Search results for: photovoltaic thermal
3654 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems
Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad
Abstract:In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.
Keywords: photovoltaic, renewable, performance, efficiency, energyProcedia PDF Downloads 440
3653 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer
Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.
Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 348
3652 Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector with TRANSYS Simulator
Authors: Ashish Lochan, Anil K. Dahiya, Amit Verma
Abstract:The idea of combining photovoltaic and solar thermal collector to provide electrical and heat energy is not new, however, it is an area of limited attention. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermals have become a focus point of interest in the field of solar energy. Integration of both (photovoltaic and thermal collector) provide greater opportunity for the use of renewable solar energy. This system converts solar energy into electricity and heat energy simultaneously. Theoretical performance analyses of hybrid PV/Ts have been carried out. Also, the temperature of water (as a heat carrier) have been calculated for different seasons with the help of TRANSYS.
Keywords: photovoltaic-thermal, solar energy, seasonal performance analysis, TRANSYSProcedia PDF Downloads 462
3651 Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors
Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, E. H. Khettaf, A. Embarek
Abstract:Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a hybrid prototype to evaluate electrical and thermal performance. In this paper, an experimental study of two new configurations of hybrid collectors is exposed. The results are given and interpreted. The two configurations of absorber studied are a new combination with tubes and galvanized tank, the other is a tubes and sheet.
Keywords: experimental, photovoltaic, solar, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 425
3650 Sustainable Refrigerated Transport Engineering
Authors: A. A, F. Belmir, A. El Bouari, Y. Abboud
Abstract:This article presents a study of the thermal performance of a new solar mobile refrigeration prototype for the preservation of perishable foods. The simulation of the refrigeration cycle and the calculation of the thermal balances made it possible to estimate its consumption and to evaluate the capacity of each photovoltaic component necessary for the production of energy. The study provides a description of the refrigerator construction and operation, including an energy balance analysis of the refrigerator performance under typical loads. The photovoltaic system requirements are also detailed.
Keywords: composite, material, photovoltaic, refrigeration, thermalProcedia PDF Downloads 153
3649 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique
Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So
Abstract:Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.
Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusionProcedia PDF Downloads 69
3648 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System
Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.
Keywords: compound parabolic concentrator, energy, photovoltaic thermal, temperature dependent electrical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 329
3647 Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal Greenhouse Dryer in Composite Climate of India
Authors: G. N. Tiwari, Shyam
Abstract:Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) roof type greenhouse dryer installed above the wind tower of SODHA BERS COMPLEX, Varanasi has been analyzed for all types of weather conditions. The product to be dried has been kept at three different trays. The upper tray receives energy from the PV cover while the bottom tray receives thermal energy from the hot air of the wind tower. The annual energy estimation has been done for the all types of weather condition of composite climate of northern India. It has been found that maximum energy saving is observed for c type of weather condition whereas minimum energy saving is observed for a type of weather condition. The energy saving on overall thermal energy basis and exergy basis are 1206.8 kWh and 360 kWh respectively for c type of weather condition. The energy saving from all types of weather condition are found to be 3175.3 kWh and 957.6 kWh on overall thermal energy and overall exergy basis respectively.
Keywords: exergy, greenhouse, photovoltaic thermal, solar dryerProcedia PDF Downloads 354
3646 Energy Matrices of Partially Covered Photovoltaic Thermal Flat Plate Water Collectors
Authors: Shyam, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:Energy matrices of flate plate water collectors partially covered by PV module have been estimated in the present study. Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collector assembly is consisting of 5 water collectors having 2 m^2 area which are partially covered by photovoltaic module at its lower portion (inlet) and connected in series. The annual overall thermal energy and exergy are computed by using climatic data of New Delhi provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) Pune, India. The Energy payback time on overall thermal and exergy basis are found to be 1.6 years and 17.8 years respectively. For 25 years of life time of system the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency are estimated to be 15.8 and 0.04 respectively on overall thermal energy basis whereas for the same life time the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency on exergy basis are obtained as 1.4 and 0.001.
Keywords: overall thermal energy, exergy, energy payback time, PVT water collectorsProcedia PDF Downloads 322
3645 Evolution of Floating Photovoltaic System Technology and Future Prospect
Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong
Abstract:Floating photovoltaic system is a technology that combines photovoltaic power generation with floating structure. However, since floating technology has not been utilized in photovoltaic generation, there are no standardized criteria. It is separately developed and used by different installation bodies. This paper aims to discuss the change of floating photovoltaic system technology based on examples of floating photovoltaic systems installed in Korea.
