Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 229

Search results for: infiltration

229 Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital

Authors: Ihn Sook Jeong, Eun Joo Lee, Jae Hyung Kim, Gun Ho Kim, Young Jun Hwang


This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

Keywords: intravenous infiltration, impedance, parameters, resistance, reactance

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
228 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra


This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
227 Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Intravenous Infiltration among Hospitalized Children: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Soon-Mi Park, Ihn Sook Jeong


This retrospective study was aimed to identify risk factors of intravenous (IV) infiltration for hospitalized children. The participants were 1,174 children for test and 424 children for validation, who admitted to a general hospital, received peripheral intravenous injection therapy at least once and had complete records. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation were calculated, and decision tree analysis was used to screen for the most important risk factors for IV infiltration for hospitalized children. The decision tree analysis showed that the most important traditional risk factors for IV infiltration were the use of ampicillin/sulbactam, IV insertion site (lower extremities), and medical department (internal medicine) both in the test sample and validation sample. The correct classification was 92.2% in the test sample and 90.1% in the validation sample. More careful attention should be made to patients who are administered ampicillin/sulbactam, have IV site in lower extremities and have internal medical problems to prevent or detect infiltration occurrence.

Keywords: decision tree analysis, intravenous infiltration, child, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
226 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik


In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: unsaturated soil, slope stability, rainfall infiltration, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
225 Determining Water Infiltration Zone Using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Technique

Authors: Azim Hilmy Mohamad Yusof, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail


Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces. This paper explains how the water infiltration will be identified using 2-D resistivity imaging. Padang Minden, in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang has been chosen as the survey area during this study. The study area consists of microcline granite with grain size of medium to coarse. 2-D Resistivity Imaging survey is used to detect subsurface layer for many years by making measurements on the ground surface. The result shows that resistivity value of 0.015 Ωm - 10 Ωm represent the salt water intrusion zone while the resistivity value of 11 Ωm - 100 Ωm is suggested as the boundary zone between the salt water intrusion zone and low saturated zone.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity imaging, microcline granite, salt water intrusion, water infiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
224 Modeling Approach for Evaluating Infiltration Rate of a Large-Scale Housing Stock

Authors: Azzam Alosaimi, Benjamin Jones


Different countries attempt to reduce energy demands and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to mitigate global warming potential. They set different building codes to regulate excessive building’s energy losses. Energy losses occur due to pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor environments, and thus, heat transfers from one region to another. One major sources of energy loss is known as building airtightness. Building airtightness is the fundamental feature of the building envelope that directly impacts infiltration. Most of international building codes require minimum performance for new construction to ensure acceptable airtightness. The execution of airtightness required standards has become more challenging in recent years due to a lack of expertise and equipment, making it costly and time-consuming. Hence, researchers have developed predictive models to predict buildings infiltration rates to meet building codes and to reduce energy and cost. This research applies a theoretical modeling approach using Matlab software to predict mean infiltration rate distributions and total heat loss of Saudi Arabia’s housing stock.

Keywords: infiltration rate, energy demands, heating loss, cooling loss, carbon emissions

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223 Long Term Effect of FYM and Green Manure on Infiltration Characteristics Under Vertisol

Authors: Tripti Nayak, R. K. Bajpai


An ongoing field experiment was conducted at Long term fertilizer experiment, Raipur, to study the Effect of fertilization (both organic and inorganic) on soil Physical properties (infiltration rate) of Vertisol of ten treatments viz. The treatment combinations for were T1(Control),T2(50%NPK), T3(100%NPK), T4(150%NPK), T5(100%NPK+Zn), T6(100%NP), T7(100%N), T8(100%NPK+FYM), T9 (50%NPK+BGA) and T10(50%NPK+GM). Farmyard manure and green manure is applied at the treatment of T8 (100%NPK+FYM) and T10 (50%NPK+GM). Result showed that the highest infiltration rate recorded T8(100%NPK+FYM) and T10 (50%NPK+GM). These considerations have led to a renewed interest in the organic manures such as FYM, compost and green manures, which are formulations helps in sustainable agriculture production either by providing plants with fixed nitrogen, available P or by other plant growth promoting substances. Organic matter (OM) is the life of the soil because it contains all the essential elements required for plant growth. It also serves as food for soil bacteria. Decomposed OM, known as humus, improves the soil tilth, quality and helps the plant to grow. In general among all the other treatments and control gave poorest infiltration rate. Incorporation of organic sources considerably improved the soil physical properties such as decrease in bulk density and increase in infiltration rate and available NPK status of the soil. Study showed that wherever, nitrogen was substituted through GM, FYM or crop residue (rice straw) in rice, Corresponding decrease in bulk density favorably enhanced the infiltration rate and it was found to be highest in the green-manured plot, FYM and lowest in control. Concluded that Continuous monitoring of physical properties should be carried out for maintaining soil health and enhancing the crop production.

