Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Yi-Cheng Tian

56 Randomized Trial of Tian Jiu Therapy in San Fu Days for Patients with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Libing Zhu, Waichung Chen, Kwaicing Lo, Lei Li

Abstract:

Background: Tian Jiu Therapy (a medicinal vesiculation therapy according to traditional Chinese medicine theory) in San Fu Days (the three hottest days in a year is calculated by the Chinese ancient calendar) is widely used by patients with chronic asthma in China although from modern medicine perspective there is insufficient evidence of its effectiveness and safety issues. We investigated the efficacy and safety of Tian Jiu Therapy compared with placebo in patients with chronic asthma. Methods: Patients with chronic asthma were randomly assigned to Tian Jiu treatment group (n=165), placebo control group (n=158). Registered Chinese Medicine practitioners, in Orthopedics-Traumatology, Acupuncture, and Tui-na Clinical Centre for Teaching and Research, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, administered Tian Jiu Therapy and placebo treatment in 3 times over 2 months. Patients completed questionnaires and lung function test before treatment and after treatment, 3, 6, 9, and 11 months, respectively. The primary outcome was the no of asthma-related sub-healthy symptoms and the percentage of patients with twenty-three symptoms. Results: 451 patients were recruited totally, 111 patients refused or did not participate according the appointment time and 17 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Consequently, 323 of eligible patients were enrolled. There was nothing difference between Tian Jiu Therapy group and placebo control group at the end of all treatments neither primary nor secondary outcomes. While Tian Jiu Therapy as compared with placebo significantly reduced the percentage of participants who are susceptible waken up by asthma symptoms from 27% to 14% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Similarly, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the proportion of participants who had the symptom of running nose and sneezing before onset from 18% to 8% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Additionally, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the level of asthma, the proportion of participants who don’t need to processed during asthma attack increased from 6% to 15% at 1st follow-up and 0% to 7% at 3rd follow-up (P < 0.05). Improvements also occurred with Tian Jiu Therapy group, it reduced the proportion of participants who were spontaneously sweating at 3rd follow up and diarrhea after intake of oily food at 4th follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion: When added to a regimen of foundational therapy for chronic asthma participants, Tian Jiu Therapy further reduced the need for medications to control asthma, improved the quality of participants’ life, and significantly reduced the level of asthma. What is more, this benefit seems to have an accumulative effect over time was in accordance with the TCM theory of 'winter disease is being cured in summer'.

Keywords: asthma, Tian Jiu Therapy, San Fu Days, triaditional Chinese medicine, clinical trial

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55 TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) Mediating the Angiotensin-Induced Non-Canonical TGFβ Pathway Activation and Differentiation of c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells

Authors: Qing Cao, Fei Wang, Yu-Qiang Wang, Li-Ya Huang, Tian-Tian Sang, Shu-Yan Chen

Abstract:

Aims: TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) acts as a multifunctional regulator of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, and mediates Smad-independent JNK and p38 activation via TGF-β. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that TGF-β/TRAF6 is essential for angiotensin-II (Ang II)-induced differentiation of rat c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells (CSCs). Methods and Results: c-kit+ CSCs were isolated from neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and their c-kit status was confirmed with immunofluorescence staining. A TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRAF6 were used to investigate the role of TRAF6 in TGF-β signaling. Rescue of TRAF6 siRNA transfected cells with a 3'UTR deleted siRNA insensitive construct was conducted to rule out the off target effects of the siRNA. TRAF6 dominant negative (TRAF6DN) vector was constructed and used to infect c-kit+ CSCs, and western blotting was used to assess the expression of TRAF6, JNK, p38, cardiac-specific proteins, and Wnt signaling proteins. Physical interactions between TRAF6 and TGFβ receptors were studied by coimmunoprecipitation. Cardiac differentiation was suppressed in the absence of TRAF6. Forced expression of TRAF6 enhanced the expression of TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1), and inhibited Wnt signaling. Furthermore, TRAF6 increased the expression of cardiac-specific proteins (cTnT and Cx-43) but inhibited the expression of Wnt3a. Conclusions: Our data suggest that TRAF6 plays an important role in Ang II induced differentiation of c-kit+ CSCs via the non-canonical signaling pathway.

