Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: Ti-An Tsai

207 Randomized Trial of Tian Jiu Therapy in San Fu Days for Patients with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Libing Zhu, Waichung Chen, Kwaicing Lo, Lei Li

Abstract:

Background: Tian Jiu Therapy (a medicinal vesiculation therapy according to traditional Chinese medicine theory) in San Fu Days (the three hottest days in a year is calculated by the Chinese ancient calendar) is widely used by patients with chronic asthma in China although from modern medicine perspective there is insufficient evidence of its effectiveness and safety issues. We investigated the efficacy and safety of Tian Jiu Therapy compared with placebo in patients with chronic asthma. Methods: Patients with chronic asthma were randomly assigned to Tian Jiu treatment group (n=165), placebo control group (n=158). Registered Chinese Medicine practitioners, in Orthopedics-Traumatology, Acupuncture, and Tui-na Clinical Centre for Teaching and Research, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, administered Tian Jiu Therapy and placebo treatment in 3 times over 2 months. Patients completed questionnaires and lung function test before treatment and after treatment, 3, 6, 9, and 11 months, respectively. The primary outcome was the no of asthma-related sub-healthy symptoms and the percentage of patients with twenty-three symptoms. Results: 451 patients were recruited totally, 111 patients refused or did not participate according the appointment time and 17 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Consequently, 323 of eligible patients were enrolled. There was nothing difference between Tian Jiu Therapy group and placebo control group at the end of all treatments neither primary nor secondary outcomes. While Tian Jiu Therapy as compared with placebo significantly reduced the percentage of participants who are susceptible waken up by asthma symptoms from 27% to 14% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Similarly, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the proportion of participants who had the symptom of running nose and sneezing before onset from 18% to 8% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Additionally, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the level of asthma, the proportion of participants who don’t need to processed during asthma attack increased from 6% to 15% at 1st follow-up and 0% to 7% at 3rd follow-up (P < 0.05). Improvements also occurred with Tian Jiu Therapy group, it reduced the proportion of participants who were spontaneously sweating at 3rd follow up and diarrhea after intake of oily food at 4th follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion: When added to a regimen of foundational therapy for chronic asthma participants, Tian Jiu Therapy further reduced the need for medications to control asthma, improved the quality of participants’ life, and significantly reduced the level of asthma. What is more, this benefit seems to have an accumulative effect over time was in accordance with the TCM theory of 'winter disease is being cured in summer'.

Keywords: asthma, Tian Jiu Therapy, San Fu Days, triaditional Chinese medicine, clinical trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
206 Optimal Linear Quadratic Digital Tracker for the Discrete-Time Proper System with an Unknown Disturbance

Authors: Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai, Faezeh Ebrahimzadeh, Min-Ching Chung, Shu-Mei Guo, Leang-San Shieh, Tzong-Jiy Tsai, Li Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we first construct a new state and disturbance estimator using discrete-time proportional plus integral observer to estimate the system state and the unknown external disturbance for the discrete-time system with an input-to-output direct-feedthrough term. Then, the generalized optimal linear quadratic digital tracker design is applied to construct a proportional plus integral observer-based tracker for the system with an unknown external disturbance to have a desired tracking performance. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: non-minimum phase system, optimal linear quadratic tracker, proportional plus integral observer, state and disturbance estimator

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
205 TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) Mediating the Angiotensin-Induced Non-Canonical TGFβ Pathway Activation and Differentiation of c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells

Authors: Qing Cao, Fei Wang, Yu-Qiang Wang, Li-Ya Huang, Tian-Tian Sang, Shu-Yan Chen

Abstract:

Aims: TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) acts as a multifunctional regulator of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, and mediates Smad-independent JNK and p38 activation via TGF-β. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that TGF-β/TRAF6 is essential for angiotensin-II (Ang II)-induced differentiation of rat c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells (CSCs). Methods and Results: c-kit+ CSCs were isolated from neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and their c-kit status was confirmed with immunofluorescence staining. A TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRAF6 were used to investigate the role of TRAF6 in TGF-β signaling. Rescue of TRAF6 siRNA transfected cells with a 3'UTR deleted siRNA insensitive construct was conducted to rule out the off target effects of the siRNA. TRAF6 dominant negative (TRAF6DN) vector was constructed and used to infect c-kit+ CSCs, and western blotting was used to assess the expression of TRAF6, JNK, p38, cardiac-specific proteins, and Wnt signaling proteins. Physical interactions between TRAF6 and TGFβ receptors were studied by coimmunoprecipitation. Cardiac differentiation was suppressed in the absence of TRAF6. Forced expression of TRAF6 enhanced the expression of TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1), and inhibited Wnt signaling. Furthermore, TRAF6 increased the expression of cardiac-specific proteins (cTnT and Cx-43) but inhibited the expression of Wnt3a. Conclusions: Our data suggest that TRAF6 plays an important role in Ang II induced differentiation of c-kit+ CSCs via the non-canonical signaling pathway.

Keywords: cardiac stem cells, differentiation, TGF-β, TRAF6, ubiquitination, Wnt

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204 Effect of Far Infrared and Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement on Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells

Authors: Ming-Tzu Tsai, Jui-Ting Hsu, Chia-Chieh Lin, Feng-Tsai Chiang, Cheng-Chin Huang

Abstract:

Far infrared (FIR), an invisible and short electromagnetic waves ranges from 6-14 μm also defines as the “growth ray.” Although the mechanism of FIR is still unknown, most data have suggested that FIR could accelerate the skin microcirculation by elevating the blood flow and nitric-oxide (NO) synthesis. In this present work, the effect of FIR irradiation and endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated. To understand whether the cell viability and NO production of HUVECs affected by NO, cells with/without ECGS were treated in the presence or absence of L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor. For FIR exposure, FIR-emitted ceramic powders consisted of a variety of well-mixed metal oxides were developed. The results showed that L-NAME did had a strong effect on the inhibition of NO production, especially in the ECGS-treated group. However, the cell viability of each group was rarely affected in the presence of L-NAME. Cells with the incubation of ECGS showed much higher cell viability compared to the control. Moreover, NO production of HUVECs exposed to FIR irradiation was significantly inhibited in the presence of L-NAME. It suggested that NO could play a role modulating the downstream signals of HUVECs during FIR exposure.

Keywords: far-infrared irradiation (FIR), nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS)

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203 Maximum Induced Subgraph of an Augmented Cube

Authors: Meng-Jou Chien, Jheng-Cheng Chen, Chang-Hsiung Tsai

Abstract:

Let maxζG(m) denote the maximum number of edges in a subgraph of graph G induced by m nodes. The n-dimensional augmented cube, denoted as AQn, a variation of the hypercube, possesses some properties superior to those of the hypercube. We study the cases when G is the augmented cube AQn.

Keywords: interconnection network, augmented cube, induced subgraph, bisection width

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
202 Impact of Boundary Conditions on the Behavior of Thin-Walled Laminated Column with L-Profile under Uniform Shortening

Authors: Jaroslaw Gawryluk, Andrzej Teter

Abstract:

Simply supported angle columns subjected to uniform shortening are tested. The experimental studies are conducted on a testing machine using additional Aramis and the acoustic emission system. The laminate samples are subjected to axial uniform shortening. The tested columns are loaded with the force values from zero to the maximal load destroying the L-shaped column, which allowed one to observe the column post-buckling behavior until its collapse. Laboratory tests are performed at a constant velocity of the cross-bar equal to 1 mm/min. In order to eliminate stress concentrations between sample and support, flexible pads are used. Analyzed samples are made with carbon-epoxy laminate using the autoclave method. The configurations of laminate layers are: [60,0₂,-60₂,60₃,-60₂,0₃,-60₂,0,60₂]T, where direction 0 is along the length of the profile. Material parameters of laminate are: Young’s modulus along the fiber direction - 170GPa, Young’s modulus along the fiber transverse direction - 7.6GPa, shear modulus in-plane - 3.52GPa, Poisson’s ratio in-plane - 0.36. The dimensions of all columns are: length-300 mm, thickness-0.81mm, width of the flanges-40mm. Next, two numerical models of the column with and without flexible pads are developed using the finite element method in Abaqus software. The L-profile laminate column is modeled using the S8R shell elements. The layup-ply technique is used to define the sequence of the laminate layers. However, the model of grips is made of the R3D4 discrete rigid elements. The flexible pad is consists of the C3D20R type solid elements. In order to estimate the moment of the first laminate layer damage, the following initiation criteria were applied: maximum stress criterion, Tsai-Hill, Tsai-Wu, Azzi-Tsai-Hill, and Hashin criteria. The best compliance of results was observed for the Hashin criterion. It was found that the use of the pad in the numerical model significantly influences the damage mechanism. The model without pads characterized a much more stiffness, as evidenced by a greater bifurcation load and damage initiation load in all analyzed criteria, lower shortening, and less deflection of the column in its center than the model with flexible pads. Acknowledgment: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: angle column, compression, experiment, FEM