Keywords: long term effect, FYM, green manure, infiltration rate, soil health, crop productivity, vertisol

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
222 Microstructure Characterization on Silicon Carbide Formation from Natural Wood

Authors: Noor Leha Abdul Rahman, Koay Mei Hyie, Anizah Kalam, Husna Elias, Teng Wang Dung


Dark Red Meranti and Kapur, kinds of important type of wood in Malaysia were used as a precursor to fabricate porous silicon carbide. A carbon template is produced by pyrolysis at 850°C in an oxygen free atmosphere. The carbon template then further subjected to infiltration with silicon by silicon melt infiltration method. The infiltration process was carried out in tube furnace in argon flow at 1500°C, at two different holding time; 2 hours and 3 hours. Thermo gravimetric analysis was done to investigate the decomposition behavior of two species of plants. The resulting silicon carbide was characterized by XRD which was found the formation of silicon carbide and also excess silicon. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the density was determined by the Archimedes method. An increase in holding time during infiltration will increased the density as well as formation of silicon carbide. Dark Red Meranti precursor is likely suitable for production of silicon carbide compared to Kapur.

Keywords: density, SEM, silicon carbide, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
221 Combined Synchrotron Radiography and Diffraction for in Situ Study of Reactive Infiltration of Aluminum into Iron Porous Preform

Authors: S. Djaziri, F. Sket, A. Hynowska, S. Milenkovic


The use of Fe-Al based intermetallics as an alternative to Cr/Ni based stainless steels is very promising for industrial applications that use critical raw materials parts under extreme conditions. However, the development of advanced Fe-Al based intermetallics with appropriate mechanical properties presents several challenges that involve appropriate processing and microstructure control. A processing strategy is being developed which aims at producing a net-shape porous Fe-based preform that is infiltrated with molten Al or Al-alloy. In the present work, porous Fe-based preforms produced by two different methods (selective laser melting (SLM) and Kochanek-process (KE)) are studied during infiltration with molten aluminum. In the objective to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the formation of Fe-Al intermetallic phases during infiltration, an in-house furnace has been designed for in situ observation of infiltration at synchrotron facilities combining x-ray radiography (XR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated, and information about the melt flow front propagation has been obtained. In addition, reactive infiltration has been achieved where a bi-phased intermetallic layer has been identified to be formed between the solid Fe and liquid Al. In particular, a tongue-like Fe₂Al₅ phase adhering to the Fe and a needle-like Fe₄Al₁₃ phase adhering to the Al were observed. The growth of the intermetallic compound was found to be dependent on the temperature gradient present along the preform as well as on the reaction time which will be discussed in view of the different obtained results.

Keywords: combined synchrotron radiography and diffraction, Fe-Al intermetallic compounds, in-situ molten Al infiltration, porous solid Fe preforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
220 The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky, Lucie Larisova


The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.

Keywords: soil crusting processing, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, cumulative infiltration, bulk density, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
219 Experimental Testing of a Synthetic Mulch to Reduce Runoff and Evaporative Water Losses

Authors: Yasmeen Saleem, Pedro Berliner, Nurit Agam


The most severe limitation for plant production in arid areas is water. Rainfall events are rare but can have pulses of high intensity. As a result, crusts are formed, which decreases infiltration into the soil, and results additionally in erosive losses of soil. Direct evaporation of water from the wetted soil can account for large fractions of the water stored in the soil. Different kinds of mulches have been used to decrease the loss of water in arid and semi-arid region. This study aims to evaluate the effect of polystyrene styrofoam pellets mulch on soil infiltration, runoff, and evaporation as a more efficient and economically viable mulch alternative. Polystyrene styrofoam pellets of two sizes (0.5 and 1 cm diameter) will be placed on top of the soil in two mulch layer depths (1 and 2 cm), in addition to the non-mulched treatment. The rainfall simulator will be used as an artificial source of rain. The preliminary results in the prototype experiment indicate that polystyrene styrofoam pellets decreased runoff, increased soil-water infiltration. We are still testing the effect of these pellets on decreasing the soil-water evaporation.

