Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4949

Search results for: students with disabilities

4949 Equity and Accessibility for Inclusion: A Study of the Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

Abstract:

The education of people with disabilities remains one of the major concern of policymakers, advocacy groups and researchers. In Ghana, as in many other countries, there is a policy commitment for the educational inclusion of people with disabilities, including in the context of higher education. This qualitative research investigates how students with disabilities experience equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study also investigates factors that influence equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study draws on the views of students with disabilities, on lecturer insight and organisational and national policy documents. The findings specifies that the quality of students with disabilities lived experiences are affected by the physical environment, infrastructure facilities and lack of academic and non-academic information. The study highlights the need for the university to ensure equity in making the university accessible for all students in order to ensure retention and participation of students with disabilities; failure to make the university accessible for students with disabilities compromises the ability of this group of students to realise their academic potentials.

Keywords: accessibility, educational inclusion, equity, students with disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
4948 Social Skills for Students with and without Learning Disabilities in Primary Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omer Agail

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the social skills of students with and without learning disabilities in primary education in Saudi Arabia. A Social Skills Rating Scale for Teachers Form (SSRS-TF) was used to evaluate students' social skills as perceived by teachers. A randomly-selected sample was chosen from students with and without learning disabilities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic characteristics of participants. Analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by academic status, i.e. students with learning disabilities exhibit less social skills compared to students without learning disabilities. In addition, analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by gender. A conclusion and recommendations are presented.

Keywords: primary education, students with learning disabilities, social skills, social competence

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4947 Attitudes of the Adolescent Students towards People with Disabilities and Demographic Variables: An Indian Context

Authors: Santoshi Halder, Bijoya Saha

Abstract:

Adolescent’s attitude is one of the most important variables in the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article investigated attitudes of general adolescent in the eastern part of India (Kolkata), India, towards people with disabilities measured by responses on the Attitude toward Disabled Persons Scale. The present study examined 400, High School adolescent students of Mean Age 14 from various schools in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. The study measured whether demographic characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status (SES) habitat affect the attitudes of adolescent students towards people with disabilities. The results of this study indicate that habitat and socioeconomic status are some of the significant factors affecting the attitudes of the general adolescent students towards people with disabilities (PwD). However findings also indicate no significant effect on the attitude of the students towards people with disabilities (PwD) with respect to gender. Implication of this study: Broader and wide range of exposure to students and healthy family environment in order to increase positive attitudes towards people with disabilities.

Keywords: attitudes, People with Disabilities (PwD), adolescent students, socioeconomic status, gender, habitat, inclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
4946 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

Abstract:

This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: disability, sexuality, education, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
4945 Student Loan Debt among Students with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

This study will determine if students with disabilities have higher student loan debt payments than other student populations. The hypothesis was that students with disabilities would have significantly higher student loan debt payments than other students due to the length of time they spend in school. Using the Bachelorette and Beyond Study Wave 2015/017 dataset, quantitative methods were employed. These data analysis methods included linear regression and a correlation matrix. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, the significance levels for the overall model and each variable were set at .05. The correlation matrix demonstrated that students with certain types of disabilities are more likely to fall under higher student loan payment brackets than students without disabilities. These results also varied among the different types of disabilities. The result of the overall linear regression model was statistically significant (p = .04). Despite the overall model being statistically significant, the majority of the significance values for the different types of disabilities were null. However, several other variables had statistically significant results, such as veterans, people of minority races, and people who attended private schools. Implications for how this impacts the economy, capitalism, and financial wellbeing of various students are discussed.

Keywords: disability, student loan debt, higher education, social work

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4944 Motivation for Higher Education: An Exploration of Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

Abstract:

The social construction of disability in a Ghanaian society has created a restriction on the development of the academic potentials of persons with disabilities. Ghanaian societal perceptions position persons with disabilities as needy, evil, feeble and 'abnormal' that a person with disability cannot contribute anything meaningful to their own development, society, and the nation as well. Almost all Ghanaian cultures believe the Gods visit evil people with disability as such they erect barriers that limit them to select and enroll in education. The few people with disabilities who gain admission to schools drop out due to these barriers erected by the society and institutions. However, there are very few of these students who are able to pursue their education at the higher education level despite these challenges. This qualitative study explores the motivation of students with disabilities to select and enroll in a Ghanaian university. The study used semi-structured interview to solicit information from students with disabilities in a Ghanaian university. Although the quality of students with disabilities experience was affected by culture, discrimination, marginalisation, and lack of support, the prospect of using themselves as role models, employment opportunities and family impingement were among others that pushed them to embark on their educational journey. The findings of this study have implications for societal and institutional levels for restructuring and refining societal perception and institutional policies on disabilities.

