Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: S. N. Kazi

26 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0 oC, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0–34.6oC. The most comfortable temperature for students in the lecture hall was 25.7 oC.

Keywords: hot and humid, lecture halls, neutral temperature, adaptive thermal comfort model

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25 Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Acacia mangium

Authors: Samira Gharehkhani, Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi, Abdolreza Gharehkhani, Hooman Yarmand, Ahmad Badarudin, Rushdan Ibrahim, Salim Newaz Kazi

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of bleached Acacia mangium fibers. The obtained rod-shaped nanocrystals showed a uniform size. The results showed that NCC with high crystallinity can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The effect of synthesis condition was investigated. Different reaction times were examined to produce the NCC and the results revealed that an optimum reaction time has to be used for preparing the NCC. Morphological investigation was performed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity increased with successive treatments. The NCC suspension was homogeneous and stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, nanocrystalline cellulose, nano material, reaction time

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24 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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23 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin

Abstract:

Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

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22 Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Conditionalities and Structural Adjustments on the Poor and Developing Countries

Authors: Kazi Rafikoddin

Abstract:

Conditionality refers to a precondition for getting external funds from IMF or WB by giving consent for implementation of the program of economic or political reforms especially relating to open economies. These are put forth under the label of structural adjustment. It is a kind of challenge on the part of borrowing government to exercise balance between the domestic obligations and the expectations of external funding agencies. Countries have to take loans under certain criteria and regulations because better loans are often not readily available. Therefore taking loans and renewing them to pay the same with new interest rates and conditions makes the governments entangled in the circle of debt. They are forced to compete with well-established multinational companies. If their access to industrialized countries' markets is impaired through protectionism, the developed world will be condemning the indebted nations to perpetual financial crisis. On the other hand, the ability to sell their goods free in the world market is reduced through the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes. Although there are examples of positive effects on certain economies like India, some Third World, and poor countries have experienced the ire of these remedies. This paper tries to find out the effects of SAPs on some borrowing countries.

Keywords: IMF, world bank, conditionalities, SAPs, Third World Countries

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21 Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over Vertical Double Forward-Facing Step

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, N. M. Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow over vertical double forward facing step were presented. The k-w model with finite volume method was employed to solve continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Different step heights were adopted for range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 40000, and range of temperature varied from 310K to 340 K. The straight side of duct is insulated while the side of double forward facing step is heated. The result shows augmentation of heat transfer due to the recirculation region created after and before steps. Effect of step length and Reynolds number observed on increase of local Nusselt number particularly at recirculation regions. Contour of streamline velocity is plotted to show recirculation regions after and before steps. Numerical simulation in this paper done by used ANSYS Fluent 14.

Keywords: turbulent flow, double forward, heat transfer, separation flow

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20 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

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The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

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19 Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Ahmad Amiri, Hamid K. Arzani, Salim Newaz Kazi, Ahmad Badarudin

Abstract:

The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene nanoplatelet

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18 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain

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The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

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17 Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed K. Arzani, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene, annular, annulus

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16 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin, M. N. M. Zubir

Abstract:

Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.

Keywords: separation flow, backward facing step, heat transfer, laminar flow

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15 An Approach to Apply Kernel Density Estimation Tool for Crash Prone Location Identification

Authors: Kazi Md. Shifun Newaz, S. Miaji, Shahnewaz Hazanat-E-Rabbi

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In this study, the kernel density estimation tool has been used to identify most crash prone locations in a national highway of Bangladesh. Like other developing countries, in Bangladesh road traffic crashes (RTC) have now become a great social alarm and the situation is deteriorating day by day. Today’s black spot identification process is not based on modern technical tools and most of the cases provide wrong output. In this situation, characteristic analysis and black spot identification by spatial analysis would be an effective and low cost approach in ensuring road safety. The methodology of this study incorporates a framework on the basis of spatial-temporal study to identify most RTC occurrence locations. In this study, a very important and economic corridor like Dhaka to Sylhet highway has been chosen to apply the method. This research proposes that KDE method for identification of Hazardous Road Location (HRL) could be used for all other National highways in Bangladesh and also for other developing countries. Some recommendations have been suggested for policy maker to reduce RTC in Dhaka-Sylhet especially in black spots.

