Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1491

Search results for: Dinesh Kumar Shukla

1491 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra


Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

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1490 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar


Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.


Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1489 Successful Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Natural and Synthetic Support and Its Reaction on Ethanol

Authors: Hiral D. Trivedi, Dinesh S. Patel, Sachin P. Shukla


We have immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase on k-carrageenan, which is a natural polysaccharide obtained from seaweeds by entrapment and on copolymer of acrylamide and 2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate by covalent coupling. We have optimized all the immobilization parameters and also carried the comparison studies of both. In case of copolymer of acrylamide and 2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate, we have activated both the amino and hydroxyl group individually and simultaneously using different activating agents and obtained some interesting results. We have found that covalently bound enzyme was found to be better under all tested conditions. The reaction on ethanol was carried out using these immobilized systems.

Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, acrylamide-co-2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate, ethanol, k-carrageenan

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1488 Performance Analysis of Curved U-Slot Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth and Isolation for Mimo Systems

Authors: Umesh Kumar, Arun Kumar Shukla, B. V. V. Ravindra Babu


The paper presents a compact tri band Curved U-Slot patch antenna with improved bandwidth and isolation characteristics. The proposed antenna excited by coaxial feed resonates at tri band of 2.8 GHz, 4.1 GHz and 5.7 GHz for VSWR ≤ 1.5 with an improved bandwidth of 99.7% and also for getting high gain antenna of 11.31 dB. A 2×2 MIMO is developed using the proposed antenna giving an excellent isolation of 28 dB between the two antennas. The simulation results of return loss, Mutual Coupling, Gain, VSWR, Surface Current Distribution and Electrical Distribution are presented. By keeping the substrate thickness constant over various dielectric constants, simulations were carried out using MATLAB® and HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software.

Keywords: performance analysis, curved U-slot patch, antenna with enhanced bandwidth, isolation for mimo systems

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1487 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM₂.₅, fugitive, emission inventory

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1486 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

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1485 Diagnostic Investigation of Aircraft Performance at Different Winglet Cant Angles

Authors: M. Dinesh, V. Kenny Mark, Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, B. Santhosh Kumar, R. Sree Radesh, V. R. Sanal Kumar


Comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out to examine the best aerodynamic performance of subsonic aircraft at different winglet cant angles using a validated 3D k-ω SST model. In the parametric analytical studies, NACA series of airfoils are selected. Basic design of the winglet is selected from the literature and flow features of the entire wing including the winglet tip effects have been examined with different cant angles varying from 150 to 600 at different angles of attack up to 140. We have observed, among the cases considered in this study that a case with 150 cant angle the aerodynamics performance of the subsonic aircraft during takeoff was found better up to an angle of attack of 2.80 and further its performance got diminished at higher angles of attack. Analyses further revealed that increasing the winglet cant angle from 150 to 600 at higher angles of attack could negate the performance deterioration and additionally it could enhance the peak CL/CD on the order of 3.5%. The investigated concept of variable-cant-angle winglets appears to be a promising alternative for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamic efficiency, cant angle, drag reduction, flexible winglets

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1484 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar


Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1483 Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Different Control Methods of ZSI Feeding Industrial Drives

Authors: Parag Nihawan, Ravinder Singh Bhatia, Dinesh Kumar Jain


Industrial drives are source of serious power quality problems. In this, two typical industrial drives have been dealt with, namely, FOC induction motor drives and DTC induction motor drive. The Z-source inverter is an emerging topology of power electronic converters which is capable of buck boost characteristics. The performances of different control methods based Z-source inverters feeding these industrial drives have been investigated, in this work. The test systems have been modeled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained after carrying out these simulations have been used to draw the conclusions.

