Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Talal Alhajri

28 The Art of Contemporary Arabic Calligraphy in Oman: Salman Alhajri as an Example

Authors: Salman Amur Alhajri

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper explores the art of contemporary Arabic calligraphy in Oman. It explains the aesthetic features of Arabic calligraphy as a unique icon of Islamic art. This paper also explores the profile of one Omani artist, Salman Alhajri, as an example of Omani artists who have developed unique styles in this art stream. Methodology and approach: The paper is based on a theoretical study using a descriptive and case-study approach. Omani artists are fascinated by the art forms of Arabic calligraphy, which combine both spiritual meaning and aesthetic beauty. Artist Salman Alhajri is an example of a contemporary Arabic artist who uses Arabic calligraphy as the main theme in his art. Dr. Alhajri is trying to introduce the beauty of Arabic letters from a new aesthetic point of view. He also aims to create unusual visual effects that viewers can easily interact with. Even though words and phrases appear in Alhajri’s artwork, they are not conveying direct meanings: viewers can create their own meaning or expressions from them by appreciating the compositions of the artwork. Results: Arabic writing is directly related to the identity of Omani artists and their cultural background. This paper shows how the beauty of Arabic letters comes from its indefinite possibilities in designing calligraphic expressions, even within a single word, because letters can be stretched and transformed in various ways to create different compositions. Omani artists are interested in employing new media applications in this kind of practice to find new techniques for creating artwork based on Arabic writing. It is really important for all Omani artists to practice this art style because Arabic calligraphy and its flexibility introduce infinite possibilities that involve further exploration and investigation.

Keywords: Islamic art, contemporary Arabic calligraphy, new techniques, Omani artist

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27 Experimental and Analytical Study of Various Types of Shear Connector Used for Cold-Formed Steel-Ferrocement Composite Beam

Authors: Talal Alhajri, Mahmood M. Tahir, Khaled Alenezi, Mohamad Ragaee

Abstract:

This work presents the experimental tests carried out to evaluate the behaviour of different types of shear connectors proposed for cold formed steel (CFS) section integrated with ferrocement slab as potential used for composite beam. Ten push-out test specimens of cold-formed steel lipped channel sections connected with ferrocement slab were tested. Three types of shear connectors were studied comprised of bolts, self-drilling-screw and bar angle. The connection behavior is analysed in terms of its load-slip relationship and the failure mode. The parametric studies were performed to investigate the effect on the shear connector’s capacity by varying the number of layers of wire mesh used in ferrocement slab and types of shear connector used. An analytical analysis using ANSYS program and theoretical analysis (Eurocode 4) were carried out to verify the experiment results. The results show that the experimental, theoretical, and numerical values proved to have good agreement with each other.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, composite beam, ferrocement, finite element method, push-out test, shear connector

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26 The Application of the Enterprise Systems through the Cloud Computing in Company: A Review and Suggestions

Authors: Mohanaad Talal Shakir, Saad AJAJ Khalaf, Nawar Ahmed Aljumaily, Mustafa Talal Shakere

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Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Objectives of this paper are to investigate the role of the Enterprise System and Cloud Computing Services to assist and guide him to ensure the initiative become successful. The cloud computing technology offers great potential for Enterprise such as the speed of dealing with data and product introductions, innovations and speed of response. The use of cloud computing technology leads to the rapid development and competitiveness of enterprises in various fields.

Keywords: cloud computing, information management, marketing, enterprise systems

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25 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching

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24 3D Multimedia Model for Educational Design Engineering

Authors: Mohanaad Talal Shakir

Abstract:

This paper tries to propose educational design by using multimedia technology for Engineering of computer Technology, Alma'ref University College in Iraq. This paper evaluates the acceptance, cognition, and interactiveness of the proposed model by students by using the statistical relationship to determine the stage of the model. Objectives of proposed education design are to develop a user-friendly software for education purposes using multimedia technology and to develop animation for 3D model to simulate assembling and disassembling process of high-speed flow.