Keywords: hazardous road location (HRL), crash, GIS, kernel density

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14 Thermophysical Properties of Water-Based Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed Khajeh Arzani, Md. Salim Newaz Kazi, Bee Teng Chew

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Obviously, the behavior of thermophysical properties of covalently functionalized MWNT-based water nanofluids cannot be predicted from the predicted models. We present a study of the specific heat capacity, effective thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of coolants containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) with carboxyl groups at different temperatures. After synthesizing of MWNT-COOH-based water, measurements on the prepared coolants were made at various concentrations by different experimental methods. While thermal conductivity of nanofluids illustrated a significant increase, the specific heat capacity of the samples showed a downward behavior with increasing temperature. The viscosity was investigated in different shear rates and temperatures. Interestingly, the specific heat capacity of all prepared nanofluids was decreased with increasing concentration. Also, the density of the MWNT-COOH-based water nanofluids increased and decreased smoothly with increasing MWNT-COOH concentration and temperature, respectively.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, coolant, heat capacity, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity

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13 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim

Abstract:

Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, dietary nutrient, nutritional status, BMI

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12 Prevalence and Correlates of Anemia in Adolescents in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljohara M. Alquaiz, Tawfik A. M. Khoja, Abdullah Alsharif, Ambreen Kazi, Ashry Gad Mohamed, Hamad Al Mane, Abdullah Aldiris, Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia in male and female adolescents in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional community based study setting: Five primary health care centers in Riyadh. Subjects: We invited 203 male and 292 female adolescents aged 13-18 years for interview, anthropometric measurements and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with coulter cellular analysis system using light scatter method. Results: Using the WHO cut-off of Hb < 12gms/dl, 16.7%(34) males and 34%(100) females were suffering from anemia. The mean Hb (±SD) in males and females was 13.5(±1.4) and 12.3(±1.2) mg/dl, respectively. Mean(±SD) MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW in male and female adolescents were 77.8(±6.2) vs76.4(±10.3)fL, 26.1(±2.7) vs25.5(±2.6)pg, 32.7(±2.4) vs32.2(±2.6)g/dL, 13.9(±1.4) vs13.6(±1.3)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that positive family history of iron deficiency anemia(IDA)(OR 4.7,95%CI 1.7–12.2), infrequent intake (OR 3.7,95%CI 1.3–10.0) and never intake of fresh juices(OR 3.5,95%CI 1.4–9.5), 13 to 14 years age (OR 3.1,95%CI 1.2–9.3) were significantly associated with anemia in male adolescents; whereas in females: family history of IDA (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.6), being over-weight(OR 3.0,95%CI 1.4–6.1), no intake of fresh juice (OR 2.6,95%CI 1.4–5.1), living in an apartment (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8) or living in small house (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.3) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion: Anemia is more prevalent among Saudi female adolescents as compared to males. Important factors like positive family history of IDA, overweight, lack of fresh juice intake and low socioeconomic status are significantly associated with anemia in adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, anemia, correlates, obesity

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11 Numerical Investigation on Feasibility of Electromagnetic Wave as Water Hardness Detection in Water Cooling System Industrial

