for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil from its degradation products. The separation was achieved on a Phenomenex luna ODS C18 (250mm X 4.6mm i.d., 5μm particle size) with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 50mM phosphate buffer pH 4.0 adjusted with glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 55:45 v/v. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min, Injection volume 20μl and wavelength of detection was kept at 225nm. The retention time for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil was 2.451±0.1min and 6.167±0.1min, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 5-50μg/ml and 2-20μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.9996 for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.2847μg/ml and 0.1251μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively and the limit of quantification was 0.8630μg/ml and 0.3793μg/ml for Metoprolol and Olmesartan, respectively. Proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness for estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory. Thus the developed and validated stability indicating method can be used successfully for marketed formulations.

Keywords: metoprolol succinate, olmesartan medoxomil, RP-HPLC method, validation, ICH

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89 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting, Venkata Srikanth Meka

Abstract:

The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: atenolol, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, ethyl cellulose

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88 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
87 Dimensionless Binding Values in the Evaluation of Paracetamol Tablet Formulation

Authors: Abayomi T. Ogunjimi, Gbenga Alebiowu

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Mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets containing Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum were compared with standard Acacia gum BP as binder. Two dimensionless binding quantities BEN and BEC were used in assessing the influence of binder type on two mechanical properties, Tensile Strength (TS) and Brittle Fracture Index (BFI). The two quantities were also used to assess the influence of relative density and binder concentration on TS and BFI as well as compare Binding Efficiencies (BE). The result shows that TS is dependent on relative density, binder type and binder concentration while BFI is dependent on the binder type and binder concentration; and that although, the inclusion of NMG in a paracetamol tablet formulation may not enhance the TS of the tablets produced, however it will decrease the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate. This work concludes that BEN may be useful in quantitative assessment while BEC may be appropriate for qualitative assessment.

Keywords: binding efficiency, brittle fracture index, dimensionless binding, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
86 Examining the Effects of Increasing Lexical Retrieval Attempts in Tablet-Based Naming Therapy for Aphasia

Authors: Jeanne Gallee, Sofia Vallila-Rohter

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Technology-based applications are increasingly being utilized in aphasia rehabilitation as a means of increasing intensity of treatment and improving accessibility to treatment. These interactive therapies, often available on tablets, lead individuals to complete language and cognitive rehabilitation tasks that draw upon skills such as the ability to name items, recognize semantic features, count syllables, rhyme, and categorize objects. Tasks involve visual and auditory stimulus cues and provide feedback about the accuracy of a person’s response. Research has begun to examine the efficacy of tablet-based therapies for aphasia, yet much remains unknown about how individuals interact with these therapy applications. Thus, the current study aims to examine the efficacy of a tablet-based therapy program for anomia, further examining how strategy training might influence the way that individuals with aphasia engage with and benefit from therapy. Individuals with aphasia are enrolled in one of two treatment paradigms: traditional therapy or strategy therapy. For ten weeks, all participants receive 2 hours of weekly in-house therapy using Constant Therapy, a tablet-based therapy application. Participants are provided with iPads and are additionally encouraged to work on therapy tasks for one hour a day at home (home logins). For those enrolled in traditional therapy, in-house sessions involve completing therapy tasks while a clinician researcher is present. For those enrolled in the strategy training group, in-house sessions focus on limiting cue use in order to maximize lexical retrieval attempts and naming opportunities. The strategy paradigm is based on the principle that retrieval attempts may foster long-term naming gains. Data have been collected from 7 participants with aphasia (3 in the traditional therapy group, 4 in the strategy training group). We examine cue use, latency of responses and accuracy through the course of therapy, comparing results across group and setting (in-house sessions vs. home logins).

Keywords: aphasia, speech-language pathology, traumatic brain injury, language

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
85 Formulation and In vivo Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Long Acting Tablet

Authors: Abdulwahhab Khedr, Tamer Shehata, Hanaa El-Ghamry

Abstract:

Venlafaxine HCl is a novel antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Conventional therapeutic regimens with venlafaxine HCl immediate-release dosage forms require frequent dosing due to short elimination half-life of the drug and reduced bioavailability. Hence, this study was carried out to develop sustained-release dosage forms of venlafaxine HCl to reduce its dosing frequency, to improve patient compliance and to reduce side effects of the drug. The polymers used were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbopol 940 and ethyl cellulose. The physical properties of the prepared tablets including tablet thickness, diameter, weight uniformity, content uniformity, hardness and friability were evaluated. Also, the in-vitro release of venlafaxine HCl from different matrix tablets was studied. Based on physical characters and in-vitro release profiles, certain formulae showing promising sustained-release profiles were subjected to film coating with 15% w/v EC in dichloromethane/ethanol mixture (1:1 ratio) using 1% w/v HPMC as pore former and 30% w/w dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer. The optimized formulations were investigated for drug-excipient compatibility using FTIR and DSC studies. Physical evaluation of the prepared tablets fulfilled the pharmacopoeial requirements for tablet friability test, where the weight loss of the prepared formulae did not exceed 1% of the weight of the tested tablets. Moderate release was obtained from tablets containing HPMC. FTIR and DSC studies for such formulae revealed the absence of any type of chemical interaction between venlafaxine HCl and the used polymers or excipients. Forced swimming test in rats was used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of the selected matrix tablets of venlafaxine HCl. Results showed that formulations significantly decreased the duration of animals’ immobility during the 24 hr-period of the test compared to non-treated group.

Keywords: antidepressant, sustained-release, matrix tablet, venlafaxine hydrochloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
84 Nacre Deposition Rate in Japanese and Hybrid Mother Oysters, Pinctada Fucata, and Its Relationship with Their Respective Pearls

Authors: Gunawan Muhammad, Takashi Atsumi, Akira Komaru

Abstract:

Pinctada fucata has been the most important pearl culture species in Japan and known as Japanese Akoya Pearl Oyster. However, during summer 1994, mass mortality devastated pearl culture in most parts of Japan. Therefore, pearl farmers started to import Chinese Pearl Oysters from Hainan Island that came from the same species because they are believed to be more resistant towards high water temperature, despite their lack of ability in producing high-quality pearls. The local farmers were then hybridized Japanese and Chinese pearl oysters and currently known as Hybrid pearl oysters, as an attempt to produce a new oyster's strain which is more resistant towards high temperature but also able to produce higher quality pearls. However, despite both strains were implanted by mantle tissues from the same group of donors, the thickness of pearl nacre produced by both strains was different, even though tablet thickness shows a rather similar pattern. Hence, this leads to a question of whether mother oysters play a major role in both nacre deposition rate and tablet thickness of pearls or not. This study first describes the nacre deposition rate of the shells of Japanese and Hybrid mother oysters towards the water temperature condition in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Later, a comparative study was conducted among 4 shell positions that had been chosen according to the mantle tissue location and shell growth directions. A correlative study was then taken between shells and pearls nacre deposition rate to know whether mother oyster ability in depositing nacre on their shells is related to that of pearls. All the four shell positions were significantly different in shell nacre growth rate (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.05), and the third position have faster nacre growth among the other three both in Japanese and Hybrid strains, especially in warm temperature. The ability to deposit nacre between Japanese and Hybrid during warm water conditions (August and September) is also significantly different in almost all positions (Mann Whitney U, p-value < 0.01), Japanese oyster growth faster than Hybrid in all four positions. This leads to a different total growth among the two strains and a higher possibility of thicker nacre thickness in Japanese shell nacre. Tablet thickness is significantly different among all positions of shells (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.01), the 2nd position deposited rather thinner tablet thickness than the other three, including on the 6th month of culture which is more desirable in producing pearls with good luster. This result gives us new information that pearl growth rate is highly affected by the mother oysters; however, nacre tablet thickness might be the result of the shell matrix expressed by different mantle position from donor oysters.

Keywords: nacre, deposition, biomineralization, pearl aquaculture, pearl oyster, Akoya pearl, pearl

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83 A Design-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Learning System

Authors: Martina Holenko Dlab, Natasa Hoic-Bozic, Ivica Boticki

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This paper presents technologically innovative and scalable mobile learning solution within the SCOLLAm project (“Opening up education through Seamless and COLLAborative mobile learning on tablet computers”). The main research method applied during the development of the SCOLLAm mobile learning system is design-based research. It assumes iterative refinement of the system guided by collaboration between researches and practitioners. Following the identification of requirements, a multiplatform mobile learning system SCOLLAm [in]Form was developed. Several experiments were designed and conducted in the first and second grade of elementary school. SCOLLAm [in]Form system was used to design learning activities for math classes during which students practice calculation. System refinements were based on experience and interaction data gathered during class observations. In addition to implemented improvements, the data were used to outline possible improvements and deficiencies of the system that should be addressed in the next phase of the SCOLLAm [in]Form development.