Keywords: synthetic mulch, runoff, evaporation, infiltration

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
218 Study on Optimization of Air Infiltration at Entrance of a Commercial Complex in Zhejiang Province

Authors: Yujie Zhao, Jiantao Weng


In the past decade, with the rapid development of China's economy, the purchasing power and physical demand of residents have been improved, which results in the vast emergence of public buildings like large shopping malls. However, the architects usually focus on the internal functions and streamlines of these buildings, ignoring the impact of the environment on the subjective feelings of building users. Only in Zhejiang province, the infiltration of cold air in winter frequently occurs at the entrance of sizeable commercial complex buildings that have been in operation, which will affect the environmental comfort of the building lobby and internal public spaces. At present, to reduce these adverse effects, it is usually adopted to add active equipment, such as setting air curtains to block air exchange or adding heating air conditioners. From the perspective of energy consumption, the infiltration of cold air into the entrance will increase the heat consumption of indoor heating equipment, which will indirectly cause considerable economic losses during the whole winter heating stage. Therefore, it is of considerable significance to explore the suitable entrance forms for improving the environmental comfort of commercial buildings and saving energy. In this paper, a commercial complex with apparent cold air infiltration problem in Hangzhou is selected as the research object to establish a model. The environmental parameters of the building entrance, including temperature, wind speed, and infiltration air volume, are obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, from which the heat consumption caused by the natural air infiltration in the winter and its potential economic loss is estimated as the objective metric. This study finally obtains the optimization direction of the building entrance form of the commercial complex by comparing the simulation results of other local commercial complex projects with different entrance forms. The conclusions will guide the entrance design of the same type of commercial complex in this area.

Keywords: air infiltration, commercial complex, heat consumption, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
217 Prognostic and Predictive Value of Tumor: Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park


Background/Purpose: Previous preclinical and clinical data suggest that increased lymphocytic infiltration would be associated with good prognosis and benefit from immunogenic chemotherapy especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We investigated a single-center experience of TNBC and relationship with lymphocytic infiltration. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2012, at the Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, we retrospectively reviewed 897 breast cancer patients-clinical outcomes, clinicopathological characteristics, breast cancer subtypes. And we reviewed lymphocytic infiltration of TNBC specimens by two pathologists. Statistical analysis of risk factors associated with recurrence was performed. Results: A total of 897 patients, 76 were TNBC (8.47%). Mean age of TNBC patients were 50.95 (SD10.42) years, mean follow-up periods was 40.06 months. We reviewed 49 slides, and there were 8 recurrent breast cancer patients (16.32%), and 4 patients were expired (8.16%). There were 9 lymphocytic predominant breast cancers (LPBC)-carcinomas with either intratumoral lymphocytes in >60% of tumor cell nests. 1 patient of LPBC was recurred and 8 were not. In multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratio of lymphocytic infiltration was 0.59 (p=0.643). Conclusion: In a single-center experience of TNBC, the lymphocytic infiltration in tumor cell nest might be a good trend on the prognosis but there was not statistically significant.

Keywords: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, triple negative breast cancer, medical and health sciences

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216 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang


To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
215 Development of Non-Point Pollutants Removal Equipments Using Media with Bacillus sp.

Authors: Han-Seul Lee, Min-Koo Kang, Sang-Ill Lee


This study was conducted to reduce runoff by rainwater infiltration facility using attached growth with Bacillus sp., which are reported to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as organic matter effectively. This study was investigated non-point pollutants removal efficiency of organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus in column using the media attached growth with Bacillus sp. To compare attached growth with bacillus sp. and detached media, two columns filled with perlite, zeolite, vermiculite, pumice, peat-moss was installed. In A column (attached growth with bacillus sp.), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS (suspended solid) 85.8±1.2 %, T-P (total phosphorus) 67.0±8.1 %, T-N (total nitrogen) 66.0±4.9 %, COD (chemical oxygen demand) 73.6±2.9 %, NH4+-N 72.7±3.0 %. In B column (detached media), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS 86.0±2.2 %, T-P 62.5±11.3 %, T-N 53.3±3.9 %, COD 34.6±3.7 %, NH4+-N 61.5±2.8 %. Removal efficiency of A column is better than B column. As the result from this study, using media with Bacillus sp. can improve an effective removal of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: non-point source pollutants, Bacillus sp., rainwater, infiltration facility