Keywords: floating photovoltaic system, floating PV installation, ocean floating photovoltaic system, tracking type floating photovoltaic systemProcedia PDF Downloads 474
3644 Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Calculating the Installable Photovoltaic and Thermal Power on All the Roofs of the City of Aix-en-Provence, France
Authors: Sofiane Bourchak, Sébastien Bridier
Abstract:The objective of this study is to show how to calculate and map solar energy’s quantity (instantaneous and accumulated global solar radiation during the year) available on roofs in the city Aix-en-Provence which has a population of 140,000 inhabitants. The result is a geographic information system (GIS) layer, which represents hourly and monthly the production of solar energy on roofs throughout the year. Solar energy professionals can use it to optimize implementations and to size energy production systems. The results are presented as a set of maps, tables and histograms in order to determine the most effective costs in Aix-en-Provence in terms of photovoltaic power (electricity) and thermal power (hot water).
Keywords: geographic information system, photovoltaic, thermal, solar potential, solar radiationProcedia PDF Downloads 358
3643 Impact of Nanoparticles in Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage and Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics
Authors: Ismaila H. Zarma, Mahmoud Ahmed, Shinichi Ookawara, Hamdi Abo-Ali
Abstract:Phase change materials (PCM) are an ideal thermal storage medium. They are characterized by a high latent heat, which allows them to store large amounts of energy when the material transitions into different physical states. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems are widely recognized as the most efficient form of Photovoltaic (PV) for thermal energy which can be stored in Phase Change Materials (PCM). However, PCMs often have a low thermal conductivity which leads to a slow transient response. This makes it difficult to quickly store and access the energy stored within the PCM based systems, so there is need to improve transient responses and increase the thermal conductivity. The present study aims to investigate and analyze the melting and solidification process of phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nanoparticle contained in a container. Heat flux from concentrated photovoltaic is applied in an attempt to analyze the thermal performance and the impact of nanoparticles. The work will be realized by using a two dimensional model which take into account the phase change phenomena based on the principle of enthalpy method. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate heat and flow characteristics by using governing equations, to ascertain the impacts of the nanoparticle loading. The Rayleigh number, sub-cooling as well as the unsteady evolution of the melting front and the velocity and temperature fields were also observed. The predicted results exhibited a good agreement, showing thermal enhancement due to present of nanoparticle which leads to decreasing the melting time.
Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase-change material, nanoparticle, concentrated photovoltaicProcedia PDF Downloads 136
3642 Problems of Using Mobile Photovoltaic Installations
Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca
Abstract:The dynamic development of photovoltaics in the 21st century has resulted in more possibilities for using photovoltaic systems. In order to reduce emissions, a retrofitting of vehicles with photovoltaic modules has recently become increasingly popular. Preparing such an installation, however, requires professional knowledge and compliance with safety rules. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of some types of flexible photovoltaic modules that can be applied to mobile installations, types and causes of damage to photovoltaic modules as well as the most frequent types of misinstallation. Our attention has been drawn to the risk of fire caused by misintallation or defective insulation and the need to closely monitor mobile installations, for example by a non-destructive testing with a thermal imaging camera. The paper also presents certain selected results of the research conducted at the Lublin University of Technology. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS2/A6/16/2013.
Keywords: flexible PV module, mobile PV module, photovoltaic module, photovoltaicProcedia PDF Downloads 187
3641 Thermal Performance of Hybrid PVT Collector with Natural Circulation
Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, I. Tabet, H. Haloui, H. Bencheikh El Houcine, M. Adouane
Abstract:Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors allow simultaneous production of electrical energy thus heat energy. There are several configurations of hybrid collectors (to produce water or air). For hybrids water collectors, there are several configurations that differ by the nature of the absorber (serpentine, tubes...). In this paper, an absorber tank is studied. The circulation of the coolant is natural (we do not use the pump). We present the obtained results in our experimental study and we analyzed the data, and then we compare the results with the theory practices. The electrical performances of the hybrid collector are compared with those of conventional photovoltaic module mounted on the same structure and measured under the same conditions. We conducted experiments with natural circulation of the coolant (Thermosyphon), for a flow rate of 0.025kg/m².