Authors: K. H. Teng, A. Shaw, M. Ateeq, A. Al-Shamma'a, S. Wylie, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Numerical and experimental of using novel electromagnetic wave technique to detect water hardness concentration has been presented in this paper. Simulation is powerful and efficient engineering methods which allow for a quick and accurate prediction of various engineering problems. The RF module is used in this research to predict and design electromagnetic wave propagation and resonance effect of a guided wave to detect water hardness concentration in term of frequency domain, eigenfrequency, and mode analysis. A cylindrical cavity resonator is simulated and designed in the electric field of fundamental mode (TM010). With the finite volume method, the three-dimensional governing equations were discretized. Boundary conditions for the simulation were the cavity materials like aluminum, two ports which include transmitting and receiving port, and assumption of vacuum inside the cavity. The design model was success to simulate a fundamental mode and extract S21 transmission signal within 2.1 – 2.8 GHz regions. The signal spectrum under effect of port selection technique and dielectric properties of different water concentration were studied. It is observed that the linear increment of magnitude in frequency domain when concentration increase. The numerical results were validated closely by the experimentally available data. Hence, conclusion for the available COMSOL simulation package is capable of providing acceptable data for microwave research.

Keywords: electromagnetic wave technique, frequency domain, signal spectrum, water hardness concentration

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10 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz

Abstract:

Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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9 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais

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Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

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8 Teachers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Policy in Malaysia

Authors: Kazi Enamul Hoque

Abstract:

Initiatives on sustainable development are currently aggressively pursued throughout the world. The Malaysian government has developed key policies and strategies for over 30 years to achieve the nation’s policy objectives which are designed to mitigate the issues of security, energy efficiency and environmental impact to meet the rising energy demand. Malaysia’s current focus is on developing effective policies on renewable energy (RE) in order to reduce dependency on fossil fuel and contribute towards mitigating the effects of climate change. In this light mass awareness should be considered as the highest priority to protect the environment and to escape disaster due to climate change. Schools can be the reliable and effective foundation to prepare students to get familiar with environmental issues such as renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Teachers can play a vital role to create awareness among students about the advantages and disadvantages of using different renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. Thus, this study aims to investigate teachers’ knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards renewable energy through a survey aiming a sustainable energy future. Five hundred sets of questionnaires were distributed to the school teachers in Malaysia. Total 420 questionnaires were returned of which 410 were complete to analyze. Finding shows that teachers are very familiar with the renewable energy like solar, wind and also geothermal. Most teachers were not sure about the Photovoltaics and biodiesel. Furthermore, teachers are also aware that primary energy in Malaysia is imported fossil fuels. Most teachers heard about the renewable energy in Malaysia and only few claims that they did not hear of such things and the others said that they never heard of it. The outcomes of the study will assist the energy policy makers to use teachers to create mass awareness of energy usages for future planning.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, school teacher

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7 Isolation and Characterization of Cotton Infecting Begomoviruses in Alternate Hosts from Cotton Growing Regions of Pakistan

Authors: M. Irfan Fareed, Muhammad Tahir, Alvina Gul Kazi

Abstract:

Castor bean (Ricinus communis; family Euphorbiaceae) is cultivated for the production of oil and as an ornamental plant throughout tropical regions. Leaf samples from castor bean plants with leaf curl and vein thickening were collected from areas around Okara (Pakistan) in 2011. PCR amplification using diagnostic primers showed the presence of a begomovirus and subsequently the specific pair (BurNF 5’- CCATGGTTGTGGCAGTTGATTGACAGATAC-3’, BurNR 5’- CCATGGATTCACGCACAGGGGAACCC-3’) was used to amplify and clone the whole genome of the virus. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined to be 2,759 nt (accession No. HE985227). Alignments showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.8%) with Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV; accession No. JF416947) No. JF416947). The virus in castor beans lacks on intact C2 gene, as is typical of CLCuBuV in cotton. An amplification product of ca. 1.4 kb was obtained in PCR with primers for betasatellites and the complete nucleotide sequence of a clone was determined to be 1373 nt (HE985228). The sequence showed 96.3% nucleotide sequence identity to the recombinant Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB; JF502389). This is the first report of CLCuBuV and its betasatellite infecting castor bean, showing this plant species as an alternate host of the virus. Already many alternate host have been reported from different alternate host like tobacco, tomato, hibiscus, okra, ageratum, Digera arvensis, habiscus, Papaya and now in Ricinus communis. So, it is suggested that these alternate hosts should be avoided to grow near cotton growing regions.