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
214 Experiment on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater Implemented Project: Effect on the Infiltration Velocity by Vegetation Mulch

Authors: Cheh-Shyh Ting, Jiin-Liang Lin


This study was conducted at the Wanglung Farm in Pingtung County to test the groundwater seepage influences on the implemented project for artificial groundwater recharge. The study was divided into three phases. The first phase, conducted on natural groundwater that was recharged through the local climate and growing conditions, observed the natural form of vegetation species. The original plants were flooded, and after 60 days it was observed that of the original plants only Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) and Black heart (Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.) remained. Direct infiltration tests were carried out, and calculations for the effect of vegetation on infiltration velocity of the recharge pool were noted. The second phase was an indoor test. Bahia grass and wild amaranth were selected as vegetation roots. After growth, the distribution of different grassroots was observed in order to facilitate a comparison permeability coefficient calculated by the amount of penetration and to explore the relationship between density and the efficiency to groundwater recharge. The third phase was the root tomography analysis, further observation of the development of plant roots using computed tomography technology. Computed Tomography, also known as (CT), is a diagnostic imaging examination, normally used in the medical field. In the first phase of the feasibility study, most non-aquatic plants wilted and died within seven days. In seven days, the remaining plants were used for experimental infiltration analysis. Results showed that in eight hours of infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.466 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.014 m/day. The second phase of the experiment was conducted on the remains of the plant a week in it had died and rotted, and the infiltration experiment was performed under these conditions. The results showed eight hours in end of the infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.033 m/day, and wild amaranth averaged 0.098 m/day. Non-aquatic plants died within two weeks, and their rotted remains clogged the pores of bottom soil particles, causing obstruction of recharge pool infiltration. Experiment results showed that eight hours in the test the average infiltration velocity for Eleusine indica stems was 0.0229 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.0117 m/day. Since the rotted roots of the plants blocked the pores of the soil in the recharge pool, which resulted in the obstruction of the artificial infiltration pond and showed an immediate impact on recharge efficiency. In order to observe the development of plant roots, the third phase used computed tomography imaging. Iodine developer was injected into the Black heart, allowing its cross-sectional images to be shown on CT and to be used to observe root development.

Keywords: artificial recharge of groundwater, computed tomography, infiltration velocity, vegetation root system

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
213 Influence of Reinforcement Stiffness on the Performance of Back-to-Back Reinforced Earth Wall upon Rainwater Infiltration

Authors: Gopika Rajagopal, Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi


Back-to-back reinforced earth (RE) walls are extensively used in these days as bridge abutments and highway ramps, owing to their cost efficiency and ease of construction. High quality select fill is the most suitable backfill material due to its excellent engineering properties and constructability. However, industries are compelled to use low quality, locally available soil because of its ample availability on site. However, several failure cases of such walls are reported, especially subsequent to rainfall events. The stiffness of reinforcement is one of the major factors affecting the performance of RE walls. The present study focused on analyzing the effect of reinforcement stiffness on the performance of complete select fill, complete marginal fill, and hybrid-fill (i.e., combination of select and marginal fills) back-to-back RE walls, immediately after construction and upon rainwater infiltration through finite element modelling. A constant width to height (W/H) ratio of 3 and height (H) of 6 m was considered for the numerical analysis and the stiffness of reinforcement layers was varied from 500 kN/m to 10000 kN/m. Results showed that reinforcement stiffness had a noticeable influence on the response of RE wall, subsequent to construction as well as rainwater infiltration. Facing displacement was found to decrease and maximum reinforcement tension and factor of safety were observed to increase with increasing the stiffness of reinforcement. However, beyond a stiffness of 5000 kN/m, no significant reduction in facing displacement was observed. The behavior of fully marginal fill wall considered in this study was found to be reasonable even after rainwater infiltration when the high stiffness reinforcement layers are used.

Keywords: back-to-back reinforced earth wall, finite element modelling, rainwater infiltration, reinforcement stiffness

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212 Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method

Authors: Isil Kerti, Onur Okur, Sibel Daglilar, Recep Calin


Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, vacumm infiltration method, aluminum metal matrix, mechanical feature

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211 Study of Corrosion in Structures due to Chloride Infiltration

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai, Akku Aby Mathews


Corrosion in reinforcing steel is the leading cause for deterioration in concrete structures. It is an electrochemical process which leads to volumetric change in concrete and causes cracking, delamination and spalling. The objective of the study is to provide a rational method to estimate the probable chloride concentration at the reinforcement level for a known surface chloride concentration. The paper derives the formulation of design charts to aid engineers for quick calculation of the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the paper focuses on comparison of durability design against corrosion with American, European and Indian design standards.