Keywords: experimental, photovoltaic, solar, temperature, tankProcedia PDF Downloads 260
3640 Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of a Photovoltaic Solar Wall with Passive and Active Ventilation through a Room
Authors: Himanshu Dehra
Abstract:An experimental study was conducted for ascertaining electrical and thermal characteristics of a pair of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated with solar wall of an outdoor room. A pre-fabricated outdoor room was setup for conducting outdoor experiments on a PV solar wall with passive and active ventilation through the outdoor room. The selective operating conditions for glass coated PV modules were utilized for establishing their electrical and thermal characteristics. The PV solar wall was made up of glass coated PV modules, a ventilated air column, and an insulating layer of polystyrene filled plywood board. The measurements collected were currents, voltages, electric power, air velocities, temperatures, solar intensities, and thermal time constant. The results have demonstrated that: i) a PV solar wall installed on a wooden frame was of more heat generating capacity in comparison to a window glass or a standalone PV module; ii) generation of electric power was affected with operation of vertical PV solar wall; iii) electrical and thermal characteristics were not significantly affected by heat and thermal storage losses; and iv) combined heat and electricity generation were function of volume of thermal and electrical resistances developed across PV solar wall. Finally, a comparison of temperature plots of passive and active ventilation envisaged that fan pressure was necessary to avoid overheating of the PV solar wall. The active ventilation was necessary to avoid over-heating of the PV solar wall and to maintain adequate ventilation of room under mild climate conditions.
Keywords: photovoltaic solar wall, solar energy, passive ventilation, active ventilationProcedia PDF Downloads 341
3639 Analyses of Defects in Flexible Silicon Photovoltaic Modules via Thermal Imaging and Electroluminescence
Authors: S. Maleczek, K. Drabczyk, L. Bogdan, A. Iwan
Abstract:It is known that for industrial applications using solar panel constructed from silicon solar cells require high-efficiency performance. One of the main problems in solar panels is different mechanical and structural defects, causing the decrease of generated power. To analyse defects in solar cells, various techniques are used. However, the thermal imaging is fast and simple method for locating defects. The main goal of this work was to analyze defects in constructed flexible silicon photovoltaic modules via thermal imaging and electroluminescence method. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management. Thermal behavior was observed using thermographic camera (VIGOcam v50, VIGO System S.A, Poland) using a DC conventional source. Electroluminescence was observed by Steinbeis Center Photovoltaics (Stuttgart, Germany) equipped with a camera, in which there is a Si-CCD, 16 Mpix detector Kodak KAF-16803type. The camera has a typical spectral response in the range 350 - 1100 nm with a maximum QE of 60 % at 550 nm. In our work commercial silicon solar cells with the size 156 × 156 mm were cut for nine parts (called single solar cells) and used to create photovoltaic modules with the size of 160 × 70 cm (containing about 80 single solar cells). Flexible silicon photovoltaic modules on polyamides or polyester fabric were constructed and investigated taking into consideration anomalies on the surface of modules. Thermal imaging provided evidence of visible voltage-activated conduction. In electro-luminescence images, two regions are noticeable: darker, where solar cell is inactive and brighter corresponding with correctly working photovoltaic cells. The electroluminescence method is non-destructive and gives greater resolution of images thereby allowing a more precise evaluation of microcracks of solar cell after lamination process. Our study showed good correlations between defects observed by thermal imaging and electroluminescence. Finally, we can conclude that the thermographic examination of large scale photovoltaic modules allows us the fast, simple and inexpensive localization of defects at the single solar cells and modules. Moreover, thermographic camera was also useful to detection electrical interconnection between single solar cells.
Keywords: electro-luminescence, flexible devices, silicon solar cells, thermal imagingProcedia PDF Downloads 262
3638 Application of Genetic Algorithm with Multiobjective Function to Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Thermal System
Authors: Sonveer Singh, Sanjay Agrawal, D. V. Avasthi, Jayant Shekhar
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithms with multi-objective function. There are some parameters that affect the efficiency of PVT system like depth and length of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid through the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid i.e. all above parameters are considered for optimization. An attempt has been made to the model and optimizes the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module when two objective functions have been considered separately. The two objective function for optimization of PVT module is overall electrical and thermal efficiency. All equations for PVT module have been derived. Using genetic algorithms (GAs), above two objective functions of the system has been optimized separately and analysis has been carried out for two cases. Two cases are: Case-I; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall electrical efficiency is optimized, Case-II; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non-changeable parameters, like solar radiation, ambient temperature cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that electrical efficiency (14.08%) and thermal efficiency (19.48%) are obtained when overall thermal efficiency was an objective function for optimization. It is observed that GA is a very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module.