Keywords: CAL, multimedia, shock tunnel, interactivity, engineering education

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23 Google Translate: AI Application

Authors: Shaima Almalhan, Lubna Shukri, Miriam Talal, Safaa Teskieh

Abstract:

Since artificial intelligence is a rapidly evolving topic that has had a significant impact on technical growth and innovation, this paper examines people's awareness, use, and engagement with the Google Translate application. To see how familiar aware users are with the app and its features, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted. The findings revealed that consumers have a high level of confidence in the application and how far people they benefit from this sort of innovation and how convenient it makes communication.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, google translate, speech recognition, language translation, camera translation, speech to text, text to speech

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22 The Job of Rhetoric in Public Relations Practice

Authors: Talal Alqahtani

Abstract:

For all institutions, either public or private, communication is important now more than ever. This is because the importance of communication has grown over the years, and it has the ability to either break or make an organization. With globalization, the changing technology, and other emergent issues that affect organizations, the communication given out has had to be better, sharper, and both proactive and reactive. This is the reason why the importance of public relations has been on the increase. Institutions realize the importance of having a good image and having public relations experts who can effectively manage communication in an institution easily in times of crisis. Public relations itself is not, however, effective, and this has led to the adoption of rhetoric in communication. Rhetoric use has had a long transformation because, in the past, it was only used in politics. Rhetoric in communication has come to be appreciated and adopted by many diverse fields and sectors. This study looks at the job of rhetoric in public relations practice and how it can identify with the administration of an institution's notoriety.

Keywords: communication, notoriety, rhetoric, public relation

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21 Students’ Perceptions of Mobile Learning: Case Study of Kuwait

Authors: Rana AlHajri, Salah Al-Sharhan, Ahmed Al-Hunaiyyan

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Mobile learning is a new learning landscape that offers opportunity for collaborative, personal, informal, and students’ centered learning environment. In implementing any learning system such as a mobile learning environment, learners’ expectations should be taken into consideration. However, there is a lack of studies on this aspect, particularly in the context of Kuwait higher education (HE) institutions. This study focused on how students perceive the use of mobile devices in learning. Although m-learning is considered as an effective educational tool in developed countries, it is not yet fully utilized in Kuwait. The study reports on the results of a survey conducted on 623 HE students in Kuwait to a better understand students' perceptions and opinions about the effectiveness of using mobile learning systems. An analysis of quantitative survey data is presented. The findings indicated that Kuwait HE students are very familiar with mobile devices and its applications. The results also reveal that students have positive perceptions of m-learning, and believe that video-based social media applications enhance the teaching and learning process.

Keywords: higher education, mobile learning, social media, students’ perceptions

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20 Oil Reservoir Asphalting Precipitation Estimating during CO2 Injection

Authors: I. Alhajri, G. Zahedi, R. Alazmi, A. Akbari

Abstract:

In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to predict Asphaltene Precipitation (AP) during the injection of carbon dioxide into crude oil reservoirs. In this study, the experimental data from six different oil fields were collected. Seventy percent of the data was used to develop the ANN model, and different ANN architectures were examined. A network with the Trainlm training algorithm was found to be the best network to estimate the AP. To check the validity of the proposed model, the model was used to predict the AP for the thirty percent of the data that was unevaluated. The Mean Square Error (MSE) of the prediction was 0.0018, which confirms the excellent prediction capability of the proposed model. In the second part of this study, the ANN model predictions were compared with modified Hirschberg model predictions. The ANN was found to provide more accurate estimates compared to the modified Hirschberg model. Finally, the proposed model was employed to examine the effect of different operating parameters during gas injection on the AP. It was found that the AP is mostly sensitive to the reservoir temperature. Furthermore, the carbon dioxide concentration in liquid phase increases the AP.

Keywords: artificial neural network, asphaltene, CO2 injection, Hirschberg model, oil reservoirs

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19 BigCrypt: A Probable Approach of Big Data Encryption to Protect Personal and Business Privacy

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, Talal Alkharobi

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As data size is growing up, people are became more familiar to store big amount of secret information into cloud storage. Companies are always required to need transfer massive business files from one end to another. We are going to lose privacy if we transmit it as it is and continuing same scenario repeatedly without securing the communication mechanism means proper encryption. Although asymmetric key encryption solves the main problem of symmetric key encryption but it can only encrypt limited size of data which is inapplicable for large data encryption. In this paper we propose a probable approach of pretty good privacy for encrypt big data using both symmetric and asymmetric keys. Our goal is to achieve encrypt huge collection information and transmit it through a secure communication channel for committing the business and personal privacy. To justify our method an experimental dataset from three different platform is provided. We would like to show that our approach is working for massive size of various data efficiently and reliably.