Keywords: chloride infiltration, concrete, corrosion, design charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
210 Low-Temperature Fabrication of Reaction Bonded Composites, Based on Sic and (Sic+B4C) Mixture, Infiltrated with Si-Al Alloy

Authors: Helen Dilman, Eyal Oz, Shmuel Hayun, Nahum Frage


The conventional approach for manufacturing silicon carbide and boron carbide reaction bonded composites is based on infiltrating a ceramic porous preform with molten silicon. The relatively high melting temperature of the silicon infiltrating medium is a drawback of the process. The present contribution is concerned with an approach that allows obtaining reaction bonded composites by pressure-less infiltration at a significantly lower (850-1000oC) temperature range. This approach was applied for the fabrication of fully dense SiC/(Si-Al) and (SiC+B4C)/(Si-Al) composites. The key feature of the approach is based on using Si alloys with low melting temperature and the Mg-vapor atmosphere, under which an adequate wetting between ceramics and liquid alloys for the infiltration process is achieved. In the first set of the experiments ceramic performs compacted from multimodal SiC powders (with the green density of about 27 vol. %) without free carbon addition were infiltrated by Si-20%Al alloy at 950oC. In the second set, 19 vol. % of a fine boron carbide powder was added to SiC powders as a source of carbon. The green density of the SiC-B4C preforms was about 23-25 vol. %. In both cases, successful infiltration was achieved and the composites were fully dense. The density of the composites was about 3g/cm3. For the SiC based composites the hardness value was 750±150HV, Young modulus-280GPa and bending strength-240±30MPa. These values for (SiC-B4C)/(Si-Al) composites (1460±200HV, 317GPa and 360±20MPa) were significantly higher due to the formation of novel ceramics phases. Microstructural characteristics of the composites and their phase composition will be discussed.

Keywords: boron carbide, composites, infiltration, low temperatures, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
209 Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Olumana Dinka, Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse


Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.

Keywords: blending, infiltration, salinity, sodicity, sugarcane, toxicity

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208 The Influence of Infiltration and Exfiltration Processes on Maximum Wave Run-Up: A Field Study on Trinidad Beaches

Authors: Shani Brathwaite, Deborah Villarroel-Lamb


Wave run-up may be defined as the time-varying position of the landward extent of the water’s edge, measured vertically from the mean water level position. The hydrodynamics of the swash zone and the accurate prediction of maximum wave run-up, play a critical role in the study of coastal engineering. The understanding of these processes is necessary for the modeling of sediment transport, beach recovery and the design and maintenance of coastal engineering structures. However, due to the complex nature of the swash zone, there remains a lack of detailed knowledge in this area. Particularly, there has been found to be insufficient consideration of bed porosity and ultimately infiltration/exfiltration processes, in the development of wave run-up models. Theoretically, there should be an inverse relationship between maximum wave run-up and beach porosity. The greater the rate of infiltration during an event, associated with a larger bed porosity, the lower the magnitude of the maximum wave run-up. Additionally, most models have been developed using data collected on North American or Australian beaches and may have limitations when used for operational forecasting in Trinidad. This paper aims to assess the influence and significance of infiltration and exfiltration processes on wave run-up magnitudes within the swash zone. It also seeks to pay particular attention to how well various empirical formulae can predict maximum run-up on contrasting beaches in Trinidad. Traditional surveying techniques will be used to collect wave run-up and cross-sectional data on various beaches. Wave data from wave gauges and wave models will be used as well as porosity measurements collected using a double ring infiltrometer. The relationship between maximum wave run-up and differing physical parameters will be investigated using correlation analyses. These physical parameters comprise wave and beach characteristics such as wave height, wave direction, period, beach slope, the magnitude of wave setup, and beach porosity. Most parameterizations to determine the maximum wave run-up are described using differing parameters and do not always have a good predictive capability. This study seeks to improve the formulation of wave run-up by using the aforementioned parameters to generate a formulation with a special focus on the influence of infiltration/exfiltration processes. This will further contribute to the improvement of the prediction of sediment transport, beach recovery and design of coastal engineering structures in Trinidad.

