Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2351

Search results for: induced subgraph

2351 Maximum Induced Subgraph of an Augmented Cube

Authors: Meng-Jou Chien, Jheng-Cheng Chen, Chang-Hsiung Tsai


Let maxζG(m) denote the maximum number of edges in a subgraph of graph G induced by m nodes. The n-dimensional augmented cube, denoted as AQn, a variation of the hypercube, possesses some properties superior to those of the hypercube. We study the cases when G is the augmented cube AQn.

Keywords: interconnection network, augmented cube, induced subgraph, bisection width

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2350 Generator Subgraphs of the Wheel

Authors: Neil M. Mame


We consider only finite graphs without loops nor multiple edges. Let G be a graph with E(G) = {e1, e2, …., em}. The edge space of G, denoted by ε(G), is a vector space over the field Z2. The elements of ε(G) are all the subsets of E(G). Vector addition is defined as X+Y = X Δ Y, the symmetric difference of sets X and Y, for X, Y ∈ ε(G). Scalar multiplication is defined as 1.X =X and 0.X = Ø for X ∈ ε(G). The set S ⊆ ε(G) is called a generating set if every element ε(G) is a linear combination of the elements of S. For a non-empty set X ∈ ε(G), the smallest subgraph with edge set X is called edge-induced subgraph of G, denoted by G[X]. The set EH(G) = { A ∈ ε(G) : G[A] ≅ H } denotes the uniform set of H with respect to G and εH(G) denotes the subspace of ε(G) generated by EH(G). If εH(G) is generating set, then we call H a generator subgraph of G. This paper gives the characterization for the generator subgraphs of the wheel that contain cycles and gives the necessary conditions for the acyclic generator subgraphs of the wheel.

Keywords: edge space, edge-induced subgraph, generator subgraph, wheel

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2349 Hamiltonian Paths and Cycles Passing through Prescribed Edges in the Balanced Hypercubes

Authors: Dongqin Cheng


The n-dimensional balanced hypercube BHn (n ≥ 1) has been proved to be a bipartite graph. Let P be a set of edges whose induced subgraph consists of pairwise vertex-disjoint paths. For any two vertices u, v from different partite sets of V (BHn). In this paper, we prove that if |P| ≤ 2n − 2 and the subgraph induced by P has neither u nor v as internal vertices, or both of u and v as end-vertices, then BHn contains a Hamiltonian path joining u and v passing through P. As a corollary, if |P| ≤ 2n−1, then the BHn contains a Hamiltonian cycle passing through P.

Keywords: interconnection network, balanced hypercube, Hamiltonian cycle, prescribed edges

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2348 Complete Tripartite Graphs with Spanning Maximal Planar Subgraphs

Authors: Severino Gervacio, Velimor Almonte, Emmanuel Natalio


A simple graph is planar if it there is a way of drawing it in the plane without edge crossings. A planar graph which is not a proper spanning subgraph of another planar graph is a maximal planar graph. We prove that for complete tripartite graphs of order at most 9, the only ones that contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph are K1,1,1, K2,2,2, K2,3,3, and K3,3,3. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the complete tripartite graph Kx,y,z to contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph.

Keywords: complete tripartite graph, graph, maximal planar graph, planar graph, subgraph

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2347 From Convexity in Graphs to Polynomial Rings

Authors: Ladznar S. Laja, Rosalio G. Artes, Jr.


This paper introduced a graph polynomial relating convexity concepts. A graph polynomial is a polynomial representing a graph given some parameters. On the other hand, a subgraph H of a graph G is said to be convex in G if for every pair of vertices in H, every shortest path with these end-vertices lies entirely in H. We define the convex subgraph polynomial of a graph G to be the generating function of the sequence of the numbers of convex subgraphs of G of cardinalities ranging from zero to the order of G. This graph polynomial is monic since G itself is convex. The convex index which counts the number of convex subgraphs of G of all orders is just the evaluation of this polynomial at 1. Relationships relating algebraic properties of convex subgraphs polynomial with graph theoretic concepts are established.