Keywords: big data, cloud computing, cryptography, hadoop, public key

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18 Thermodynamically Predicting the Impact of Temperature on the Performance of Drilling Bits as a Function of Time

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali

Abstract:

Air drilling has recently received increasing acceptance by the oil and gas industry due to its unique advantages. The main advantages of air drilling include the higher rate of penetration, less formation damage, lower risk of loss of circulation. However, these advantages cannot be fully realized if thermal effects in air drilling are not well understood and minimized. Due to its high frictional coefficient, low heat conductivity, and high compressibility, air can impact the temperature distribution of bit and thus affect its bit performances. Based on energy and mass balances, a transient thermal model that predicts bit temperature is presented along with numerical solutions in this paper. In addition, several important parameters that influence bit temperature distribution are analyzed. Simulation results show that the bit temperature increases with increasing weight on bit and rotary speed but decreases as the standpipe pressure and flow rate increase. These results can be used to optimize drilling operations and flow parameters for an improved bit performance as shown in this paper.

Keywords: air drilling, rate of penetration, temperature, rotary speed

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17 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach

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This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

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16 Maximum Initial Input Allowed to Iterative Learning Control Set-up Using Singular Values

Authors: Naser Alajmi, Ali Alobaidly, Mubarak Alhajri, Salem Salamah, Muhammad Alsubaie

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Iterative Learning Control (ILC) known to be a controlling tool to overcome periodic disturbances for repetitive systems. This technique is required to let the error signal tends to zero as the number of operation increases. The learning process that lies within this context is strongly dependent on the initial input which if selected properly tends to let the learning process be more effective compared to the case where a system starts from blind. ILC uses previous recorded execution data to update the following execution/trial input such that a reference trajectory is followed to a high accuracy. Error convergence in ILC is generally highly dependent on the input applied to a plant for trial $1$, thus a good choice of initial starting input signal would make learning faster and as a consequence the error tends to zero faster as well. In the work presented within, an upper limit based on the Singular Values Principle (SV) is derived for the initial input signal applied at trial $1$ such that the system follow the reference in less number of trials without responding aggressively or exceeding the working envelope where a system is required to move within in a robot arm, for example. Simulation results presented illustrate the theory introduced within this paper.

Keywords: initial input, iterative learning control, maximum input, singular values

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15 Structuring of Multilayer Aluminum Nickel by Lift-off Process Using Cheap Negative Resist

Authors: Muhammad Talal Asghar

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The lift-off technique of the photoresist for metal patterning in integrated circuit (IC) packaging has been widely utilized in the field of microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor component manufacturing. The main advantage lies in cost-saving, reduction in complexity, and maturity of the process. The selection of photoresist depends upon many factors such as cost, the thickness of the resist, comfortable and valuable parameters extraction. In the present study, an extremely cheap dry film photoresist E8015 of thickness 38-micrometer is processed for the first time for edge profiling, according to the author's best knowledge. Successful extraction of the helpful parameter range for resist processing is performed. An undercut angle of 66 to 73 degrees is realized by parameter variation like exposure energy and development time. Finally, 10-micrometer thick metallic multilayer aluminum nickel is lifted off on the plain silicon wafer. Possible applications lie in controlled self-propagating reactions within structured metallic multilayer that may be utilized for IC packaging in the future.