Keywords: beach porosity, empirical models, infiltration, swash, wave run-up

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207 A Derivative of L-allo Threonine Alleviates Asthmatic Symptoms in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Kun Chun, Jin-Chun Heo, Sang-Han Lee


Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and tissue remodeling. In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic activity of a derivative of L-allo threonine by in vitro and in vivo anti-asthmatic assays. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced C57BL/6 mice were used to analyze lung inflammation and cytokine expressions for exhibiting anti-atopic activity of the derivative. LX519290, a derivative of L-allo threonine, induced an increased IFN-γ and a decreased IL-10 mRNA level. This compound exhibited potent anti-asthmatic activity by decreasing immune cell infiltration in the lung, and IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine levels in the serum of OVA-induced mice. These results indicated that chronic airway injury was decreased by LX519290. We also assessed that LX519290 inhibits infiltration of immune cell, mucus release and cytokine expression in an in vivo model. Our results collectively suggest that the L-allo threonine is effective in alleviating asthmatic symptoms by treating inflammatory factors in the lung.

Keywords: asthma, L -allo threonine, LX519290, mice

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206 Permeable Asphalt Pavement as a Measure of Urban Green Infrastructure in the Extreme Events Mitigation

Authors: Márcia Afonso, Cristina Fael, Marisa Dinis-Almeida


Population growth in cities has led to an increase in the infrastructures construction, including buildings and roadways. This aspect leads directly to the soils waterproofing. In turn, changes in precipitation patterns are developing into higher and more frequent intensities. Thus, these two conjugated aspects decrease the rainwater infiltration into soils and increase the volume of surface runoff. The practice of green and sustainable urban solutions has encouraged research in these areas. The porous asphalt pavement, as a green infrastructure, is part of practical solutions set to address urban challenges related to land use and adaptation to climate change. In this field, permeable pavements with porous asphalt mixtures (PA) have several advantages in terms of reducing the runoff generated by the floods. The porous structure of these pavements, compared to a conventional asphalt pavement, allows the rainwater infiltration in the subsoil, and consequently, the water quality improvement. This green infrastructure solution can be applied in cities, particularly in streets or parking lots to mitigate the floods effects. Over the years, the pores of these pavements can be filled by sediment, reducing their function in the rainwater infiltration. Thus, double layer porous asphalt (DLPA) was developed to mitigate the clogging effect and facilitate the water infiltration into the lower layers. This study intends to deepen the knowledge of the performance of DLPA when subjected to clogging. The experimental methodology consisted on four evaluation phases of the DLPA infiltration capacity submitted to three precipitation events (100, 200 and 300 mm/h) in each phase. The evaluation first phase determined the behavior after DLPA construction. In phases two and three, two 500 g/m2 clogging cycles were performed, totaling a 1000 g/m2 final simulation. Sand with gradation accented in fine particles was used as clogging material. In the last phase, the DLPA was subjected to simple sweeping and vacuuming maintenance. A precipitation simulator, type sprinkler, capable of simulating the real precipitation was developed for this purpose. The main conclusions show that the DLPA has the capacity to drain the water, even after two clogging cycles. The infiltration results of flows lead to an efficient performance of the DPLA in the surface runoff attenuation, since this was not observed in any of the evaluation phases, even at intensities of 200 and 300 mm/h, simulating intense precipitation events. The infiltration capacity under clogging conditions decreased about 7% on average in the three intensities relative to the initial performance that is after construction. However, this was restored when subjected to simple maintenance, recovering the DLPA hydraulic functionality. In summary, the study proved the efficacy of using a DLPA when it retains thicker surface sediments and limits the fine sediments entry to the remaining layers. At the same time, it is guaranteed the rainwater infiltration and the surface runoff reduction and is therefore a viable solution to put into practice in permeable pavements.

Keywords: clogging, double layer porous asphalt, infiltration capacity, rainfall intensity

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205 Characterization of the Airtightness Level in School Classrooms in Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Miguel A. Campano, Jesica Fernández-Agüera, Samuel Domínguez-Amarillo, Juan J. Sendra


An analysis of the air tightness level is performed on a representative sample of school classrooms in Southern Spain, which allows knowing the infiltration level of these classrooms, mainly through its envelope, which can affect both energy demand and occupant's thermal comfort. By using a pressurization/depressurization equipment (Blower-Door test), a characterization of 45 multipurpose classrooms have been performed in nine non-university educational institutions of the main climate zones of Southern Spain. In spite of having two doors and a high ratio between glass surface and outer surface, it is possible to see in these classrooms that there is an adequate level of airtightness, since all the n50 values obtained are lower than 9.0 ACH, with an average value around 7.0 ACH.