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201 Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticide and Fetal Growth

Authors: Yi-Shuan ShaoShao, Yen-An Tsai, Chia-Huang Chang, Kai-Wei Liao, Ming-Song Tsai, Mei-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is an environmental hormone with proven endocrine-disrupting effects that may affect the growth and development in human. A large amount of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is used throughout Taiwan, and human may be exposed through dietary intake or residential use. During pregnancy, OPs can be transferred to the blood stream reaching the fetus through the placenta. The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal OPs exposure levels and fetal developments and birth outcomes. A birth cohort was follow-up. Maternal urine sample were collected at the first, second, and third gestational trimester. Fetal growth characteristics were measured by ultrasonic scan and birth outcomes were assessed by pediatrician. Urinary metabolite of organophosphate pesticides were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analytes included dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphates (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). We found that all of urine samples in each trimester were detected at least one metabolite for dialkyl phosphate (DAP). The detection rate range of OP urinary metabolites were from the lowest 22% DEDTP to the highest 100% DMP and DMTP. And to compared geometric means (GM) of urinary metabolites with three trimesters, that third trimester had the highest concentration for DMPs, DEPs, and DAPs in pregnant women were 368.01, 169.85 and 543.75 nmol/g creatinine, respectively. We observed that DAPs concentration in first and second trimester were significantly negative association with head circumference. DMPs in first trimester was significantly negative association with thoracic circumference (p=0.05) by spearman correlation. Our results support associations with prenatal OPs exposure with fetal head circumference and thoracic circumference. It provided that maternal OPs exposure might affect birth outcomes. Thus, prenatal exposure to OPs and health risk worthy of attention and concern.

Keywords: DAPs, birth outcomes, organophosphate pesticides, prenatal

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200 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan

Abstract:

Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
199 Wet Spun Graphene Fibers With Silver Nanoparticles For Flexible Electronic Applications

Authors: Syed W. Hasan, Zhiqun Tian

Abstract:

Wet spinning provides a facile and economic route to fabricate graphene nanofibers (GFs) on mass scale. Nevertheless, the pristine GFs exhibit significantly low electrical and mechanical properties owing to stacked graphene sheets and weak inter-atomic bonding. In this report, we present highly conductive Ag-decorated-GFs (Ag/GFs). The SEM micrographs show Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (dia ~10 nm) are homogeneously distributed throughout the cross-section of the fiber. The Ag NPs provide a conductive network for the electrons flow raising the conductivity to 1.8(10^4) S/m which is 4 times higher than the pristine GFs. Our results surpass the conductivities of graphene fibers doped with CNTs, Nanocarbon, fullerene, and Cu. The chemical and structural attributes of Ag/GFs are further elucidated through XPS, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, Conductive fibers, Graphene, Wet spinning

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198 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

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197 A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm

Authors: Yi-Cheng Tian, Miin-Shen Yang

Abstract:

The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, EM algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, mixture regression model

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196 MegaProjects and the Governing Processes That Lead to Success and Failure: A Literature Review

Authors: Fangwei Zhu, Wei Tian, Linzhuo Wang, Miao Yu

Abstract:

Megaproject has long been a critical issue in project governance, for its low success rate and large impact on society. Although the extant literature on megaproject governance is vast, to our best knowledge, the lacking of a thorough literature review makes it hard for us to gain a holistic view on current scenario of megaproject governance. The study conducts a systematic literature review process to analyze the existing literatures on megaproject governance. The finding indicates that mega project governance needs to be handled at network level and forming a network level governance provides a holistic framework for governing megaproject towards sustainable development of the projects. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future studies and limitations, were discussed.