Keywords: lift-off, IC packaging, photoresist, multilayer

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14 A Critical Appraisal of CO₂ Entrance Pressure with Heat

Authors: Abrar Al-Mutairi, Talal Al-Bazali

Abstract:

In this study, changes in capillary entry pressure of shale, as it interacts with CO₂, under different temperatures (25 °C to 250 °C) have been investigated. The combined impact of temperature and petrophysical properties (water content, water activity, permeability and porosity) of shale was also addressed. Results showed that the capillary entry pressure of shale when it interacted with CO₂ was highly affected by temperature. In general, increasing the temperature decreased capillary entry pressure of shale. We believe that pore dilation, where pore throat size expands due to the application of heat, may have caused this decrease in capillary entry pressure of shale. However, in some cases we found that at higher temperature some shale samples showed that the temperature activated clay swelling may have caused an apparent decrease in pore throat radii of shale which translates into higher capillary entry pressure of shale. Also, our results showed that there is no distinct relationship between shale’s water content, water activity, permeability, and porosity on the capillary entry pressure of shale samples as it interacted with CO₂ at different temperatures.

Keywords: heat, threshold pressure, CO₂ sequestration, shale

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13 A Spiral Dynamic Optimised Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Unicycle Mobile Robot on Irregular Terrains

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Talal H. Alzanki

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This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.

Keywords: fuzzy logic control, mobile robot, trajectory tracking, spiral dynamic algorithm

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12 Setting Uncertainty Conditions Using Singular Values for Repetitive Control in State Feedback

Authors: Muhammad A. Alsubaie, Mubarak K. H. Alhajri, Tarek S. Altowaim

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A repetitive controller designed to accommodate periodic disturbances via state feedback is discussed. Periodic disturbances can be represented by a time delay model in a positive feedback loop acting on system output. A direct use of the small gain theorem solves the periodic disturbances problem via 1) isolating the delay model, 2) finding the overall system representation around the delay model and 3) designing a feedback controller that assures overall system stability and tracking error convergence. This paper addresses uncertainty conditions for the repetitive controller designed in state feedback in either past error feedforward or current error feedback using singular values. The uncertainty investigation is based on the overall system found and the stability condition associated with it; depending on the scheme used, to set an upper/lower limit weighting parameter. This creates a region that should not be exceeded in selecting the weighting parameter which in turns assures performance improvement against system uncertainty. Repetitive control problem can be described in lifted form. This allows the usage of singular values principle in setting the range for the weighting parameter selection. The Simulation results obtained show a tracking error convergence against dynamic system perturbation if the weighting parameter chosen is within the range obtained. Simulation results also show the advantage of weighting parameter usage compared to the case where it is omitted.

Keywords: model mismatch, repetitive control, singular values, state feedback

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11 Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Activity Classification in Smart Home Environments

Authors: Talal Alshammari, Nasser Alshammari, Mohamed Sedky, Chris Howard

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With the widespread adoption of the Internet-connected devices, and with the prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, there is an increased interest in machine learning techniques that can provide useful and interesting services in the smart home domain. The areas that machine learning techniques can help advance are varied and ever-evolving. Classifying smart home inhabitants’ Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), is one prominent example. The ability of machine learning technique to find meaningful spatio-temporal relations of high-dimensional data is an important requirement as well. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to classify ADLs in the smart home domain. Forty-two synthetic datasets and two real-world datasets with multiple inhabitants are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the identified machine learning techniques. Our results show significant performance differences between the evaluated techniques. Such as AdaBoost, Cortical Learning Algorithm (CLA), Decision Trees, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Structured Perceptron and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Overall, neural network based techniques have shown superiority over the other tested techniques.

Keywords: activities of daily living, classification, internet of things, machine learning, prediction, smart home

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10 Immunomodulation by Interleukin-10 Therapy in Mouse Airway Transplantation

Authors: Mohammaad Afzal Khan, Ghazi Abdulmalik Ashoor , Fatimah Alanazi, Talal Shamma, Abdullah Altuhami, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering

Abstract:

Microvascular injuries during inflammation are key causes of transplant malfunctioning and permanent failure, which play a major role in the development of chronic rejection of the transplanted organ. Inflammation-induced microvascular loss is a promising area to investigate the decisive roles of regulatory and effector responses. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of IL-10 on immunotolerance, in particular, the microenvironment of the allograft during rejection. Here, we investigated the effects of IL-10 blockade/ reconstitution and serially monitored regulatory T cells (Tregs), graft microvasculature, and airway epithelium in rejecting airway transplants. We demonstrated that the blocking/reconstitution of IL-10 significantly modulates CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, microvasculature, and airway epithelium during rejection. Our findings further highlighted that blockade of IL-10 upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-15, and IL-23, but suppressed IL-5 secretion during rejection; however, reconstitution of IL-10 significantly upregulated CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, tissue oxygenation/blood flow and airway repair. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a potential reparative modulation of IL-10 during microvascular and epithelial repair, which could provide a vital therapeutic window to rejecting transplants in clinical practice.