Keywords: cardiac stem cells, differentiation, TGF-β, TRAF6, ubiquitination, Wnt

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54 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan

Abstract:

Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
53 Wet Spun Graphene Fibers With Silver Nanoparticles For Flexible Electronic Applications

Authors: Syed W. Hasan, Zhiqun Tian

Abstract:

Wet spinning provides a facile and economic route to fabricate graphene nanofibers (GFs) on mass scale. Nevertheless, the pristine GFs exhibit significantly low electrical and mechanical properties owing to stacked graphene sheets and weak inter-atomic bonding. In this report, we present highly conductive Ag-decorated-GFs (Ag/GFs). The SEM micrographs show Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (dia ~10 nm) are homogeneously distributed throughout the cross-section of the fiber. The Ag NPs provide a conductive network for the electrons flow raising the conductivity to 1.8(10^4) S/m which is 4 times higher than the pristine GFs. Our results surpass the conductivities of graphene fibers doped with CNTs, Nanocarbon, fullerene, and Cu. The chemical and structural attributes of Ag/GFs are further elucidated through XPS, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, Conductive fibers, Graphene, Wet spinning

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52 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
51 A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm

Authors: Yi-Cheng Tian, Miin-Shen Yang

Abstract:

The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, EM algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, mixture regression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
50 MegaProjects and the Governing Processes That Lead to Success and Failure: A Literature Review

Authors: Fangwei Zhu, Wei Tian, Linzhuo Wang, Miao Yu

Abstract:

Megaproject has long been a critical issue in project governance, for its low success rate and large impact on society. Although the extant literature on megaproject governance is vast, to our best knowledge, the lacking of a thorough literature review makes it hard for us to gain a holistic view on current scenario of megaproject governance. The study conducts a systematic literature review process to analyze the existing literatures on megaproject governance. The finding indicates that mega project governance needs to be handled at network level and forming a network level governance provides a holistic framework for governing megaproject towards sustainable development of the projects. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future studies and limitations, were discussed.

Keywords: megaproject, governance, literature review, network

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
49 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang

Abstract:

In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
48 Survey Investigation of Perceptions of Technologists among Primary Students: Stereotypes, Diversity, and Their Use of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Authors: Tian Luo, Wing Mui Winnie So

Abstract:

Gaining career awareness in STEM is an important educational outcome in STEM education. While many studies focused on students’ understanding of scientists and engineers, very few studies explore students’ perceptions of technologists as a group of STEM professionals. In this study, 300 valid surveys which include drawing task and follow-up questions about technologist were collected from 4th to 6th grade students. The results showed that 75.1% of the students draw a technologist as a male and 19.3% draw a technologist as a female. Most students believe that technologists use math, science or engineering in their work and can name a few categories of technologists. The drawings also showed that students tend to present technologists as people who work with a computer.

Keywords: STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, elementary students, technologist, STEM careers

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
47 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

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46 Evaluation of tribological performance of aged and unaged biodiesel

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Tian-Yi Huang, Ming-Jhe Hsieh

Abstract:

In this work, soybean biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel as testing oils (B2). The tribiological performance of the B2 biodiesel before and after aging was evaluated using a reciprocating cylinder-on-flat wear test rig (Cameron-Plint TE-77) at various temperatures. The worn surface of each tested specimen was observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The compositions of the chemical films on each worn surface were determined using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The experimental results demonstrate that the tribiological behavior of the B2 was superior to that of other testing oils. Furthermore, the aging of biodiesel caused acidification, which resulted in poorer wear performance in the same experimental condition compared with others. The worn morphology of the specimen that was tested in the aged soybean biodiesel exhibited corrosion wear, reflecting low wear resistance.