Keywords: genetic algorithm, energy, exergy, PVT module, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 545
3637 Study and Experimental Analysis of a Photovoltaic Pumping System under Three Operating Modes
Authors: Rekioua D., Mohammedi A., Rekioua T., Mehleb Z.
Abstract:Photovoltaic water pumping systems is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications, the economy and reliability of solar electric power made it an excellent choice for remote water pumping. Two conventional techniques are currently in use; the first is the directly coupled technique and the second is the battery buffered photovoltaic pumping system. In this paper, we present different performances of a three operation modes of photovoltaic pumping system. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of different parameters influencing the photovoltaic pumping system performances, such as pumping head, System configuration and climatic conditions. The obtained results are presented and discussed.
Keywords: batteries charge mode, photovoltaic pumping system, pumping head, submersible pumpProcedia PDF Downloads 436
3636 Transparent Photovoltaic Skin for Artificial Thermoreceptor and Nociceptor Memory
Authors: Priyanka Bhatnagar, Malkeshkumar Patel, Joondong Kim, Joonpyo Hong
Abstract:Artificial skin and sensory memory platforms are produced using a flexible, transparent photovoltaic (TPV) device. The TPV device is composed of a metal oxide heterojunction (nZnO/p-NiO) and transmits visible light (> 50%) while producing substantial electric power (0.5 V and 200 μA cm-2 ). This TPV device is a transparent energy interface that can be used to detect signals and propagate information without an external energy supply. The TPV artificial skin offers a temperature detection range (0 C75 C) that is wider than that of natural skin (5 C48 °C) due to the temperature-sensitive pyrocurrent from the ZnO layer. Moreover, the TPV thermoreceptor offers sensory memory of extreme thermal stimuli. Much like natural skin, artificial skin uses the nociceptor mechanism to protect tissue from harmful damage via signal amplification (hyperalgesia) and early adaption (allodynia). This demonstrates the many features of TPV artificial skin, which can sense and transmit signals and memorize information under self-operation mode. This transparent photovoltaic skin can provide sustainable energy for use in human electronics.
Keywords: transparent, photovoltaics, thermal memory, artificial skin, thermoreceptorProcedia PDF Downloads 46
3635 Experimental Study of Semitransparent and Opaque Photovoltaic Modules with and without Air Duct
Authors: Sanjay Agrawal, Trapti Varshney, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:In this paper, thermal modeling has been developed for photovoltaic PV modules, namely; Case A: semitransparent PV module without duct, Case B: semitransparent PV module with duct, Case C: opaque PV module without duct, Case D: opaque PV module with duct for Delhi, India climatic condition. MATLAB 7.0 software has been used to solve mathematical models of the proposed system. For validation of proposed system, the experimental study has also been carried out for all above four cases, and then comparative analysis of all different type of PV module has been presented. The hybrid PVT module air collectors presented in this study are self sustaining the system and can be used for the electricity generation in remote areas where access of electricity is not economical due to high transmission and distribution losses. It has been found that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of semitransparent PV module is higher by 11.6% and7.32% in summer condition and 16.39% and 18% in winter condition respectively as compared to opaque PV module considering same area (0.61 m2) of PV module.
Keywords: semitransparent PV module, overall exergy, overall thermal energy, opaqueProcedia PDF Downloads 369
3634 Design and Sensitivity Analysis of Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Collector
Authors: H. M. Farghally, N. M. Ahmed, H. T. El-Madany, D. M. Atia, F. H. Fahmy
Abstract:Energy is required in almost every aspect of human activities and development of any nation in this world. Increasing fossil fuel price, energy security and climate change have important bearings on sustainable development of any nation. The renewable energy technology is considered one of the drastic approaches taken over the world to reduce the energy problem. The preservation of vegetables by freezing is one of the most important methods of retaining quality in agricultural products over long-term storage periods. Freezing factories show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity; the hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. This paper presents PV/T system design for freezing factory. Also, the complete mathematical modeling and Matlab Simulink of PV/T collector is introduced. The sensitivity analysis for the manufacturing parameters of PV/T collector is carried out to study their effect on the thermal and electrical efficiency.
Keywords: renewable energy, hybrid PV/T system, sensitivity analysis, ecological sciencesProcedia PDF Downloads 235
3633 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell
Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti
Abstract:The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).
Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 415
3632 Assessment of the Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Potential Installation Area on Residential Buildings: Case Study of Amman, Jordan
Authors: Jenan Abu Qadourah
Abstract:The suitable surface areas for the ST and PV installation are determined based on incident solar irradiation on different surfaces, shading analysis and suitable architectural area for integration considering limitations due to the constructions, available surfaces area and use of the available surfaces for other purposes. The incident solar radiation on the building surfaces and the building solar exposure analysis of the location of Amman, Jordan, is performed with Autodesk Ecotect analysis 2011 simulation software. The building model geometry within the typical urban context is created in “SketchUp,” which is then imported into Ecotect. The hourly climatic data of Amman, Jordan selected are the same ones used for the building simulation in IDA ICE and Polysun simulation software.
Keywords: photovoltaic, solar thermal, solar incident, simulation, building façade, solar potentialProcedia PDF Downloads 72
3631 Comparative Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems
Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaameran Raahemifar
Abstract:This paper presents comparative analysis of photovoltaic systems (PVS) and proposes practical techniques to improve operational efficiency of the PVS. The best engineering and construction practices for PVS are identified and field oriented recommendation are made. Comparative analysis of central and string inverter based, as well as 600 and 1000 VDC PVS are performed. In addition, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module based systems are compared. Comparison shows that 1000 V DC String Inverters based PVS is the best choice.
Keywords: photovoltaic module, photovoltaic systems, operational efficiency improvement, comparative analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 409
3630 The Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical of Nano-Crystalline Tin Doped-Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications
Authors: Eman A. Alghamdi, A. M. Aldhafiri
Abstract:It was found that the induce an isolated dopant close to the middle of the bandgap by occupying the Cd position in the CdTe lattice structure is an efficient factor in reducing the nonradiative recombination rate and increasing the solar efficiency. According to our laboratory results, this work has been carried out to obtain the effect of substrate temperature on the CdTe0.6Sn0.4 prepared by thermal evaporation technique for photovoltaic application. Various substrate temperature (25°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C) was applied. Sn-doped CdTe thin films on a glass substrate at a different substrate temperature were made using CdTe and SnTe powders by the thermal evaporation technique. The structural properties of the prepared samples were determined using Raman, x-Ray Diffraction. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometric measurements were conducted to extract the optical constants as a function of substrate temperature. The structural properties of the grown films show hexagonal and cubic mixed structures and phase change has been reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reviled that a homogenous with a bigger grain size was obtained at 250°C substrate temperature. The conductivity measurements were recorded as a function of substrate temperatures. The open-circuit voltage was improved by controlling the substrate temperature due to the improvement of the fundamental material issues such as recombination and low carrier concentration. All the result was explained and discussed on the biases of the influences of the Sn dopant and the substrate temperature on the structural, optical and photovoltaic characteristics.
Keywords: CdTe, conductivity, photovoltaic, ellipsometryProcedia PDF Downloads 51
3629 Exploring the Energy Saving Benefits of Solar Power and Hot Water Systems: A Case Study of a Hospital in Central Taiwan
Authors: Ming-Chan Chung, Wen-Ming Huang, Yi-Chu Liu, Li-Hui Yang, Ming-Jyh Chen
Abstract:introduction: Hospital buildings require considerable energy, including air conditioning, lighting, elevators, heating, and medical equipment. Energy consumption in hospitals is expected to increase significantly due to innovative equipment and continuous development plans. Consequently, the environment and climate will be adversely affected. Hospitals should therefore consider transforming from their traditional role of saving lives to being at the forefront of global efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. As healthcare providers, it is our responsibility to provide a high-quality environment while using as little energy as possible. Purpose / Methods: Compare the energy-saving benefits of solar photovoltaic systems and solar hot water systems. The proportion of electricity consumption effectively reduced after the installation of solar photovoltaic systems. To comprehensively assess the potential benefits of utilizing solar energy for both photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal applications in hospitals, a solar PV system was installed covering a total area of 28.95 square meters in 2021. Approval was obtained from the Taiwan Power Company to integrate the system into the hospital's electrical infrastructure for self-use. To measure the performance of the system, a dedicated meter was installed to track monthly power generation, which was then converted into area output using an electric energy conversion factor. This research aims to compare the energy efficiency of solar PV systems and solar thermal systems. Results: Using the conversion formula between electrical and thermal energy, we can compare the energy output of solar heating systems and solar photovoltaic systems. The comparative study draws upon data from February 2021 to February 2023, wherein the solar heating system generated an average of 2.54 kWh of energy per panel per day, while the solar photovoltaic system produced 1.17 kWh of energy per panel per day, resulting in a difference of approximately 2.17 times between the two systems. Conclusions: After conducting statistical analysis and comparisons, it was found that solar thermal heating systems offer higher energy and greater benefits than solar photovoltaic systems. Furthermore, an examination of literature data and simulations of the energy and economic benefits of solar thermal water systems and solar-assisted heat pump systems revealed that solar thermal water systems have higher energy density values, shorter recovery periods, and lower power consumption than solar-assisted heat pump systems. Through monitoring and empirical research in this study, it has been concluded that a heat pump-assisted solar thermal water system represents a relatively superior energy-saving and carbon-reducing solution for medical institutions. Not only can this system help reduce overall electricity consumption and the use of fossil fuels, but it can also provide more effective heating solutions.