Keywords: Ricinus communis, begomovirus, betasatellite, agriculture

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6 Exploring Sexual Behavior among Unmarried Male Youth in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Subas Chandra Biswas, Kazi Sameen Naser, Farzana Misha

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Little is known about the sexual behavior of male youth, particularly unmarried young men in Bangladesh as most of the sexual and reproductive health and rights-related research and intervention are mainly focused on females and married couples. To understand the unmarried youth’s sexual behavior, data from a nationwide survey conducted in all 64 districts of Bangladesh were analyzed. Using multistage systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted among 11,113 male youth aged 15-24 years from May-August, 2019. This article analyzed and presented findings of the sexual behavior of unmarried respondents based on the data collected from 10,026 unmarried male youth. Findings showed that 18% had ever experience of sexual relationship, and the reported mean age of first sexual intercourse was 16.5years. For unmarried male youth, those who had a sexual experience, their first sexual partners were female friends/classmate (57%), female neighbors (16%), and female sex workers (12%), relatives (6%) and girlfriends with whom they had love relationship (4%). However, about 36% reported that they had a love relationship with girlfriends, and among them, 23% reported that they had sexual intercourse with their girlfriend. Those who had sexual relations with their girlfriend, 47% reported that they did not use the condom in their last sex with their girlfriend. Furthermore, 29% reported that they had sexual relationships with others besides their girlfriends. Other reported partners were female sex workers (32%), neighbors (29%), female friends (19%), relatives (12%), and cousins (5%). Also, 46% reported that they did not even use the condom during sex with other partners. About 9% used some sort of sexual stimulant to increase their libido. Among the respondents, 376 reported that they bought sex in the last six months, and the mean expenditure of buying sex for the respondent was 1,140 Taka (13.46 US Dollar). Though premarital sexual relations are not socially accepted, findings showed a large portion of male youth are engaged in these relationships and risky sexual behavior. Lack of awareness of sexual and reproductive health, unprotected sexual intercourse, use of the drug during sexual intercourse also increase the threats to health. Thus these findings are important to understand the sexual behavior of male youth in policy and programmatic implications. Therefore, to ensure a healthy sexual life and wellbeing, an immediate and culturally sensitive sexual health promotion intervention is needed for male youth in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, male youth, sexual and reproductive health, sexual behavior

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5 Evaluating Problems Arose Due to Adoption of Dual Legal Framework in Regulating the Transactions under Islamic Capital Market with Special Reference to Malaysia

Authors: Rafikoddin Kazi

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Almost all the major religions of the world condemn the transactions based on interest which promotes self-centered and materialistic thinking. Still, it is amazing to note that it has become the tradition of transaction at world level hence it is called traditional financial system. The main feature of this system is that it considers economic aspects of the transaction only. This system supports the economic development and not the welfare of humankind. However, it is worth mentioning the fact that, except Islamic financial system no other financial system stood in front of it as a viable alternative system. Although many countries have tried to create financial infrastructure and system, still the Malaysian Islamic financial system has got its own peculiarity. It has made tremendous progress in creating sound Islamic Financial system. However, the historical aspect of this country which has passed through Islamic and traditional financial system has got its own advantages and disadvantages. The advantageous factor is that, despite having mix and heterogeneous culture, it has succeeded in creating Islamic Financial System based on the dual legal system to satisfy the needs of multi-cultural factors. This fact has proved that Islamic Financial System does not need purely Muslim population. However, due to adoption of the dual legal system, several legal issues have been taken place. According to this system, the application of Islamic Law has been limited only up to some family and religious matters. The rest of the matters are being dealt with under the traditional laws, the principles and practices of which are different from that of the Islamic Legal System. The matter becomes all the more complicated when the cases are partially or simultaneously concerned with traditional vis-à-vis Islamic Laws as it requires expertise in both the legal systems. However, the educational principles and systems are different in respect of both the systems. To face this problem, Shariah Advisory Council has been established. But the Multiplicity of Shariah authorities without judicial power has created confusion at various levels. Therefore, some experts have stressed the need for improving, empowering the Islamic financial, legal system to make it more integrated and holistic. In view of the above, an endeavor has been made in this paper to throw some light on the matters related to the adoption of the dual legal system. The paper is conceptual in nature and the method adopted is the intensive survey of literature thereby all the information has been gathered from the secondary sources.