Keywords: biodiesel, soybean, tribological performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
45 Disruption Coordination of Supply Chain with Loss-Averse Retailer Under Buy-Back Contract

Authors: Yuan Tian, Benhe Gao

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate a two stage supply chain of one leading supplier and one following retailer that experiences two factors perturbation out of supplier's production cost, retailer's marginal cost and retail price in stochastic demand environment. Granted that risk neutral condition has long been discussed, little attention has been given to disruptions under the premise of risk neutral supplier and risk aversion retailer. We establish the optimal order quantity and revealed the profit distribution coefficient in risk-neutral static model, make adjustment under disruption scenario, and then select utility function method for risk aversion model. Using buy-back contract policy, the improvement of parameters can achieve channel coordination where Pareto optimal is realized.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, disruption management, buy-back contract, lose aversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
44 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian

Abstract:

Whereas currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning

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43 E-Hailing Taxi Industry Management Mode Innovation Based on the Credit Evaluation

Authors: Yuan-lin Liu, Ye Li, Tian Xia

Abstract:

There are some shortcomings in Chinese existing taxi management modes. This paper suggests to establish the third-party comprehensive information management platform and put forward an evaluation model based on credit. Four indicators are used to evaluate the drivers’ credit, they are passengers’ evaluation score, driving behavior evaluation, drivers’ average bad record number, and personal credit score. A weighted clustering method is used to achieve credit level evaluation for taxi drivers. The management of taxi industry is based on the credit level, while the grade of the drivers is accorded to their credit rating. Credit rating determines the cost, income levels, the market access, useful period of license and the level of wage and bonus, as well as violation fine. These methods can make the credit evaluation effective. In conclusion, more credit data will help to set up a more accurate and detailed classification standard library.

Keywords: credit, mobile internet, e-hailing taxi, management mode, weighted cluster

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42 A Context-Centric Chatbot for Cryptocurrency Using the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Neural Networks

Authors: Qitao Xie, Qingquan Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Di Tian, Ruixuan Wen, Ting Zhu, Ping Yi, Xin Li

Abstract:

Inspired by the recent movement of digital currency, we are building a question answering system concerning the subject of cryptocurrency using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT). The motivation behind this work is to properly assist digital currency investors by directing them to the corresponding knowledge bases that can offer them help and increase the querying speed. BERT, one of newest language models in natural language processing, was investigated to improve the quality of generated responses. We studied different combinations of hyperparameters of the BERT model to obtain the best fit responses. Further, we created an intelligent chatbot for cryptocurrency using BERT. A chatbot using BERT shows great potential for the further advancement of a cryptocurrency market tool. We show that the BERT neural networks generalize well to other tasks by applying it successfully to cryptocurrency.

Keywords: bidirectional encoder representations from transformers, BERT, chatbot, cryptocurrency, deep learning

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41 Simulation Study on Spacecraft Surface Charging Induced by Jovian Plasma Environment with Particle in Cell Method

Authors: Meihua Fang, Yipan Guo, Tao Fei, Pengyu Tian

Abstract:

Space plasma caused spacecraft surface charging is the major space environment hazard. Particle in cell (PIC) method can be used to simulate the interaction between space plasma and spacecraft. It was proved that surface charging level of spacecraft in Jupiter’s orbits was high for its’ electron-heavy plasma environment. In this paper, Jovian plasma environment is modeled and surface charging analysis is carried out by PIC based software Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS). The results show that the spacecraft charging potentials exceed 1000V at 2Rj, 15Rj and 25Rj polar orbits in the dark side at worst case plasma model. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the large Jovian magnetic field increases the surface charging level for secondary electron gyration.

Keywords: Jupiter, PIC, space plasma, surface charging

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40 Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Chao-Nan Ge, Rui Li

Abstract:

An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Au-Pd nanoparticles, electrochemical biosensors, parathion

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39 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian

Abstract:

Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

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38 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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37 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun

Abstract:

DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: DNA damage, detection, electrochemiluminescence, sensor

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36 Energy Consumption in China’s Urban Water Supply System

Authors: Kate Smith, Shuming Liu, Yi Liu, Dragan Savic, Gustaf Olsson, Tian Chang, Xue Wu

Abstract:

In a water supply system, a great deal of care goes into sourcing, treating and delivering water to consumers, but less thought is given to the energy consumed during these processes. This study uses 2011 data to quantify energy use for urban water supply in China and investigates population density as a possible influencing factor. The objective is to provide information that can be used to develop energy-conscious water infrastructure policy, calculate the energy co-benefits of water conservation and compare energy use between China and other countries. The average electrical energy intensity and per capita electrical energy consumption for urban water supply in China in 2011 were 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap•yr, respectively. Comparison between provinces revealed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and population served per unit length of pipe. This could imply energy intensity is lower when more densely populated areas are supplied by relatively dense networks of pipes. This study also found that whereas the percentage of energy used for urban water supply tends to increase with the percentage of population served this increase is slower where water supply is more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population is already supplied.