Keywords: air infiltration, energy efficiency, school buildings, thermal comfort, indoor air quality, ventilation

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204 Quantification and Detection of Non-Sewer Water Infiltration and Inflow in Urban Sewer Systems

Authors: M. Beheshti, S. Saegrov, T. M. Muthanna


Separated sewer systems are designed to transfer the wastewater from houses and industrial sections to wastewater treatment plants. Unwanted water in the sewer systems is a well-known problem, i.e. storm-water inflow is around 50% of the foul sewer, and groundwater infiltration to the sewer system can exceed 50% of total wastewater volume in deteriorated networks. Infiltration and inflow of non-sewer water (I/I) into sewer systems is unfavorable in separated sewer systems and can trigger overloading the system and reducing the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, I/I has negative economic, environmental, and social impacts on urban areas. Therefore, for having sustainable management of urban sewer systems, I/I of unwanted water into the urban sewer systems should be considered carefully and maintenance and rehabilitation plan should be implemented on these water infrastructural assets. This study presents a methodology to identify and quantify the level of I/I into the sewer system. Amount of I/I is evaluated by accurate flow measurement in separated sewer systems for specified isolated catchments in Trondheim city (Norway). Advanced information about the characteristics of I/I is gained by CCTV inspection of sewer pipelines with high I/I contribution. Achieving enhanced knowledge about the detection and localization of non-sewer water in foul sewer system during the wet and dry weather conditions will enable the possibility for finding the problem of sewer system and prioritizing them and taking decisions for rehabilitation and renewal planning in the long-term. Furthermore, preventive measures and optimization of sewer systems functionality and efficiency can be executed by maintenance of sewer system. In this way, the exploitation of sewer system can be improved by maintenance and rehabilitation of existing pipelines in a sustainable way by more practical cost-effective and environmental friendly way. This study is conducted on specified catchments with different properties in Trondheim city. Risvollan catchment is one of these catchments with a measuring station to investigate hydrological parameters through the year, which also has a good database. For assessing the infiltration in a separated sewer system, applying the flow rate measurement method can be utilized in obtaining a general view of the network condition from infiltration point of view. This study discusses commonly used and advanced methods of localizing and quantifying I/I in sewer systems. A combination of these methods give sewer operators the possibility to compare different techniques and obtain reliable and accurate I/I data which is vital for long-term rehabilitation plans.

Keywords: flow rate measurement, infiltration and inflow (I/I), non-sewer water, separated sewer systems, sustainable management

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203 The Infiltration Interface Structure of Suburban Landscape Forms in Bimen Township, Anji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ke Wang, Zhu Wang


Coordinating and promoting urban and rural development has been a new round of institutional change in Zhejiang province since 2004. And this plan was fully implemented, which showed that the isolation between the urban and rural areas had gradually diminished. Little by little, an infiltration interface that is dynamic, flexible and interactive is formed, and this morphological structure starts to appear on the landscape form in the surrounding villages. In order to study the specific function and formation of the structure in the context of industrial revolution, Bimen village located on the interface between Anji Township, Huzhou and Yuhang District, Hangzhou is taken as the case. Anji township is in the cross area between Yangtze River delta economic circle and innovation center in Hangzhou. Awarded with ‘Chinese beautiful village’, Bimen has witnessed the growing process of infiltration in ecology, economy, technology and culture on the interface. Within the opportunity, Bimen village presents internal reformation to adapt to the energy exchange with urban areas. In the research, the reformation is to adjust the industrial structure, to upgrade the local special bamboo crafts, to release space for activities, and to establish infrastructures on the interface. The characteristic of an interface is elasticity achieved by introducing an Internet platform using ‘O2O’ agriculture method to connect cities and farmlands. There is a platform of this kind in Bimen named ‘Xiao Mei’. ‘Xiao’ in Chinese means small, ‘Mei’ means beautiful, which indicates the method to refine the landscape form. It turns out that the new agriculture mode will strengthen the interface by orienting the Third Party Platform upon the old dynamic basis and will bring new vitality for economy development in Bimen village. The research concludes opportunities and challenges generated by the evolution of the infiltration interface. It also proposes strategies for how to organically adapt to the urbanization process. Finally it demonstrates what will happen by increasing flexibility in the landscape forms of suburbs in the Bimen village.