Keywords: convex subgraph, convex index, generating function, polynomial ring

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2346 Identifying Network Subgraph-Associated Essential Genes in Molecular Networks

Authors: Efendi Zaenudin, Chien-Hung Huang, Ka-Lok Ng


Essential genes play an important role in the survival of an organism. It has been shown that cancer-associated essential genes are genes necessary for cancer cell proliferation, where these genes are potential therapeutic targets. Also, it was demonstrated that mutations of the cancer-associated essential genes give rise to the resistance of immunotherapy for patients with tumors. In the present study, we focus on studying the biological effects of the essential genes from a network perspective. We hypothesize that one can analyze a biological molecular network by decomposing it into both three-node and four-node digraphs (subgraphs). These network subgraphs encode the regulatory interaction information among the network’s genetic elements. In this study, the frequency of occurrence of the subgraph-associated essential genes in a molecular network was quantified by using the statistical parameter, odds ratio. Biological effects of subgraph-associated essential genes are discussed. In summary, the subgraph approach provides a systematic method for analyzing molecular networks and it can capture useful biological information for biomedical research.

Keywords: biological molecular networks, essential genes, graph theory, network subgraphs

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2345 Hybrid Approximate Structural-Semantic Frequent Subgraph Mining

Authors: Montaceur Zaghdoud, Mohamed Moussaoui, Jalel Akaichi


Frequent subgraph mining refers usually to graph matching and it is widely used in when analyzing big data with large graphs. A lot of research works dealt with structural exact or inexact graph matching but a little attention is paid to semantic matching when graph vertices and/or edges are attributed and typed. Therefore, it seems very interesting to integrate background knowledge into the analysis and that extracted frequent subgraphs should become more pruned by applying a new semantic filter instead of using only structural similarity in graph matching process. Consequently, this paper focuses on developing a new hybrid approximate structuralsemantic graph matching to discover a set of frequent subgraphs. It uses simultaneously an approximate structural similarity function based on graph edit distance function and a possibilistic vertices similarity function based on affinity function. Both structural and semantic filters contribute together to prune extracted frequent set. Indeed, new hybrid structural-semantic frequent subgraph mining approach searches will be suitable to be applied to several application such as community detection in social networks.

Keywords: approximate graph matching, hybrid frequent subgraph mining, graph mining, possibility theory

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2344 Cirrhosis Mortality Prediction as Classification using Frequent Subgraph Mining

Authors: Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Diego Klabjan, Chenxi Ge, Daniela Ladner, Parker Stride


In this work, we use machine learning and novel data analysis techniques to predict the one-year mortality of cirrhotic patients. Data from 2,322 patients with liver cirrhosis are collected at a single medical center. Different machine learning models are applied to predict one-year mortality. A comprehensive feature space including demographic information, comorbidity, clinical procedure and laboratory tests is being analyzed. A temporal pattern mining technic called Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) is being used. Model for End-stage liver disease (MELD) prediction of mortality is used as a comparator. All of our models statistically significantly outperform the MELD-score model and show an average 10% improvement of the area under the curve (AUC). The FSM technic itself does not improve the model significantly, but FSM, together with a machine learning technique called an ensemble, further improves the model performance. With the abundance of data available in healthcare through electronic health records (EHR), existing predictive models can be refined to identify and treat patients at risk for higher mortality. However, due to the sparsity of the temporal information needed by FSM, the FSM model does not yield significant improvements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to apply modern machine learning algorithms and data analysis methods on predicting one-year mortality of cirrhotic patients and builds a model that predicts one-year mortality significantly more accurate than the MELD score. We have also tested the potential of FSM and provided a new perspective of the importance of clinical features.