Keywords: interleukin -10, regulatory T cells, allograft rejection, immunotolerance

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9 The Impact of Temperature on the Threshold Capillary Pressure of Fine-Grained Shales

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali, S. Mohammad

Abstract:

The threshold capillary pressure of shale caprocks is an important parameter in CO₂ storage modeling. A correct estimation of the threshold capillary pressure is not only essential for CO₂ storage modeling but also important to assess the overall economical and environmental impact of the design process. A standard step by step approach has to be used to measure the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluids at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of high temperature on the threshold capillary pressure of four different shales as they interacted with four different oil based muds, air, CO₂, N₂, and methane. This study shows that the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluid is highly impacted by temperature. An empirical correlation for the dependence of threshold capillary pressure on temperature when different shales interacted with oil based muds and gasses has been developed. This correlation shows that the threshold capillary pressure decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. In this correlation, an experimental constant (α) appears, and this constant may depend on the properties of shale and non-wetting fluid. The value for α factor was found to be higher for gasses than for oil based muds. This is consistent with our intuition since the interfacial tension for gasses is higher than those for oil based muds. The author believes that measured threshold capillary pressure at ambient temperature is misleading and could yield higher values than those encountered at in situ conditions. Therefore one must correct for the impact of temperature when measuring threshold capillary pressure of shale at ambient temperature.

Keywords: capillary pressure, shale, temperature, thresshold

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8 Prevalence of Barodontalgia among Aircrews Working in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Knowledge of Dental Interns about This Phenomena

Authors: Ali Saleh Al-Rafedah, Ahmed Mohammed Al-Quthami, Tariq Jalal Al-Ashawi, Talal Nasser Motar Al-Enez

Abstract:

Introduction: Barodontalgia is essentially dental pain provoked by changes in atmospheric pressure which usually disappear when the affected person reaches normal pressure zone. Barodontalgia has been recognized as a potential cause of aircrew-member vertigo and sudden incapacitation, which could jeopardize the safety of flight. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of this phenomena among aircrews in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It also aimed to assess the knowledge of dental interns toward this phenomena. Material and Method: A 120 questionnaire consists of 17 questions were distributed to different of Aircrews working in commercial and governmental centers in different areas of KSA. Another questionnaire also distributed to 240 interns in different institutes in KSA. Results: Out of 120 questionnaire distributed to aircrews, 48 has been returned back (40%) and the participants were mainly pilots. The results showed that about 33% of the participants had this pain at least once during flying and the incidence of this pain was not associated with any age group. Most of the pain experience were during descending and at altitude between 10.000-20.000 feet (63%). The pain completely relieved after landing in most of the cases. Regarding pain scores, the majority of the participants reported moderate scores of severity (%65) and about 85% of them had visited the physician or dentist to investigate the existing oral problem. Among dental interns in KSA, our finding indicated lack of knowledge regarding this phenomena since only 23 % of the participants have an idea about this phenomena. Conclusion and recommendation: The incidence of Barodontalgia among aircrews in Saudi Arabia is considerably high and further studies should be carried out for better understanding of this phenomena. Significant lack of knowledge among dental interns about the Barodontalgia has been highlighted and inclusion of it in the teaching of clinical and preclinical curriculum is recommended.