Keywords: megaproject, governance, literature review, network

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
195 Reliability-Simulation of Composite Tubular Structure under Pressure by Finite Elements Methods

Authors: Abdelkader Hocine, Abdelhakim Maizia

Abstract:

The exponential growth of reinforced fibers composite materials use has prompted researchers to step up their work on the prediction of their reliability. Owing to differences between the properties of the materials used for the composite, the manufacturing processes, the load combinations and types of environment, the prediction of the reliability of composite materials has become a primary task. Through failure criteria, TSAI-WU and the maximum stress, the reliability of multilayer tubular structures under pressure is the subject of this paper, where the failure probability of is estimated by the method of Monte Carlo.

Keywords: composite, design, monte carlo, tubular structure, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
194 Early-Warning Lights Classification Management System for Industrial Parks in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Min Chang, Kuo-Sheng Tsai, Hung-Te Tsai, Chia-Hsin Li

Abstract:

This paper presents the early-warning lights classification management system for industrial parks promoted by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) since 2011, including the definition of each early-warning light, objectives, action program and accomplishments. All of the 151 industrial parks in Taiwan were classified into four early-warning lights, including red, orange, yellow and green, for carrying out respective pollution management according to the monitoring data of soil and groundwater quality, regulatory compliance, and regulatory listing of control site or remediation site. The Taiwan EPA set up a priority list for high potential polluted industrial parks and investigated their soil and groundwater qualities based on the results of the light classification and pollution potential assessment. In 2011-2013, there were 44 industrial parks selected and carried out different investigation, such as the early warning groundwater well networks establishment and pollution investigation/verification for the red and orange-light industrial parks and the environmental background survey for the yellow-light industrial parks. Among them, 22 industrial parks were newly or continuously confirmed that the concentrations of pollutants exceeded those in soil or groundwater pollution control standards. Thus, the further investigation, groundwater use restriction, listing of pollution control site or remediation site, and pollutant isolation measures were implemented by the local environmental protection and industry competent authorities; the early warning lights of those industrial parks were proposed to adjust up to orange or red-light. Up to the present, the preliminary positive effect of the soil and groundwater quality management system for industrial parks has been noticed in several aspects, such as environmental background information collection, early warning of pollution risk, pollution investigation and control, information integration and application, and inter-agency collaboration. Finally, the work and goal of self-initiated quality management of industrial parks will be carried out on the basis of the inter-agency collaboration by the classified lights system of early warning and management as well as the regular announcement of the status of each industrial park.

Keywords: industrial park, soil and groundwater quality management, early-warning lights classification, SOP for reporting and treatment of monitored abnormal events

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193 Influence of Geometry on Performance of Type-4 Filament Wound Composite Cylinder for Compressed Gas Storage

Authors: Pranjali Sharma, Swati Neogi

Abstract:

Composite pressure vessels are low weight structures mainly used in a variety of applications such as automobiles, aeronautics and chemical engineering. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials offer the simplicity of design and use, high fuel storage capacity, rapid refueling capability, excellent shelf life, minimal infrastructure impact, high safety due to the inherent strength of the pressure vessel, and little to no development risk. Apart from these preliminary merits, the subsidized weight of composite vessels over metallic cylinders act as the biggest asset to the automotive industry, increasing the fuel efficiency. The result is a lightweight, flexible, non-explosive, and non-fragmenting pressure vessel that can be tailor-made to attune with specific applications. The winding pattern of the composite over-wrap is a primary focus while designing a pressure vessel. The critical stresses in the system depend on the thickness, angle and sequence of the composite layers. The composite over-wrap is wound over a plastic liner, whose geometry can be varied for the ease of winding. In the present study, we aim to optimize the FRP vessel geometry that provides an ease in winding and also aids in weight reduction for enhancing the vessel performance. Finite element analysis is used to study the effect of dome geometry, yielding a design with maximum value of burst pressure and least value of vessel weight. The stress and strain analysis of different dome ends along with the cylindrical portion is carried out in ANSYS 19.2. The failure is predicted using different failure theories like Tsai-Wu theory, Tsai-Hill theory and Maximum stress theory. Corresponding to a given winding sequence, the optimum dome geometry is determined for a fixed internal pressure to identify the theoretical value of burst pressure. Finally, this geometry is used to decrease the number of layers to reach the set value of safety in accordance with the available safety standards. This results in decrease in the weight of the composite over-wrap and manufacturing cost of the pressure vessel. An improvement in the overall weight performance of the pressure vessel gives higher fuel efficiency for its use in automobile applications.