Keywords: machine learning, liver cirrhosis, subgraph mining, supervised learning

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2343 Effect of Geomagnetic Field on Motion of Conductor

Authors: Bharti Gupta, Alaukik Sharma


The first aim is to determine the effect of the Earth's magnetic field on the motion of a conductor to evaluate the variations of the orbital elements of the conductor due to these effects. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on the motion of conductors have been studied at different heights, longitudes and latitudes. When the conductor cut the geomagnetic line of force, then an electro-motive force (EMF) is induced across to the conductor. Due to this induced EMF, an induced current will flow through the conductor. Resulting, a Lorentz force will be applied on the conductor who opposes the motion of the conductor. So our second aim is to determine the accurate value of Induced EMF and induced Lorentz Force at different heights, longitudes and latitudes.

Keywords: induced EMF, Lorentz force, geomagnetic lines of force, moving conductor

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2342 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat


The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury.

Keywords: thymoquinone, arsenic, testes, rats

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2341 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh


Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: caffeine, Lactuca sativa, sleep duration, sleep latency

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2340 A Model for Analysis the Induced Voltage of 115 kV On-Line Acting on Neighboring 22 kV Off-Line

Authors: Sakhon Woothipatanapan, Surasit Prakobkit


This paper presents a model for analysis the induced voltage of transmission lines (energized) acting on neighboring distribution lines (de-energized). From environmental restrictions, 22 kV distribution lines need to be installed under 115 kV transmission lines. With the installation of the two parallel circuits like this, they make the induced voltage which can cause harm to operators. This work was performed with the ATP-EMTP modeling to analyze such phenomenon before field testing. Simulation results are used to find solutions to prevent danger to operators who are on the pole.

Keywords: transmission system, distribution system, induced voltage, off-line operation

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2339 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova


Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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2338 Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat


The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: hesperidin, cyclophosphamide, liver, rats

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2337 Attenuation of Homocysteine-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Human Monocytes by Fulvic Acid

Authors: Shao-Ju Chien, Yi-Chien Wu, Ting-Ying Huang, Li-Tsen Li, You-Jin Chen, Cheng-Nan Chen


Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA) is class of compounds of humic substances and possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were kept as controls or pre-treated with FA, and then stimulated with homocysteine. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor for nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) attenuated homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibit homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

Keywords: homocysteine, monocytes, cyclooxygenase-2, fulvic acid, anti-inflammation

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2336 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang


In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

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2335 Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Inhibits Fe2+ and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver

Authors: Oluwafemi Ojo, Omotade Oloyede


This study seeks to investigate the antioxidative properties and the ability of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves to inhibit some pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver homogenates in vitro. The ability of the extracts to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 and 7.0 µM sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat’s liver was determined. The results of the study revealed that both pro-oxidants caused a significantly decrease in (p < 0.05) accumulation of lipid peroxides. However, aqueous extract of OG shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production in the liver induced with SNP than Fe2+. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract of OG which shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production more when induced with Fe2+ than SNP. However, ethyl acetate fraction of OG shows a higher inhibitory effect on both Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver. This applies to its significantly higher extractable phytochemicals. Therefore, Fe II and sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress could be managed by dietary intake of Ocimum gratissimum leaves.

Keywords: antioxidative, pro-oxidants, lipid peroxidation, Ocimum gratissimum

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2334 Control of IL-23 Release in Dendritic Cells Protects Mice from Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis

Authors: Xingxin Wu, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yang Tan, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu


Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. IL-23 signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Control of IL-23 release by small molecule compounds during developing psoriasis has not been well established. Here, we show that compound 1, a small molecule nature product, protected mice from imiquimod-induced psoriasis with improved skin lesions, reduced skin thickness, and reduced IL-23 mRNA expression in the skin tissue. FACS results showed compound 1 reduced the number of dendritic cells in the skin. Interestingly, compound 1 was not able to ameliorate IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. Further, compound 1 inhibited MyD88-dependent IL-23 mRNA expression induced by LPS, CpG and imiquimod in BMDC cells, but not MyD88-independent CD80 and CD86 expression induced by LPS. The methods included real-time PCR, western blot, H & E staining, FACS and ELISA et al. In conclusion, compound 1 regulates MyD88-dependent signaling to control IL-23 release in dendritic cells, which improves imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