Keywords: china, electrical energy use, water-energy nexus, water supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
35 Psycholgical Contract Violation and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction Level: A Study on Subordinate Employees in Enterprises of Hanoi, Vietnam

Authors: Quangyen Tran, YeZhuang Tian, Chengfeng Li

Abstract:

Psychological contract violations may lead to damaging an organization through losing its potential employees; it is a very significant concept in understanding the employment relationships. The authors selected contents of psychological contract violation scale based on the nine areas of violation most relevant to managerial samples (High pay, training, job security, career development, pay based on performance, promotion, feedback, expertise and quality of co-workers and support with personal problems), using regression analysis, the degree of psychological contract violations was measured by an adaptation of a multiplicative scale with Cronbach’s alpha as a measure of reliability. Through the regression analysis, psychological contract violations was found have a positive impact on employees’ job satisfaction, the frequency of psychological contract violations was more intense among male employees particularly in terms of training, job security and pay based on performance. Job dissatisfaction will lead to a lowering of employee commitment in the job, enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam should therefore offer lucrative jobs in terms of salary and other emoluments to their employees.

Keywords: psychological contract, psychological contract violation, job satisfaction, subordinate employees, employers’ obligation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
34 Evaluation of Essential Oils Toxicity on Resistant and Susceptible House Fly Strains

Authors: Xing Ping Hu, Yuexun Tian, Jerome Hogsette

Abstract:

Housefly, Musca domestica L., is a serious urban nuisance and public health/food safety concern. This study evaluated the topical toxicity of 17 essential oil components and 3 plant essential oils against permethrin-resistant adult females and insecticide-susceptible house fly strains. Results show that thymol had the lowest LD₅₀ values against permethrin-resistant strain (43.77 and 41.10 ug per fly) and permethrin-susceptible strain (35.19 and 29.16 ug per fly) at both 24- and 48-hours post treatments; (+)-Pulegone had the lowest LD₉₅ values against the permethrin-resistant strain (0.15 and 0.10 mg per fly) at 24- and 48-hours post treatments, whereas plant thyme oil had the lowest LD₉₅ value of 0.17 mg per fly at post-24h and post-48h against the permethrin-susceptible strain. Additionally, the LD₅₀s was slightly but not significantly negatively correlated with the boiling points of the compounds tested; but showed no correlation with the density and LogP. These results indicate that specific essential oils and compounds have topical insecticidal properties against house flies with low dose. They may have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

Keywords: urban pest, public health, pest management, botanical chemical

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33 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

Abstract:

Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded Linux system, image processing

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32 Design of Target Selection for Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking System

Authors: Tao Song, Hao Cheng, Guangfeng Tian, Chuang Xu

Abstract:

An autonomous emergency braking system is an advanced driving assistance system that enables vehicle collision avoidance and pedestrian collision avoidance to improve vehicle safety. At present, because the pedestrian target is small, and the mobility is large, the pedestrian AEB system is faced with more technical difficulties and higher functional requirements. In this paper, a method of pedestrian target selection based on a variable width funnel is proposed. Based on the current position and predicted position of pedestrians, the relative position of vehicle and pedestrian at the time of collision is calculated, and different braking strategies are adopted according to the hazard level of pedestrian collisions. In the CNCAP standard operating conditions, comparing the method of considering only the current position of pedestrians and the method of considering pedestrian prediction position, as well as the method based on fixed width funnel and variable width funnel, the results show that, based on variable width funnel, the choice of pedestrian target will be more accurate and the opportunity of the intervention of AEB system will be more reasonable by considering the predicted position of the pedestrian target and vehicle's lateral motion.