Keywords: Compressed Gas Storage, Dome geometry, Theoretical Analysis, Type-4 Composite Pressure Vessel, Improvement in Vessel Weight Performance

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192 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang

Abstract:

In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
191 Half-Circle Fuzzy Number Threshold Determination via Swarm Intelligence Method

Authors: P. W. Tsai, J. W. Chen, C. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, many researchers are involved in the field of fuzzy theory. However, there are still a lot of issues to be resolved. Especially on topics related to controller design such as the field of robot, artificial intelligence, and nonlinear systems etc. Besides fuzzy theory, algorithms in swarm intelligence are also a popular field for the researchers. In this paper, a concept of utilizing one of the swarm intelligence method, which is called Bacterial-GA Foraging, to find the stabilized common P matrix for the fuzzy controller system is proposed. An example is given in in the paper, as well.

Keywords: half-circle fuzzy numbers, predictions, swarm intelligence, Lyapunov method

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190 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman

Abstract:

This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: effective properties, homogenization, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
189 Nonlinear Heat Transfer in a Spiral Fin with a Period Base Temperature

Authors: Kuo-Teng Tsai, You-Min Huang

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of a spiral fin with a period base temperature is analyzed by using the Adomian decomposition method. The Adomian decomposition method is a useful and practice method to solve the nonlinear energy equation which are associated with the heat radiation. The period base temperature is around a mean value. The results including the temperature distribution and the heat flux from the spiral fin base can be calculated directly. The results also discussed the effects of the dimensionless variables for the temperature variations and the total energy transferred from the spiral fin base.

Keywords: spiral fin, period, adomian decomposition method, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
188 Survey Investigation of Perceptions of Technologists among Primary Students: Stereotypes, Diversity, and Their Use of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Authors: Tian Luo, Wing Mui Winnie So

Abstract:

Gaining career awareness in STEM is an important educational outcome in STEM education. While many studies focused on students’ understanding of scientists and engineers, very few studies explore students’ perceptions of technologists as a group of STEM professionals. In this study, 300 valid surveys which include drawing task and follow-up questions about technologist were collected from 4th to 6th grade students. The results showed that 75.1% of the students draw a technologist as a male and 19.3% draw a technologist as a female. Most students believe that technologists use math, science or engineering in their work and can name a few categories of technologists. The drawings also showed that students tend to present technologists as people who work with a computer.

Keywords: STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, elementary students, technologist, STEM careers

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187 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

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186 Evaluation of tribological performance of aged and unaged biodiesel

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Tian-Yi Huang, Ming-Jhe Hsieh

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In this work, soybean biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel as testing oils (B2). The tribiological performance of the B2 biodiesel before and after aging was evaluated using a reciprocating cylinder-on-flat wear test rig (Cameron-Plint TE-77) at various temperatures. The worn surface of each tested specimen was observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The compositions of the chemical films on each worn surface were determined using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The experimental results demonstrate that the tribiological behavior of the B2 was superior to that of other testing oils. Furthermore, the aging of biodiesel caused acidification, which resulted in poorer wear performance in the same experimental condition compared with others. The worn morphology of the specimen that was tested in the aged soybean biodiesel exhibited corrosion wear, reflecting low wear resistance.

Keywords: biodiesel, soybean, tribological performance

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185 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai

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This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

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184 Relation between Initial Stability of the Dental Implant and Bone-Implant Contact Level

Authors: Jui-Ting Hsu, Heng-Li Huang, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Kuo-Chih Su, Lih-Jyh Fuh

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The objectives of this study were to measure the initial stability of the dental implant (ISQ and PTV) in the artificial foam bone block with three different quality levels. In addition, the 3D bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) was measured based on the micro-computed tomography images. Furthermore, the relation between the initial stability of dental implant (ISQ and PTV) and BIC% were calculated. The experimental results indicated that enhanced the material property of the artificial foam bone increased the initial stability of the dental implant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BIC% and the two approaches (ISQ and PTV) were 0.652 and 0.745.