Keywords: dendritic cells, IL-23, toll-like receptor signaling, psoriasis

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2333 Suppression of DMBA/TPA-Induced Skin Tumorigenesis by Menthol through Inhibition of Inflammation, NF-kappaB, Ras-Raf-ERK Pathway

Authors: Zhaoguo Liu, Cunsi Shen, Yin Lu


Growing evidence has shown that menthol has potent anticancer activity in various human cancers. However, its effect on skin cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of menthol against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene(DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin tumorigenesis in ICR mice. Our results showed that menthol significantly inhibited TPA-induced inflammatory responses and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. We also found that menthol treatment significantly inhibited TPA-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), mouse UDP-glucumno-syltransferase (UGT), mouse NADH Dehydrogenase, Quinone 1 (NQO1) release. Furthermore, we found menthol treatment significantly inhibited the tumor incidence and number of tumors (P < 0.001). Interestingly, we observed that menthol treatment significantly inhibited TPA-induced altered activity of NF-κB in skin tumor. Consistently, menthol-treated tumors also showed significantly suppressed the Ras-Raf-ERK signaling pathway. Thus, our results suggest that menthol inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis by attenuating the Ras and inhibiting NF-κB activity via inhibition of inflammation responses and pro-inflammatory cytokine release.

Keywords: DMBA/TPA, NF-κB, Ras-Raf-ERK, skin tumorigenesis

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2332 Ethanol Extract of Potentilla pradoxa Nutt Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses via NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation

Authors: Hae-Jun Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tae Lee


Potentilla species (Rosasease) have been used in traditional medicine to treat different ailment, disease or malady. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of NUTT (EPP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. EPP suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, EPP reduced the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by downregulation of their promoter activities. EPP inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at production and mRNA levels. Molecularly, EPP attenuated the LPS-induced transcriptional activity, and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this was associated with a decrease of translocation and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB by inhibiting the inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) degradation and IκB kinase-α/β (IKK-α/β) phosphorylation. Furthermore, EPP suppressed the LPS-induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in nuclear. EPP also reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), such as p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK). In a sepsis model, pretreatment with EPP reduced the LPS-induced lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of EPP were associated with the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, activator protein-1, nuclear factor κB, Potentilla paradoxa Nutt

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2331 Retrieval-Induced Forgetting Effects in Retrospective and Prospective Memory in Normal Aging: An Experimental Study

Authors: Merve Akca


Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon that selective retrieval of some information impairs memory for related, but not previously retrieved information. Despite age differences in retrieval-induced forgetting regarding retrospective memory being documented, this research aimed to highlight age differences in RIF of the prospective memory tasks for the first time. By using retrieval-practice paradigm, this study comparatively examined RIF effects in retrospective memory and event-based prospective memory in young and old adults. In this experimental study, a mixed factorial design with age group (Young, Old) as a between-subject variable, and memory type (Prospective, Retrospective) and item type (Practiced, Non-practiced) as within-subject variables was employed. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in the retrospective but not in the prospective memory task. Therefore, the results indicated that selective retrieval of past events led to suppression of other related past events in both age groups but not the suppression of memory for future intentions.

Keywords: prospective memory, retrieval-induced forgetting, retrieval inhibition, retrospective memory

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2330 Modeling of Induced Voltage in Disconnected Grounded Conductor of Three-Phase Power Line

Authors: Misho Matsankov, Stoyan Petrov


The paper presents the methodology and the obtained mathematical models for determining the value of the grounding resistance of a disconnected conductor in a three-phase power line, for which the contact voltage is safe, by taking into account the potentials, induced by the non-disconnected phase conductors. The mathematical models have been obtained by implementing the experimental design techniques.