Keywords: Z-source inverter, total harmonic distortion, direct torque control, field orientation control

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1482 Stability of Canola Varieties for Oil Percent in Four Regions of Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Amir Mashayekh, Pasha Hejazi, Sanaz Kanani Zadeh Khalkhali


To determine the stability of the oil percent canola varieties, an experiment was done in a randomized complete block design with four replications in four research stations of the country Shahrood, Esfahan, Kermanshah, Varamin. Analysis of variance showed that there is cultivars considerable variability in the percentage of oil. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of oil Hyola 401 and Hyola308 stability and flexibility are high. Cultivars Cooper and Likord are minimum variance Shukla that stable for the percentage of oil Based on the chart AMMI 1, cultivars Zarfam and Hyola 401 are of oil percentage than other varieties had higher stability. On the chart AMMI2, cultivars Karun and Hyola 308 are identified as stable, also location Isfahan is stable

Keywords: canola, stability, AMMI, variance Shukla

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1481 Intelligent Transport System: Classification of Traffic Signs Using Deep Neural Networks in Real Time

Authors: Anukriti Kumar, Tanmay Singh, Dinesh Kumar Vishwakarma


Traffic control has been one of the most common and irritating problems since the time automobiles have hit the roads. Problems like traffic congestion have led to a significant time burden around the world and one significant solution to these problems can be the proper implementation of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). It involves the integration of various tools like smart sensors, artificial intelligence, position technologies and mobile data services to manage traffic flow, reduce congestion and enhance driver's ability to avoid accidents during adverse weather. Road and traffic signs’ recognition is an emerging field of research in ITS. Classification problem of traffic signs needs to be solved as it is a major step in our journey towards building semi-autonomous/autonomous driving systems. The purpose of this work focuses on implementing an approach to solve the problem of traffic sign classification by developing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier using the GTSRB (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark) dataset. Rather than using hand-crafted features, our model addresses the concern of exploding huge parameters and data method augmentations. Our model achieved an accuracy of around 97.6% which is comparable to various state-of-the-art architectures.

Keywords: multiclass classification, convolution neural network, OpenCV

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1480 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1479 Performance Analysis of IDMA Scheme Using Quasi-Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Anurag Saxena, Alkesh Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar


The next generation mobile communication systems i.e. fourth generation (4G) was developed to accommodate the quality of service and required data rate. This project focuses on multiple access technique proposed in 4G communication systems. It is attempted to demonstrate the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology. The basic principle of IDMA is that interleaver is different for each user whereas CDMA employs different signatures. IDMA inherits many advantages of CDMA such as robust against fading, easy cell planning; dynamic channel sharing and IDMA increase the spectral efficiency and reduce the receiver complexity. In this, performance of IDMA is analyzed using QC-LDPC coding scheme further it is compared with LDPC coding and at last BER is calculated and plotted in MATLAB.

Keywords: 4G, QC-LDPC, CDMA, IDMA

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1478 Comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-Methionine PET-CT for Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma

Authors: Sonia Mahajan Dinesh, Anant Dinesh, Madhavi Tripathi, Vinod Kumar Ramteke, Rajnish Sharma, Anupam Mondal


Background: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plays an important role in treatment of breast cancer by decreasing the tumour load and it offers an opportunity to evaluate response of primary tumour to chemotherapy. Standard anatomical imaging modalities are unable to accurately reflect the response to chemotherapy until several cycles of drug treatment have been completed. Metabolic imaging using tracers like 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a marker of glucose metabolism or amino acid tracers like L-methyl-11C methionine (MET) have potential role for the measurement of treatment response. In this study, our objective was to compare these two PET tracers for assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: In our prospective study, 20 female patients with histology proven locally advanced breast carcinoma underwent PET-CT imaging using FDG and MET before and after three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CAF regimen). Thereafter, all patients were taken for MRM and the resected specimen was sent for histo-pathological analysis. Tumour response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated by PET-CT imaging using PERCIST criteria and correlated with histological results. Responses calculated were compared for statistical significance using paired t- test. Results: Mean SUVmax for primary lesion in FDG PET and MET PET was 15.88±11.12 and 5.01±2.14 respectively (p<0.001) and for axillary lymph nodes was 7.61±7.31 and 2.75±2.27 respectively (p=0.001). Statistically significant response in primary tumour and axilla was noted on both FDG and MET PET after three cycles of NAC. Complete response in primary tumour was seen in only 1 patient in FDG and 7 patients in MET PET (p=0.001) whereas there was no histological complete resolution of tumor in any patient. Response to therapy in axillary nodes noted on both PET scans were similar (p=0.45) and correlated well with histological findings. Conclusions: For the primary breast tumour, FDG PET has a higher sensitivity and accuracy than MET PET and for axilla both have comparable sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET shows higher target to background ratios so response is better predicted for primary breast tumour and axilla. Also, FDG-PET is widely available and has the advantage of a whole body evaluation in one study.