Keywords: Barodontalgia/dental, atmospheric pressure, incapacitation, Saudi Arabia

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7 The Relation of Motivation and Reward with Volunteer Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Omani Non-Profit Organization

Authors: Ali Al Shamli, Talal AlMamari

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Background: The relationship between motivation and satisfaction is posited to be mediated by reward. In this study, the motivation construct was measured by a motivation scale. The scale when factor analysed generated five factors. These factors were referred as; 1) leisure motivation, 2) egoistic motivation, 3) external motivation, 4) purposive, and 5) material motivation. The reward construct was measured by using a five-item scale whereas the satisfaction construct was measured by using a 13-item scale. The scale when factor analysed produced three factors which are referred as; 1) satisfaction A, 2) satisfaction B, and 3) satisfaction C. Objective: The main purpose of the present paper was to find out the relation of motivation and reward with volunteer satisfaction at national sports organizations (NPSOs) in Oman. Methods: This current study adopts a cross-sectional design as the data collection is done only once whereas the mode of administration was postal questionnaire where each questionnaire was posted, completed, and returned using the self-addressed envelope after its completion. The population of the study consisted of (160) boards and directors members of NPSOs (Non-Profit Sports Organization Services) in Oman from all 43 sports club. Results: The findings provided new empirical evidence that supported the argument of the relationship between motivation and satisfaction is indeed, mediated by reward. However, this study differs in that the relationship was tested based on the first-order constructs which were derived from the underlying dimensions of both motivation and satisfaction constructs. It was established that the relationships between motivation B and motivation C with satisfaction A are mediated by reward. Conclusion: In light of study findings, there is a direct relationship between developmental motivation and experiential satisfaction, a direct relationship between social motivation and relational satisfaction, as well as personal motivation and relational satisfaction, is mediated by reward. Therefore, Omani volunteers are less reliant on the reward as evidenced by the direct relationship between motivation A and satisfaction and between motivation C and satisfaction A. More tests in different settings will provide more understanding on volunteer motivation.

Keywords: non-profit sports organization, sport and reward, volunteers in sport, satisfaction in sport

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6 Bounded Rational Heterogeneous Agents in Artificial Stock Markets: Literature Review and Research Direction

Authors: Talal Alsulaiman, Khaldoun Khashanah

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In this paper, we provided a literature survey on the artificial stock problem (ASM). The paper began by exploring the complexity of the stock market and the needs for ASM. ASM aims to investigate the link between individual behaviors (micro level) and financial market dynamics (macro level). The variety of patterns at the macro level is a function of the AFM complexity. The financial market system is a complex system where the relationship between the micro and macro level cannot be captured analytically. Computational approaches, such as simulation, are expected to comprehend this connection. Agent-based simulation is a simulation technique commonly used to build AFMs. The paper proceeds by discussing the components of the ASM. We consider the roles of behavioral finance (BF) alongside the traditionally risk-averse assumption in the construction of agent's attributes. Also, the influence of social networks in the developing of agents’ interactions is addressed. Network topologies such as a small world, distance-based, and scale-free networks may be utilized to outline economic collaborations. In addition, the primary methods for developing agents learning and adaptive abilities have been summarized. These incorporated approach such as Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Artificial neural network and Reinforcement Learning. In addition, the most common statistical properties (the stylized facts) of stock that are used for calibration and validation of ASM are discussed. Besides, we have reviewed the major related previous studies and categorize the utilized approaches as a part of these studies. Finally, research directions and potential research questions are argued. The research directions of ASM may focus on the macro level by analyzing the market dynamic or on the micro level by investigating the wealth distributions of the agents.

Keywords: artificial stock markets, market dynamics, bounded rationality, agent based simulation, learning, interaction, social networks

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5 Pediatric Health Nursing Research in Jordan: Evaluating the State of Knowledge and Determining Future Research Direction

Authors: Inaam Khalaf, Nadin M. Abdel Razeq, Hamza Alduraidi, Suhaila Halasa, Omayyah S. Nassar, Eman Al-Horani, Jumana Shehadeh, Anna Talal

Abstract:

Background: Nursing researchers are responsible for generating knowledge that corresponds to national and global research priorities in order to promote, restore, and maintain the health of individuals and societies. The objectives of this scoping review of Jordanian literature are to assess the existing research on pediatric nursing in terms of evolution, authorship and collaborations, funding sources, methodologies, topics of research, and pediatric subjects' age groups so as to identify gaps in research. Methodology: A search was conducted using related keywords obtained from national and international databases. The reviewed literature included pediatric health articles published through December 2019 in English and Arabic, authored by nursing researchers. The investigators assessed the retrieved studies and extracted data using a data-mining checklist. Results: The review included 265 articles authored by Jordanian nursing researchers concerning children's health, published between 1987 and 2019; 95% were published between 2009 and 2019. The most commonly applied research methodology was the descriptive non-experimental method (76%). The main generic topics were health promotion and disease prevention (23%), chronic physical conditions (19%), mental health, behavioral disorders, and forensic issues (16%). Conclusion: The review findings identified a grave shortage of evidence concerning nursing care issues for children below five years of age, especially those between ages two and five years. The research priorities identified in this review resonate with those identified in international reports. Implications: Nursing researchers are encouraged to conduct more research targeting topics of national-level importance in collaboration with clinically involved nurses and international scholars.

Keywords: Jordan, scoping review, children health nursing, pediatric, adolescents

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4 Chronic Renal Failure Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination of Drinking Water in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Elsayed A. M. Shokr, A. Alhazemi, T. Naser, Talal A. Zuhair, Adel A. Zuhair, Ahmed N. Alshamary, Thamer A. Alanazi, Hosam A. Alanazi

Abstract:

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and chronic diseases such as renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and chronic anemia has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. Renal failure is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver cirrhosis to copper and molybdenum, and chronic anemia to copper and cadmium. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via drinking water being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. During the last century lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of kidney damage. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas.

Keywords: heavy metals, liver functions, kidney functions and chronic renal failure, hail, renal, water

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3 Assessment of Food Safety Culture in Select Restaurants and a Produce Market in Doha, Qatar

Authors: Ipek Goktepe, Israa Elnemr, Hammad Asim, Hao Feng, Mosbah Kushad, Hee Park, Sheikha Alzeyara, Mohammad Alhajri

Abstract:

Food safety management in Qatar is under the shared oversight of multiple agencies in two government ministries (Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Municipality and Environment). Despite the increasing number and diversity of the food service establishments, no systematic food surveillance system is in place in the country, which creates a gap in terms of determining the food safety attitudes and practices applied in the food service operations. Therefore, this study seeks to partially address this gap through determination of food safety knowledge among food handlers, specifically with respect to food preparation and handling practices, and sanitation methods applied in food service providers (FSPs) and a major market in Doha, Qatar. The study covered a sample of 53 FSPs randomly selected out of 200 FSPs. Face-to-face interviews with managers at participating FSPs were conducted using a 40-questions survey. Additionally, 120 produce handlers who are in direct contact with fresh produce at the major produce market in Doha were surveyed using a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A written informed consent was obtained from each survey participant. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test and correlation test. The significance was evaluated at p ˂ 0.05. The results from the FSPs surveys indicated that the average age of FSPs was 11 years, with the oldest and newest being established in 1982 and 2015, respectively. Most managers (66%) had college degree and 68% of them were trained on the food safety management system known as HACCP. These surveys revealed that FSP managers’ training and education level were highly correlated with the probability of their employees receiving food safety training while managers with lower education level had no formal training on food safety for themselves nor for their employees. Casual sit-in and fine dine-in restaurants consistently kept records (100%), followed by fast food (36%), and catering establishments (14%). The produce handlers’ survey results showed that none of the workers had any training on safe produce handling practices. The majority of the workers were in the age range of 31-40 years (37%) and only 38% of them had high-school degree. Over 64% of produce handlers claimed to wash their hands 4-5 times per day but field observations pointed limited handwashing as there was soap in the settings. This observation suggests potential food safety risks since a significant correlation (p ˂ 0.01) between the educational level and the hand-washing practices was determined. This assessment on food safety culture through determination of food and produce handlers' level of knowledge and practices, the first of its kind in Qatar, demonstrated that training and education are important factors which directly impact the food safety culture in FSPs and produce markets. These findings should help in identifying the need for on-site training of food handlers for effective food safety practices in food establishments in Qatar.