Keywords: adaptation, collaborative learning, educational technology, mobile learning, tablet computers

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82 Impact of Tablet Based Learning on Continuous Assessment (ESPRIT Smart School Framework)

Authors: Mehdi Attia, Sana Ben Fadhel, Lamjed Bettaieb

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Mobile technology has become a part of our daily lives and assist learners (despite their level and age) in their leaning process using various apparatus and mobile devices (laptop, tablets, etc.). This paper presents a new learning framework based on tablets. This solution has been developed and tested in ESPRIT “Ecole Supérieure Privée d’Igénieurie et de Technologies”, a Tunisian school of engineering. This application is named ESSF: Esprit Smart School Framework. In this work, the main features of the proposed solution are listed, particularly its impact on the learners’ evaluation process. Learner’s assessment has always been a critical component of the learning process as it measures students’ knowledge. However, traditional evaluation methods in which the learner is evaluated once or twice each year cannot reflect his real level. This is why a continuous assessment (CA) process becomes necessary. In this context we have proved that ESSF offers many important features that enhance and facilitate the implementation of the CA process.

Keywords: continuous assessment, mobile learning, tablet based learning, smart school, ESSF

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81 Formulation Development, Process Optimization and Comparative study of Poorly Compressible Drugs Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen Using Direct Compression and Top Spray Granulation Technique

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

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Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression and top spray granulation technique. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimized formulation, nine different formulations were generated among them batch F7, F8, F9 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of dissolution study. Furtherly, directly compressible granules of both drugs were prepared by using top spray granulation technique in fluidized bed processor equipment and compressed .In order to obtain best product process optimization was carried out by performing four trials in which various parameters like inlet air temperature, spray rate, peristaltic pump rpm, % LOD, properties of granules, blending time and hardness were optimized. Batch T3 coined as optimized batch on the basis physical & chemical evaluation. Finally formulations prepared by both techniques were compared.

Keywords: direct compression, top spray granulation, process optimization, blending time

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80 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili

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Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, poisoning, phosphine gas

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79 Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Resource Constrained Mobile Devices: Comparison and Analysis

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

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Cloud storage is a model of online data storage where data is stored in virtualized pool of servers hosted by third parties (CSPs) and located in different geographical locations. Cloud storage revolutionized the way how users access their data online anywhere, anytime and using any device as a tablet, mobile, laptop, etc. A lot of issues as vendor lock-in, frequent service outage, data loss and performance related issues exist in single cloud storage systems. So to evade these issues, the concept of multi cloud storage introduced. There are a lot of multi cloud storage systems exists in the market for mobile devices. In this article, we are providing comparison of four multi cloud storage systems for mobile devices Otixo, Unclouded, Cloud Fuze, and Clouds and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, battery consumption, time consumption and data usage parameters on three mobile phones Nexus 5, Moto G and Nexus 7 tablet and using Wi-Fi network. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.

Keywords: cloud storage, multi cloud storage, vendor lock-in, mobile devices, mobile cloud computing

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78 The Effects of Spirulina (Spiruvit Supplement) on Healthy Weight Control

Authors: F. Berahmandpour, K. Bagheri

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Introduction: Spirulina is nutritious blue - green algae which are used as supplement or a preservative in many foods. The studies about the algae argue that the Spirulina can improve immune system, increase fat utilization, reduce oxidative stress and promote endurance at high-intensity exercise. The purpose of study is to assess the effects of Spirulina supplement on healthy weight control. Method: the study is a cross-sectional study which had 30 participants. The participants were men and women who referred to the nutrition and diet therapy clinic (in west of Tehran / Iran) for control weight. The sampling was a purposeful sampling. The participants were divided into three groups, and they were surveyed for 4 weeks. In the first group, 10 participants were used Spirulia supplement (dose: 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) without any special diet. The second group was 10 participants who received Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with a weight loss exercise program and without any special diet. The third group was 10 participants who used Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with an optimum weight loss diet. Results and Discussion: The results show that there were not any significant loss weights in first group. In while, the participants of second group argued that the Spirulina supplement had positive effects on their mud and physical body; however the clinical results showed that the loss weight had fixed tilt in this group. The significant results of study were related to the third group, because the participations could continuous loss weight during 4 weeks. However, the optimum weight loss diets were effective effects on weight loss in this group, but the researchers found that Spirulina supplement could improve loss weight with set of hormonal system (especially in women with menopause). Conclusion: The study is concluded that the Spirulina as a supplement (Spiruvit Supplement) can be an effective effect on healthy weight control, if it is used with a nutritious healthy weight loss diet. In fact, the effect of Spirulina can be related to powerful antioxidant effects and improvable hormonal system in the body.

Keywords: diet, healthy weight control, spirulina, spiruvit supplement

Procedia PDF Downloads 213