Keywords: 11C-methionine, 18F-FDG, breast carcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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1477 Sustainability in Retaining Wall Construction with Geosynthetics

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


This paper seeks to present a research study on sustainability in construction of retaining wall using geosynthetics. Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Geotechnical engineering, being very resource intensive, warrants an environmental sustainability study, but a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of geotechnical practices, particularly at the planning and design stages, does not exist. In geotechnical projects, major economic issues to be addressed are in the design and construction of stable slopes and retaining structures within space constraints. In this paper, quantitative indicators for assessing the environmental sustainability of retaining wall with geosynthetics are compared with conventional concrete retaining wall through life cycle assessment (LCA). Geosynthetics can make a real difference in sustainable construction techniques and contribute to development in developing countries in particular. Their imaginative application can result in considerable cost savings over the use of conventional designs and materials. The acceptance of geosynthetics in reinforced retaining wall construction has been triggered by a number of factors, including aesthetics, reliability, simple construction techniques, good seismic performance, and the ability to tolerate large deformations without structural distress. Reinforced retaining wall with geosynthetics is the best cost-effective and eco-friendly solution as compared with traditional concrete retaining wall construction. This paper presents an analysis of the theme of sustainability applied to the design and construction of traditional concrete retaining wall and presenting a cost-effective and environmental solution using geosynthetics.

Keywords: sustainability, retaining wall, geosynthetics, life cycle assessment

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1476 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The study of the primary flow velocity and the self impinging secondary jet flow mixing is important from both the fundamental research and the application point of view. Real industrial configurations are more complex than simple shear layers present in idealized numerical thrust-vectoring models due to the presence of combustion, swirl and confinement. Predicting the flow features of self impinging secondary jets in a supersonic primary flow is complex owing to the fact that there are a large number of parameters involved. Earlier studies have been highlighted several key features of self impinging jets, but an extensive characterization in terms of jet interaction between supersonic flow and self impinging secondary sonic jets is still an active research topic. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional k-omega standard turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self impinging secondary flow sonic jets using non-reacting flows. Efforts have been taken for examining the flow features of TVC system with various secondary jets at different divergent locations and jet impinging angles with the same inlet jet pressure and mass flow ratio. The results from the parametric studies reveal that in addition to the primary to the secondary mass flow ratio the characteristics of the self impinging secondary jets having bearing on an efficient thrust vectoring. We concluded that the self impinging secondary jet nozzles are better than single jet nozzle with the same secondary mass flow rate owing to the fact fixing of the self impinging secondary jet nozzles with proper jet angle could facilitate better thrust vectoring for any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic to sonic jet interaction, TVC in aerospace vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
1475 Simulation Study of the Microwave Heating of the Hematite and Coal Mixture

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Sunil Yadav, Soumya Ranjan Mohantry, Ajay Kumar Shukla


Temperature distribution in the hematite ore mixed with 7.5% coal was predicted by solving a 1-D heat conduction equation using an implicit finite difference approach. In this work, it was considered a square slab of 20 cm x 20 cm, which assumed the coal to be uniformly mixed with hematite ore. It was solved the equations with the use of MATLAB 2018a software. Heat transfer effects in this 1D dimensional slab convective and the radiative boundary conditions are also considered. Temperature distribution obtained inside hematite slab by considering microwave heating time, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, carbon percentage, sample dimensions, and many other factors such as penetration depth, permittivity, and permeability of coal and hematite ore mixtures. The resulting temperature profile can be used as a guiding tool for optimizing the microwave-assisted carbothermal reduction process of hematite slab was extended to other dimensions as well, viz., 1 cm x 1 cm, 5 cm x 5 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: hematite ore, coal, microwave processing, heat transfer, implicit method, temperature distribution

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1474 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong


This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.