Keywords: dental implant, implant stability quotient, peak insertion torque, bone-implant contact, micro-computed tomography

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183 Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Optimized LDI Controller with Lyapunov Stability Criterion for Nonlinear Structural Systems

Authors: P. W. Tsai, W. L. Hong, C. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen

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In this paper, we present a neural network (NN) based approach represent a nonlinear Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) system. A linear differential inclusion (LDI) state-space representation is utilized to deal with the NN models. Taking advantage of the LDI representation, the stability conditions and controller design are derived for a class of nonlinear structural systems. Moreover, the concept of utilizing the Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) algorithm to solve the common P matrix under the stability criteria is given in this paper.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, parallel particle swarm optimization, linear differential inclusion, artificial intelligence

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182 Disruption Coordination of Supply Chain with Loss-Averse Retailer Under Buy-Back Contract

Authors: Yuan Tian, Benhe Gao

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This paper aims to investigate a two stage supply chain of one leading supplier and one following retailer that experiences two factors perturbation out of supplier's production cost, retailer's marginal cost and retail price in stochastic demand environment. Granted that risk neutral condition has long been discussed, little attention has been given to disruptions under the premise of risk neutral supplier and risk aversion retailer. We establish the optimal order quantity and revealed the profit distribution coefficient in risk-neutral static model, make adjustment under disruption scenario, and then select utility function method for risk aversion model. Using buy-back contract policy, the improvement of parameters can achieve channel coordination where Pareto optimal is realized.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, disruption management, buy-back contract, lose aversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
181 A Study of the Influence of College Students’ Exercise and Leisure Motivations on the Leisure Benefits: Using Leisure Involvement as a Moderator

Authors: Chiung-En Huang, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Shane-Chung Lee

Abstract:

This study aim at the influence of college students’ exercise and leisure motivations on the leisure benefits while using the leisure involvement as a moderator. Whereby, the research tools used in this study included the application of leisure motivation scale, leisure involvement scale and leisure benefits scale, and a hierarchical regression analysis was performed by using a questionnaire-based survey, in which, a total of 1,500 copies of questionnaires were administered and 917 valid questionnaires were obtained, achieving a response rate of 61.13%. Research findings explore that leisure involvement has a moderating effect on the relationship between the leisure motivation and leisure benefits.

Keywords: leisure motivation, leisure involvement, leisure benefits, moderator

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180 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian

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Whereas currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning

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179 The Relevant Study of Leisure Motivation, Leisure Attitude and Health Promotion Lifestyle of Elderly People in Taiwan

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Chiung-En Huang, Ming-Tsang Wu

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure attitude, and health promotion lifestyle. The participants were recruited from a convenience sampling that subjects were at least 55 years of age in Tainan City, Taiwan. Three hundred survey instruments were distributed, and 227 effective instruments were returned, for an effective rate of 75.7%. The collected data were analyzed statistically. The findings of this research were as follows: 1.There is significantly correlated between leisure motivation and leisure attitude. 2. There is significantly correlated between leisure attitude and health promotion lifestyle. 3. There is significantly correlated between leisure motivation and health promotion lifestyle.

Keywords: leisure motivation, leisure attitude, health promotion lifestyle, tourism

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178 Search for New Design Elements in Time-Honoured Shops in Tainan — On Curriculum Practice about Culture Creative Industry

Authors: Ya-Ling Huang, Ming-Chun Tsai, Fan Hsu, Kai-Ru Hsieh

Abstract:

This paper mainly discusses the research and practice process of a laboratory curriculum by leading students to perform field investigation into time-honoured shops that have existed for more than 50 years in the downtown area of Tainan, Taiwan, and then search again for design elements and completing the design. The participants are juniors from the Department of Visual Communication Design, Kun Shan University. The duration of research and practice is two months. Operators of these shops are invited to jointly appraise the final achievements. 9 works out of 27 are chosen for final exhibition and commercialization.

Keywords: culture creative industry, visual communication design, curriculum experimental, visual arts

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