Keywords: Islamic financial system, Islamic legal system, Islamic capital market (ICM) , traditional financial system

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4 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter

Abstract:

Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: land cover change, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, urban heat island

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3 Use and Effects of Kanban Board from the Aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited

Authors: Kazi Rizvan, Yamin Rekhu

Abstract:

Due to high competitiveness in industries throughout the world, every industry is trying hard to utilize all their resources to keep their productivity as high as possible. Many tools have been being used to ensure smoother flow of an operation, to balance tasks, to maintain proper schedules for tasks, to maintain proper sequence for tasks, to reduce unproductive time. All of these tools are used to augment productivity within an industry. Kanban board is one of them and of the many important tools of lean production system. Kanban Board is a visual depiction of the status of tasks. Kanban board shows the actual status of the tasks. It conveys the progress and issues of tasks as well. Using Kanban Board, tasks can be distributed among workers and operation targets can be visually represented to them. In this paper, an example of Kanban board from the aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited was taken and how the Kanban board system was implemented, how the board was designed and how it was made easily perceivable for the less literate or illiterate workers. The Kanban board was designed for the packing section of Brothers Furniture Limited. It was implemented for the purpose of representing the tasks flow to the workers and to mitigate the time that was wasted while the workers remained wondering about what task they should start after they finish one. Kanban board subsumed seven columns and there was a column for comments where if any problem occurred during working on the tasks. Kanban board was helpful for the workers as the board showed the urgency of the tasks. It was also helpful for the store section as they could understand which products and how much of them could be delivered to store at any certain time. Kanban board had all the information centralized which is why the work-flow got paced up and idle time was minimized. Regardless of many workers being illiterate or less literate, Kanban board was still explicable for the workers as the Kanban cards were colored. Since the significance of colors can be conveniently interpretable to them, colored cards helped a great deal in that matter. Hence, the illiterate or less literate workers didn’t have to spend time wondering about the significance of the cards. Even when the workers weren’t told the significance of the colored cards, they could grow a feeling about their meaning as colors can trigger anyone’s mind to perceive the situation. As a result, the board elucidated the workers about what board required them to do, when to do and what to do next. Kanban board alleviated excessive time between tasks by setting day-plan for targeted tasks and it also reduced time during tasks as the workers were acknowledged of forthcoming tasks for a day. Being very specific to the tasks, Kanban board helped the workers become more focused on their tasks helped them do their job with more perfection. As a result, The Kanban board helped achieve a 8.75% increase in productivity than the productivity before the Kanban board was implemented.

Keywords: color, Kanban Board, Lean Tool, literacy, packing, productivity

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2 Assessment of Climate Induced Hazards in Coastal Zone of Bangladesh: A Case Study of Koyra Upazilla under Khulna District and Shyamnagar Upazilla under Satkhira District

Authors: Kazi Ashief Mahmood

Abstract:

Geographically Bangladesh is located in a natural hazard prone area. Compared to the rest of the areas, the coastal sub-districts are more vulnerable to climate variability and change. However, the hydro-geophysical reality of the sub-districts predominantly determines their contexts of vulnerability and its nature differs accordingly. Intriguingly enough, the poorest of the areas appear to be the most cornered among the different vulnerable sectors. Among of these deprived segments; however, the women, the persons with disability and the minorities are generally more vulnerable and they face a high risk of marginalized. The most threatening hydro-geophysical climate vulnerability have been created by prolonged dry season as observed at Koyra Upazilla in Khulna districts and Shyamnagar in Satkhira districts. The prolonged dry season creates severe surface salinity by which farmers cannot produce or use their to cultivate. The absence of land-based production and employment in the area has led to severe food insecurity. As a result, farmers tend to change their livelihood option and many of them are forced to migrate to the other areas of the country in search of livelihood. Besides salinity intrusion, water logging, drought and different climate change induced hazards are endangering safe drinking water sources and putting small-holders out of agriculture-based livelihoods in the Koyra and Shyamnagar Upazilla. A sizeable fraction of small-holders are still trying to hold on to their small scale shrimp production, despite being under pressure to sell off their cultivating lands to their influential shrimp merchants. While their desperate effort to take advantage of the increasing salinity is somewhat successful, their families still face a greater risk of health hazards owing to the lack of safe drinking water. Unless the issues of salinity in drinking water cannot be redressed, the state of the affected people will be in great jeopardy. Most of the inhabitants of oKyra and Shyamnagar Upazilla are living under the poverty line. Thus, poverty is a major factor that intensifies the vulnerability caused by hydro-geophysical climatic conditions. The government and different NGOs are trying to improve the present scenario by implementing different disaster risk reduction projects along with poverty reduction for community empowerment.

Keywords: assessment, climate change, climate induced hazards, coastal zone

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1 Comparative Performance of Retting Methods on Quality Jute Fibre Production and Water Pollution for Environmental Safety

Authors: A. K. M. Zakir Hossain, Faruk-Ul Islam, Muhammad Alamgir Chowdhury, Kazi Morshed Alam, Md. Rashidul Islam, Muhammad Humayun Kabir, Noshin Ara Tunazzina, Taufiqur Rahman, Md. Ashik Mia, Ashaduzzaman Sagar

Abstract:

The jute retting process is one of the key factors for the excellent jute fibre production as well as maintaining water quality. The traditional method of jute retting is time-consuming and hampers the fish cultivation by polluting the water body. Therefore, a low cost, time-saving, environment-friendly, and improved technique is essential for jute retting to overcome this problem. Thus the study was focused to compare the extent of water pollution and fibre quality of two retting systems, i.e., traditional retting practices over-improved retting method (macha retting) by assessing different physico-chemical and microbiological properties of water and fibre quality parameters. Water samples were collected from the top and bottom of the retting place at the early, mid, and final stages of retting from four districts of Bangladesh viz., Gaibandha, Kurigram, Lalmonirhat, and Rangpur. Different physico-chemical parameters of water samples viz., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity (CD), total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphorus and sulphur content were measured. Irrespective of locations, the DO of the final stage retting water samples was very low as compared to the mid and early stage, and the DO of traditional jute retting method was significantly lower than the improved macha method. The pH of the water samples was slightly more acidic in the traditional retting method than that of the improved macha method. Other physico-chemical parameters of the water sample were found higher in the traditional method over-improved macha retting in all the stages of retting. Bacterial species were isolated from the collected water samples following the dilution plate technique. Microbiological results revealed that water samples of improved macha method contained more bacterial species that are supposed to involve in jute retting as compared to water samples of the traditional retting method. The bacterial species were then identified by the sequencing of 16SrDNA. Most of the bacterial species identified belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pectobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas. In addition, the tensile strength of the jute fibre was tested, and the results revealed that the improved macha method showed higher mechanical strength than the traditional method in most of the locations. The overall results indicate that the water and fibre quality were found better in the improved macha retting method than the traditional method. Therefore, a time-saving and cost-friendly improved macha retting method can be widely adopted for the jute retting process to get the quality jute fiber and to keep the environment clean and safe.

Keywords: jute retting methods, physico-chemical parameters, retting microbes, tensile strength, water quality

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