Keywords: numerical modelling, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1473 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani


This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1472 Performance Modeling and Availability Analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Rajiv Kumar, Dinesh Khanduja


This paper discusses the performance modeling and availability analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry. The Textile Industry is a complex and repairable engineering system. Yarn Dyeing System of Textile Industry consists of five subsystems arranged in series configuration. For performance modeling and analysis of availability, a performance evaluating model has been developed with the help of mathematical formulation based on Markov-Birth-Death Process. The differential equations have been developed on the basis of Probabilistic Approach using a Transition Diagram. These equations have further been solved using normalizing condition in order to develop the steady state availability, a performance measure of the system concerned. The system performance has been further analyzed with the help of decision matrices. These matrices provide various availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates for various subsystems. The findings of this paper are, therefore, considered to be useful for the analysis of availability and determination of the best possible maintenance strategies which can be implemented in future to enhance the system performance.

Keywords: performance modeling, markov process, steady state availability, availability analysis

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1471 Preparing Entrepreneurial Women: A Challenge for Indian Education System

Authors: Dinesh Khanduja, Pardeep Kumar Sharma


Education as the most important resource in any country has multiplying effects on all facets of development in a society. The new social realities, particularly, the interplay between democratization of education; unprecedented developments in the IT sector; emergence of knowledge society, liberalization of economy, and globalization have greatly influenced the educational process of all nations. This turbulence entails upon education to undergo dramatic changes to keep up with the new expectations. Growth of entrepreneurship among Indian women is highly important for empowering them and this is highly essential for the socio-economic development of a society. Unfortunately, in India, there is poor acceptance of entrepreneurship among women as unfounded myths and fears restrain them to be enterprising. To remove these inhibitions, the education system needs to be re-engineered to make entrepreneurship more acceptable. This paper empirically analyses the results of a survey done on around 500 female graduates in North India to measure and evaluate various entrepreneurial traits present in them. A formative model has been devised in this context, which should improve the teaching-learning process in our education system, which can lead to a sustainable growth of women entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: women empowerment, entrepreneurship, education system, women entrepreneurship, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1470 Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death

Authors: Reeta Devi, Hitender Kumar Tyagi, Dinesh Kumar


In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.

Keywords: early stage prediction, heart rate variability, linear and non-linear analysis, sudden cardiac death

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1469 Development of a Thermodynamic Model for Ladle Metallurgy Steel Making Processes Using Factsage and Its Macro Facility

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Ajay Kumar Shukla


To produce high-quality steel in larger volumes, dynamic control of composition and temperature throughout the process is essential. In this paper, we developed a mass transfer model based on thermodynamics to simulate the ladle metallurgy steel-making process using FactSage and its macro facility. The overall heat and mass transfer processes consist of one equilibrium chamber, two non-equilibrium chambers, and one adiabatic reactor. The flow of material, as well as heat transfer, occurs across four interconnected unit chambers and a reactor. We used the macro programming facility of FactSage™ software to understand the thermochemical model of the secondary steel making process. In our model, we varied the oxygen content during the process and studied their effect on the composition of the final hot metal and slag. The model has been validated with respect to the plant data for the steel composition, which is similar to the ladle metallurgy steel-making process in the industry. The resulting composition profile serves as a guiding tool to optimize the process of ladle metallurgy in steel-making industries.