Keywords: contact voltage, experimental design, induced voltage, safety

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2329 Antiasthmatic Effect of Kankasava in OVA-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

Authors: Bharti Ahirwar


The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of kankasava on OVA-induced asthma in mouse model. Present study has demonstrated that kankasava exhibited an antiasthmatic effect by attenuated AHR and reducing level of IgE, IL-5, and IL-13, in both serum and BALF in OVA induced asthmatic mice. Effect of kankasav on airway responsiveness was obtained by monitoring the enhanced pen value . Kankasava significantly reduced AHR can be explained, in part, by reduction in both IgE overexoression and cytokine levels. Kankasava significantly decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF indicate that it may suppress the excess activity of T-cells and Th2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and consequently restore the Th1/Th2 imbalance of the immune system. In summary, we hypothesize that kankasava effectively suppressed elevations in IgE and cytokines levels, AHR, and mucus overproduction in mice with OVA-induced asthma suggested kankasava could be effective in immunological and pharmacological modulation of allergic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, ayurveda, kankasava, cytokine

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2328 Separating Permanent and Induced Magnetic Signature: A Simple Approach

Authors: O. J. G. Somsen, G. P. M. Wagemakers


Magnetic signature detection provides sensitive detection of metal objects, especially in the natural environment. Our group is developing a tabletop setup for magnetic signatures of various small and model objects. A particular issue is the separation of permanent and induced magnetization. While the latter depends only on the composition and shape of the object, the former also depends on the magnetization history. With common deperming techniques, a significant permanent signature may still remain, which confuses measurements of the induced component. We investigate a basic technique of separating the two. Measurements were done by moving the object along an aluminum rail while the three field components are recorded by a detector attached near the center. This is done first with the rail parallel to the Earth magnetic field and then with anti-parallel orientation. The reversal changes the sign of the induced- but not the permanent magnetization so that the two can be separated. Our preliminary results on a small iron block show excellent reproducibility. A considerable permanent magnetization was indeed present, resulting in a complex asymmetric signature. After separation, a much more symmetric induced signature was obtained that can be studied in detail and compared with theoretical calculations.

Keywords: magnetic signature, data analysis, magnetization, deperming techniques

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2327 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Hamed A. Alwadaani, Iyad Jresat


The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

Keywords: thymoquinone, cadmium, kidney, rats

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2326 Induced Chemistry for Dissociative Electron Attachment to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition Precursors Based on Ti, Si and Fe Metal Elements

Authors: Maria Pintea, Nigel Mason


Induced chemistry is one of the newest pathways in the nanotechnology field with applications in the focused electron beam induced processes for deposition of nm scale structures. Si(OPr)₄ and Ti(OEt)₄ are two of the precursors that have not been so extensively researched, though highly sought for semiconductor and medical applications fields, the two compounds make good candidates for FEBIP and are the subject of velocity slice map imaging analysis for deposition purposes, offering information on kinetic energies, fragmentation channels, and angular distributions. The velocity slice map imaging technique is a method used for the characterization of molecular dynamics of the molecule and the fragmentation channels as a result of induced chemistry. To support the gas-phase analysis, Meso-Bio-Nano simulations of irradiation dynamics studies are employed with final results on Fe(CO)₅ deposited on various substrates. The software is capable of running large scale simulations for complex biomolecular, nano- and mesoscopic systems with applications to thermos-mechanical DNA damage, complex materials, gases, nanoparticles for cancer research and deposition applications for nanotechnology, using a large library of classical potentials, many-body force fields, molecular force fields involved in the classical molecular dynamics.

Keywords: focused electron beam induced deposition, FEBID, induced chemistry, molecular dynamics, velocity map slice imaging

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2325 Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Extract

Authors: Nantawan Soonklang, Linda Chularojanamontri, Urarat Nanna


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. belongs to the family Acanthaceae commonly known as Rang jeud in Thailand. This plant is traditionally used in Thailand for centuries as an antidote for several poisons and drug overdose. Aim of the study: This research aimed to study the analgesic and antipyretic activities of T. laurifolia water extract by using animal models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was studied using 2 methods of pain induction including acetic acid and heat induced pain. And the antipyretic activity study was performed by yeast-induced hyperthermia. Results: The results showed that the administration of T. laurifolia extract possessed analgesic activity by reducing acetic acid-induced writhing response and heat-induced pain as well as showed antipyretic activity by decreasing body temperature of hyperthermic rats induced by brewer’s yeast. Conclusion: The study indicates that the T. laurifolia extract possesses analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia extract, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity, hyperthermia

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2324 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee


This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes.