Keywords: automatic emergency braking system, pedestrian target selection, TTC, variable width funnel

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31 Improved 3D Structure Prediction of Beta-Barrel Membrane Proteins by Using Evolutionary Coupling Constraints, Reduced State Space and an Empirical Potential Function

Authors: Wei Tian, Jie Liang, Hammad Naveed

Abstract:

Beta-barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They carry out diverse biological functions, including pore formation, membrane anchoring, enzyme activity, and bacterial virulence. In addition, beta-barrel membrane proteins increasingly serve as scaffolds for bacterial surface display and nanopore-based DNA sequencing. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank and computational methods can help to understand their biophysical principles. We have developed a novel computational method to predict the 3D structure of beta-barrel membrane proteins using evolutionary coupling (EC) constraints and a reduced state space. Combined with an empirical potential function, we can successfully predict strand register at > 80% accuracy for a set of 49 non-homologous proteins with known structures. This is a significant improvement from previous results using EC alone (44%) and using empirical potential function alone (73%). Our method is general and can be applied to genome-wide structural prediction.

Keywords: beta-barrel membrane proteins, structure prediction, evolutionary constraints, reduced state space

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30 On the Transforming Overall Urban Design in China towards the Country’s 14th Five-Year Plan

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen, Junnan Liu

Abstract:

Facing a period of major change that’s rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the nature definition, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinkings integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.

Keywords: China’s 14th five-year plan, overall urban design, urban design thinking, transformation of urban design

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29 The Elastic Field of a Nano-Pore, and the Effective Modulus of Composites with Nano-Pores

Authors: Xin Chen, Moxiao Li, Xuechao Sun, Fei Ti, Shaobao Liu, Feng Xu, Tian Jian Lu

Abstract:

The composite materials with pores have the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and have broad prospects in many fields, including aerospace. In general, the stiffness of such composite is less than the stiffness of the matrix material, limiting their applications. In this paper, we establish a theoretical model to analyze the deformation mechanism of a nano-pore. The interface between the pores and matrix material is described by the Gurtin-Murdoch model. By considering scale effect related with current deformation, we estimate the effective mechanical properties (e.g., effective shear modulus and bulk modulus) of a composite with nano-pores. Due to the scale effect, the elastic field in the composite was changed and local hardening was observed around the nano-pore, and the effective shear modulus and effective bulk modulus were found to be a function of the surface energy. The effective shear modulus increase with the surface energy and decrease with the size of the nano-pores, and the effective bulk modulus decrease with the surface energy and increase with the size of the nano-pores. These results have potential applications in the nanocomposite mechanics and aerospace field.

Keywords: composite mechanics, nano-inhomogeneity, nano-pores, scale effect

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28 The Comparation of Limits of Detection of Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Strips of Different Types of Mycotoxins

Authors: Xinyi Zhao, Furong Tian

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products of fungi. These are poisonous, carcinogens and mutagens in nature and pose a serious health threat to both humans and animals, causing severe illnesses and even deaths. The rapid, simple and cheap detection methods of mycotoxins are of immense importance and in great demand in the food and beverage industry as well as in agriculture and environmental monitoring. Lateral flow immunochromatographic strips (ICSTs) have been widely used in food safety, environment monitoring. Forty-six papers were identified and reviewed on Google Scholar and Scopus for their limit of detection and nanomaterial on Lateral flow immunochromatographic strips on different types of mycotoxins. The papers were dated 2001-2021. Twenty five papers were compared to identify the lowest limit of detection of among different mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1: 10, Zearalenone:5, Fumonisin B1: 5, Trichothecene-A: 5). Most of these highly sensitive strips are competitive. Sandwich structure are usually used in large scale detection. In conclusion, the mycotoxin receives that most researches is aflatoxin B1 and its limit of detection is the lowest. Gold-nanopaticle based immunochromatographic test strips has the lowest limit of detection. Five papers involve smartphone detection and they all detect aflatoxin B1 with gold nanoparticles. In these papers, quantitative concentration results can be obtained when the user uploads the photograph of test lines using the smartphone application.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, limit of detection, gold nanoparticle, lateral flow immunochromatographic strips, mycotoxins

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27 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning

Abstract:

Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: preparation, titanate, cs-137, removal, nuclear

Procedia PDF Downloads 150