Keywords: food safety, food safety culture, food service providers, food handlers

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2 Restoring Ecosystem Balance in Arid Regions: A Case Study of a Royal Nature Reserve in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Talal Alharigi, Kawther Alshlash, Mariska Weijerman

Abstract:

The government of Saudi Arabia has developed an ambitious “Vision 2030”, which includes a Green Initiative (i.e., the planting of 10 billion trees) and the establishment of seven Royal Reserves as protected areas that comprise 13% of the total land area. The main objective of the reserves is to restore ecosystem balance and reconnect people with nature. Two royal reserves are managed by The Imam Abdulaziz bin Mohammed Royal Reserve Development Authority, including Imam Abdulaziz bin Mohammed Royal Reserve and King Khalid Royal Reserve. The authority has developed a management plan to enhance the habitat through seed dispersal and the planting of 10 million trees, and to restock wildlife that was once abundant in these arid ecosystems (e.g., oryx, Nubian ibex, gazelles, red-necked ostrich). Expectations are that with the restoration of the native vegetation, soil condition and natural hydrologic processes will improve and lead to further enhancement of vegetation and, over time, an increase in biodiversity of flora and fauna. To evaluate the management strategies in reaching these expectations, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation program was developed. The main objectives of this program are to (1) monitor the status and trends of indicator species, (2) improve desert ecosystem understanding, (3) assess the effects of human activities, and (4) provide science-based management recommendations. Using a random stratified survey design, a diverse suite of survey methods will be implemented, including belt and quadrant transects, camera traps, GPS tracking devices, and drones. Data will be gathered on biotic parameters (plant and animal diversity, density, and distribution) and abiotic parameters (humidity, temperature, precipitation, wind, air, soil quality, vibrations, and noise levels) to meet the goals of the monitoring program. This case study intends to provide a detailed overview of the management plan and monitoring program of two royal reserves and outlines the types of data gathered which can be made available for future research projects.

Keywords: camera traps, desert ecosystem, enhancement, GPS tracking, management evaluation, monitoring, planting, restocking, restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
1 iPSC-derived MSC Mediated Immunosuppression during Mouse Airway Transplantation

Authors: Mohammad Afzal Khan, Fatimah Alanazi, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Talal Shamma, Kilian Kelly, Mohammed A. Hammad, Abdullah O. Alawad, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering

Abstract:

Lung transplantation is a life-saving surgical replacement of diseased lungs in patients with end-stage respiratory malfunctions. Despite the remarkable short-term recovery, long-term lung survival continues to face several significant challenges, including chronic rejection and severe toxic side-effects due to global immunosuppression. Stem cell-based immunotherapy has been recognized as a crucial immunoregulatory regimen in various preclinical and clinical studies. Despite initial therapeutic outcomes, conventional stem cells face key limitations. The Cymerus™ manufacturing facilitates the production of a virtually limitless supply of consistent human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which could play a key role in selective immunosuppression and graft repair during rejection. Here, we demonstrated the impact of iPSC-derived human MSCs on the development of immune-tolerance and long-term graft survival in mouse orthotopic airway allografts. BALB/c→C57BL/6 allografts were reconstituted with iPSC-derived MSCs (2 million/transplant/ at d0), and allografts were examined for regulatory T cells (Tregs), oxygenation, microvascular blood flow, airway epithelium and collagen deposition during rejection. We demonstrated that iPSC-derived MSC treatment leads to significant increase in tissue expression of hTSG-6 protein, followed by an upregulation of mouse Tregs and IL-5, IL-10, IL-15 cytokines, which augments graft microvascular blood flow and oxygenation, and thereby maintained a healthy airway epithelium and prevented the subepithelial deposition of collagen at d90 post-transplantation. Collectively, these data confirmed that iPSC-derived MSC-mediated immunosuppression has potential to establish immune-tolerance and rescue allograft from sustained hypoxic/ischemic phase and subsequently limits long-term airway epithelial injury and collagen progression, which therapeutically warrant a study of Cymerus iPSC-derived MSCs as a potential management option for immunosuppression in transplant recipients.

Keywords: stem cell therapy, immunotolerance, regulatory T cells, hypoxia and ischemia, microvasculature

Procedia PDF Downloads 75