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow

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2323 Pharmacogenetics Study of Dapsone-Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions and HLA Class I Alleles in Thai Patients

Authors: Patompong Satapornpong, Therdpong Tempark, Pawinee Rerknimitr, Jettanong Klaewsongkram, Chonlaphat Sukasem


Dapsone (4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) is broadly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections such as; leprosy, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with HIV infection, neutrophilic dermatoses, dermatitis herpetiformis and autoimmune bullous disease. The severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) including, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are rare but severe life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Dapsone is one of many culprit drugs induced SJS, TEN and DRESS. Notwithstanding, to our knowledge, there are no studies of the association of HLA class I alleles and dapsone-induced SCARs in non-leprosy Thai patients. This investigation was a prospective cohort study, which performed in a total of 45 non-leprosy patients. Fifteen patients of dapsone-induced SCARs were classified as following the RegiSCAR criteria, and 30 dapsone-tolerant controls were exposed to dapsone more than 6 months without any evidence of cutaneous reactions. The genotyping of HLA-A, -B and –C were performed using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). The Ethics Committee of Ramathibodi hospital, Mahidol University, approved this study. Among all HLA class I alleles, HLA-A*24:07, HLA-B*13:01, HLA-B*15:02, HLA-C*03:04 and HLA-C*03:09 were significantly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs (OR = 10.55, 95% CI = 1.06 – 105.04, p = 0.0360; OR = 56.00, 95% CI = 8.27 – 379.22, p = 0.0001; OR = 7.00, 95% CI = 1.17 – 42.00, p = 0.0322; OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.24 – 29.07, p = 0.0425 and OR = 17.08, 95% CI = 0.82 – 355.45, p = 0.0321, respectively). Furthermore, HLA-B*13:01 allele had strong association with dapsone-induced SJS-TEN and DRESS when compared with dapsone-tolerant controls (OR = 42.00, 95% CI = 2.88 – 612.31, p = 0.0064 and OR = 63.00, 95% CI = 7.72 – 513.94 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, HLA-B*13:01 might serve as a pharmacogenetic marker for screening before initiating the therapy with dapsone for prevention of dapsone-induced SCARs.

Keywords: dapsone-induced SCARs, HLA-B*13:01, HLA class I alleles, severe cutaneous adverse reactions, Thai

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2322 The Effect of Colloidal Environments on Ultrasound-Induced Inactivation of Soy Trypsin Inhibitors: Separation, Inactivation Kinetics and Conformational Characteristics

Authors: Yue Wu, Wu Li, Enrico Colombo, Gregory J. O. Martin, Muthupandinan Ashokkumar


In this study, the impact of colloidal environments on low-frequency (20 kHz) and high-frequency (355 kHz) ultrasound-induced trypsin inhibitor (TI) inactivation was investigated. It was found that both low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound could partly reduce the native Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). Compared to high-frequency ultrasound, low-frequency ultrasound showed better performance on the inactivation of trypsin inhibitors at higher initial concentrations (> 500 mg/L). Therefore, low-frequency ultrasound was selected for further study on the effect of power density and pH. It was observed that the trypsin inhibitor reduction was increased and then plateaued with an increase in power density. In addition, lower pH improved the low-frequency ultrasound-induced inactivation by promoting the aggregation of trypsin inhibitors. Overall, the colloidal environment was shown to affect Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitor inactivation via influencing the degree of protein conformational changes and aggregation induced by low-frequency ultrasound and protein conformational changes and oxidation of methionine induced by high-frequency ultrasound.

Keywords: soy trypsin inhibitor, ultrasound, inactivation, initial concentration, PH

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