Keywords: Bimen village, infiltration interface, flexibility, suburban landscape form

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202 A Case Study of Rainfall Derived Inflow/Infiltration in a Separate Sewer System in Gwangju, Korea

Authors: Bumjo Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Joon Ha Kim


The separate sewer system is that collects the wastewater as a sewer pipe and rainfall as a stormwater pipe separately, and then sewage is treated in the wastewater treatment plant, the stormwater is discharged to rivers or lakes through stormwater drainage pipes. Unfortunately, even for separate sewer systems, it is not possible to prevent Rainfall Driven Inflow/Infiltration(RDII) completely to the sewer pipe. Even if the sewerage line is renovated, there is an ineluctable RDII due to the combined sewer system in the house or the difficulty of sewage maintenance in private areas. The basic statistical analysis was performed using environmental data including rainfall, sewage, water qualities and groundwater level in the strict of Gwangju in ​South Korea. During rainfall in the target area, RDII showed an increased rate of 13.4 ~ 53.0% compared to that of a clear day and showed a rapid hydrograph response of 0.3 ~ 3.0 hr. As a result of water quality analysis, BOD5 concentration decreased by 17.3 % and salinity concentration decreased by 8.8 % at the representative spot in the project area compared to the sunny day during rainfall. In contrast to the seasonal fluctuation range of 0.38 m ~ 0.55 m in groundwater in Gwangju area and 0.58 m ~ 0.78 m in monthly fluctuation range, while the difference between groundwater level and the depth of sewer pipe laying was 2.70 m on average, which is larger than the range of fluctuation. Comprehensively, it can be concluded that the increasing of flowrate at sewer line is due to not infiltration water caused by groundwater level rise, construction failure, cracking due to joint failure or conduit deterioration, rainfall was directly inflowed into the sewer line rapidly. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Keywords: ground water, rainfall, rainfall driven inflow/infiltration, separate sewer system

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201 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci


In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

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200 Monitoring and Improving Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System and Infiltration Basins of North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Plant as Case Study

Authors: Sadi Ali, Yaser Kishawi


As part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely covers the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is to find non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to irrigate 1500 hectares and serves over 100,000 inhabitants. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & 9 infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, phase A is functioning since Apr 2009. Since Apr 2009, a monitoring plan is conducted to monitor the infiltration rate (I.R.) of the 9 basins. Nearly 23 million m3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated up to Jun 2014. It is important to maintain an acceptable rate to allow the basins to handle the coming quantities (currently 10,000 m3 are pumped an infiltrated daily). The methodology applied was to review and analysis the collected data including the I.R.s, the WW quality and the drying-wetting schedule of the basins. One of the main findings is the relation between the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at BLWWTP and the I.R. at the basins. Since April 2009, the basins scored an average I.R. of about 2.5 m/day. Since then the records showed a decreasing pattern of the average rate until it reached the lower value of 0.42 m/day in Jun 2013. This was accompanied with an increase of TSS (mg/L) concentration at the source reaching above 200 mg/L. The reducing of TSS concentration directly improved the I.R. (by cleaning the WW source ponds at Biet Lahia WWTP site). This was reflected in an improvement in I.R. in last 6 months from 0.42 m/day to 0.66 m/day then to nearly 1.0 m/day as the average of the last 3 months of 2013. The wetting-drying scheme of the basins was observed (3 days wetting and 7 days drying) besides the rainfall rates. Despite the difficulty to apply this scheme accurately a control of flow to each basin was applied to improve the I.R. The drying-wetting system affected the I.R. of individual basins, thus affected the overall system rate which was recorded and assessed. Also the ploughing activities at the infiltration basins as well were recommended at certain times to retain a certain infiltration level. This breaks the confined clogging layer which prevents the infiltration. It is recommended to maintain proper quality of WW infiltrated to ensure an acceptable performance of IBs. The continual maintenance of settling ponds at BLWWTP, continual ploughing of basins and applying soil treatment techniques at the IBs will improve the I.R.s. When the new WWTP functions a high standard effluent quality (TSS 20mg, BOD 20 mg/l, and TN 15 mg/l) will be infiltrated, thus will enhance I.R.s of IBs due to lower organic load.

Keywords: soil aquifer treatment, recovery and reuse scheme, infiltration basins, North Gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 156