Keywords: sustainable development, energy conservation, carbon reduction, renewable energy, heat pump systemProcedia PDF Downloads 10
3628 Life-Cycle Cost and Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems (PV/T) in Swedish Single-Family Houses
Authors: Arefeh Hesaraki
Abstract:The application of photovoltaic-thermal hybrids (PVT), which delivers both electricity and heat simultaneously from the same system, has become more popular during the past few years. This study addresses techno-economic and environmental impacts assessment of photovoltaic/thermal systems combined with a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) for three single-family houses located in Stockholm, Sweden. Three case studies were: (1) A renovated building built in 1936, (2) A renovated building built in 1973, and (3) A new building built-in 2013. Two simulation programs of SimaPro 9.1 and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.8 (IDA ICE) were applied to analyze environmental impacts and energy usage, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of the system was evaluated using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback time (DPBT) methods. In addition to cost payback time, the studied PVT system was evaluated using the energy payback time (EPBT) method. EPBT presents the time that is needed for the installed system to generate the same amount of energy which was utilized during the whole lifecycle (fabrication, installation, transportation, and end-of-life) of the system itself. Energy calculation by IDA ICE showed that a 5 m² PVT was sufficient to create a balance between the maximum heat production and the domestic hot water consumption during the summer months for all three case studies. The techno-economic analysis revealed that combining a 5 m² PVT with GSHP in the second case study possess the smallest DPBT and the highest NPV and IRR among the three case studies. It means that DPBTs (IRR) were 10.8 years (6%), 12.6 years (4%), and 13.8 years (3%) for the second, first, and the third case study, respectively. Moreover, environmental assessment of embodied energy during cradle- to- grave life cycle of the studied PVT, including fabrication, delivery of energy and raw materials, manufacture process, installation, transportation, operation phase, and end of life, revealed approximately two years of EPBT in all cases.
Keywords: life-cycle cost, life-cycle assessment, photovoltaic/thermal, IDA ICE, net present valueProcedia PDF Downloads 56
3627 Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China
Authors: Ruobing Liang, Jili Zhang, Chao Zhou
Abstract:A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.
Keywords: absorption chiller, solar PVT collector, solar heating and cooling, solar air-conditioning, parametric study, cost analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 345
3626 On the Optimization of a Decentralized Photovoltaic System
Authors: Zaouche Khelil, Talha Abdelaziz, Berkouk El Madjid
Abstract:In this paper, we present a grid-tied photovoltaic system. The studied topology is structured around a seven-level inverter, supplying a non-linear load. A three-stage step-up DC/DC converter ensures DC-link balancing. The presented system allows the extraction of all the available photovoltaic power. This extracted energy feeds the local load; the surplus energy is injected into the electrical network. During poor weather conditions, where the photovoltaic panels cannot meet the energy needs of the load, the missing power is supplied by the electrical network. At the common connexion point, the network current shows excellent spectral performances.
Keywords: seven-level inverter, multi-level DC/DC converter, photovoltaic, non-linear loadProcedia PDF Downloads 63
3625 Photo-Thermal Degradation Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Module Eva Encapsulation
Authors: Gilbert O. Osayemwenre, Meyer L. Edson
Abstract:Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation degradation affects the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module. Hotspot formation causes the EVA encapsulation to undergo photothermal deterioration and molecular breakdown by UV radiation. This leads to diffusion of chemical particles into other layers. During outdoor deployment, the EVA encapsulation in the affect region loses its adhesive strength, when this happen the affected region layer undergoes rapid delamination. The presence of photo-thermal degradation is detrimental to PV modules as it causes both optical and thermal degradation. Also, it enables the encapsulant to be more susceptible to chemicals substance and moisture. Our findings show a high concentration of Sodium, Phosphorus and Aluminium which originate from the glass substrate, cell emitter and back contact respectively.
Keywords: ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), encapsulation, photo-thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning probe microscope (SPM)Procedia PDF Downloads 244