Keywords: desulphurization, degassing, factsage, reactor

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1468 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1467 Reclaiming Properties of Bituminous Concrete Using Cold Mix Design Technology

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shalinee Shukla


Pavement plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of a country. Bituminous roads construction with conventional paving grade bitumen obtained from hot mix plant creates pollution and involves emission of greenhouse gases, also the construction of pavements at very high temperature is not feasible or desirable for high rainfall and snowfall areas. This problem of overheating can be eliminated by the construction of pavements with the usage of emulsified cold mixes which will eliminate emissions and help in the reduction of fuel requirement at mixing plant, which leads to energy conservation. Cold mix is a mixture of unheated aggregate and emulsion or cutback and filler. The primary objective of this research is to assess the volumetric mix design parameters of recycled aggregates with cold mixing technology and also to assess the impact of additives on volumetric mix characteristics. In this present study, bituminous pavement materials are reclaimed using cold mix technology, and Marshall specimens are prepared with the help of slow setting type 2 (SS-2) cationic bitumen emulsion as a binder for recycled aggregates. This technique of road construction is more environmentally friendly and can be done in adverse weather conditions.

Keywords: cold mixes, bitumen emulsion, recycled aggregates, volumetric properties

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1466 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.


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1465 Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi4Si-Type DyNi4Si Compound: A Full Potential Study

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Maurya, Sapan Mohan Saini


A theoretical formalism to calculate the structural, electronic and optical properties of orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied first time to new YNi4Si-type DyNi4Si compound. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Our optimized results of lattice parameters show good agreement to the previously reported experimental study. Analysis of the calculated band structure of DyNi4Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Dy-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and R-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in DNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band-to-band transitions. We also report the frequency-dependent refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω) of the compound.

Keywords: band structure, density of states, optical properties, LSDA+U approximation, YNi4Si- type DyNi4Si compound

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1464 Segmentation of Liver Using Random Forest Classifier

Authors: Gajendra Kumar Mourya, Dinesh Bhatia, Akash Handique, Sunita Warjri, Syed Achaab Amir


Nowadays, Medical imaging has become an integral part of modern healthcare. Abdominal CT images are an invaluable mean for abdominal organ investigation and have been widely studied in the recent years. Diagnosis of liver pathologies is one of the major areas of current interests in the field of medical image processing and is still an open problem. To deeply study and diagnose the liver, segmentation of liver is done to identify which part of the liver is mostly affected. Manual segmentation of the liver in CT images is time-consuming and suffers from inter- and intra-observer differences. However, automatic or semi-automatic computer aided segmentation of the Liver is a challenging task due to inter-patient Liver shape and size variability. In this paper, we present a technique for automatic segmenting the liver from CT images using Random Forest Classifier. Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes of the individual trees. After comparing with various other techniques, it was found that Random Forest Classifier provide a better segmentation results with respect to accuracy and speed. We have done the validation of our results using various techniques and it shows above 89% accuracy in all the cases.

Keywords: CT images, image validation, random forest, segmentation

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1463 Optimization of End Milling Process Parameters for Minimization of Surface Roughness of AISI D2 Steel

Authors: Pankaj Chandna, Dinesh Kumar


The present work analyses different parameters of end milling to minimize the surface roughness for AISI D2 steel. D2 Steel is generally used for stamping or forming dies, punches, forming rolls, knives, slitters, shear blades, tools, scrap choppers, tyre shredders etc. Surface roughness is one of the main indices that determines the quality of machined products and is influenced by various cutting parameters. In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality by optimization of machining parameters, is a challenging job. In case of mating components the surface roughness become more essential and is influenced by the cutting parameters, because, these quality structures are highly correlated and are expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects (i.e. on process environment). In this work, the effects of selected process parameters on surface roughness and subsequent setting of parameters with the levels have been accomplished by Taguchi’s parameter design approach. The experiments have been performed as per the combination of levels of different process parameters suggested by L9 orthogonal array. Experimental investigation of the end milling of AISI D2 steel with carbide tool by varying feed, speed and depth of cut and the surface roughness has been measured using surface roughness tester. Analyses of variance have been performed for mean and signal-to-noise ratio to estimate the contribution of the different process parameters on the process.

Keywords: D2 steel, orthogonal array, optimization, surface roughness, Taguchi methodology

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1462 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha


Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

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