Keywords: beliefs, Ghanaian university, social construction, students with disabilities

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4943 Improving Student Retention with Summer Bridge Programs

Authors: Elizabeth Watson, Sara Vogt

Abstract:

The transition from high school to college can be an exciting and confusing time for many students, especially college students with disabilities. In 1983, the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater created a Summer Transition Program (STP) for such students as part of a US Department of Education Demonstration Grant. This program offers incoming students the opportunity to take 2 college courses and live on campus for 4 weeks to help introduce and familiarize them with typical college expectations and support services. Over the past 30 years, 48% of the students have graduated, exceeding the national college graduation rate for students with disabilities. This mixed methods longitudinal study will discuss how this program has increased retention and graduation rates, and success in the co-curricular and living environments for students with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, transition, post-secondary education, retention

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
4942 Improving the Quality of Higher Education for Students with Disability in Universities of Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Sulman

Abstract:

In Pakistan, the inclusion of persons with disabilities in higher education institutions has significantly been increased with every passing year and anyone can observe a sizeable number of these students in each faculty. The study executes to conduct a baseline survey for measuring faculty understanding about the special needs, experiences of students with disabilities and support provided by university administration in order to teach these students effectively. The researcher has used mixed methods and the University of Karachi was selected through non-probability-based sampling method. This university is one of the largest universities in Pakistan where more than 40,000 students have been enrolled. Data was gathered through a questionnaire and focused group discussion from three stakeholders including students with disabilities, faculty members and members of the university administration. The key findings show that students with disabilities experience a number of problems related to accommodating their special needs. However, the most encouraging factors identified are the attitude, support, and motivation they received from various faculty members and university administration. On the basis of the findings of the study the researcher has prepared a faculty guidebook and established a ‘Model Learning Assistance Centre for Students with Disabilities’ in the Department of Special Education, University of Karachi. Both these efforts will be helpful for improving the support services for students with disabilities to strengthen the existing laws, policies, and practices in institutions of higher education.

Keywords: persons with disabilities, higher education, learning assistance center, faculty guidebook

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
4941 Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Sultanate Oman Schools

Authors: Ibrahim Azem

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of regular classroom teachers, special education teachers, principals, social workers, parents of students without disabilities and parents of students with disabilities, in Sultanate Oman towards inclusion of students with disabilities in the general school setting. Participants’ Four hundred fifty schools were selected randomly from all public schools in Sultanate Oman. From these schools 2,025 individuals volunteered to participate in this study. The Attitude Scale toward inclusion was used to measure adults’ attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities with their peers in an inclusive classroom. The scale was developed based on the conceptualization of attitude as a tri component evaluation consisting of cognitive, affective, and behavioral intention. To investigate the validity and the reliability of the scale, it shows that it has valid appropriate connotations and reliability. The results of the study showed that the adult’s role had significant effect (p < .05) on the participants’ attitudes toward inclusion. Moreover, the results indicated significant (p < .05) gender differences in the attitudes toward inclusion, males scored significantly (p < .05) higher than females. The result of the study also showed that the special education teachers had positives attitudes more than the other type of stakeholders.

Keywords: inclusion, students with disabilities, Oman, stakeholders

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4940 Teacher Education and the Impact of Higher Education Foreign Language Requirements on Students with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Joao Carlos Koch Junior, Risa Takashima

Abstract:

Learning disabilities have been extensively and increasingly studied in recent times. In spite of this, there is arguably a scarce number of studies addressing a key issue, which is the impact of foreign-language requirements on students with learning disabilities in higher education, and the lack of training or awareness of teachers regarding language learning disabilities. This study is an attempt to address this issue. An extensive review of the literature in multiple fields will be summarised. This, paired with a case-analysis of a university adopting a more inclusive approach towards special-needs students in its foreign-language programme, this presentation aims to establish a link between different studies and propose a number of suggestions to make language classrooms more inclusive.

Keywords: foreign language teaching, higher education, language teacher education, learning disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
4939 The Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
4938 Using Athletics to Mitigate the Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
4937 Effectiveness of Using Phonemic Awareness Based Activities in Improving Decoding Skills of Third Grade Students Referred for Reading Disabilities in Oman

Authors: Mahmoud Mohamed Emam

Abstract:

In Oman the number of students referred for reading disabilities is on the rise. Schools serve these students by placement in the so-called learning disabilities unit. Recently the author led a strategic project to train teachers on the use of curriculum based measurement to identify students with reading disabilities in Oman. Additional the project involved training teachers to use phonemic awareness based activities to improve reading skills of those students. Phonemic awareness refers to the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words. We know that a student's skill in phonemic awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty. Using multiple baseline design across four participants the current studies investigated the effectiveness of using phonemic awareness based activities to improve decoding skills of third grade students referred for reading disabilities in Oman. During treatment students received phonemic awareness based activities that were designed to fulfill the idiosyncratic characteristics of Arabic language phonology as well as orthography. Results indicated that the phonemic awareness based activities were effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly decoded word for all four participants. Maintenance of strategy effects was evident for the weeks following the termination of intervention for the four students. In addition, the effects of intervention generalized to decoding novel words for all four participants.

Keywords: learning disabilities, phonemic awareness, third graders, Oman

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4936 A Conceptual Model of Preparing School Counseling Students as Related Service Providers in the Transition Process

Authors: LaRon A. Scott, Donna M. Gibson

Abstract:

Data indicate that counselor education programs in the United States do not prepare their students adequately to serve students with disabilities nor provide counseling as a related service. There is a need to train more school counselors to provide related services to students with disabilities, for many reasons, but specifically, school counselors are participating in Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and transition planning meetings for students with disabilities where important academic, mental health and post-secondary education decisions are made. While school counselors input is perceived very important to the process, they may not have the knowledge or training in this area to feel confident in offering required input in these meetings. Using a conceptual research design, a model that can be used to prepare school counseling students as related service providers and effective supports to address transition for students with disabilities was developed as a component of this research. The authors developed the Collaborative Model of Preparing School Counseling Students as Related Service Providers to Students with Disabilities, based on a conceptual framework that involves an integration of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and evidenced-based practices based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to provide related and transition services and planning with students with disabilities. The authors’ conclude that with five overarching competencies, (1) knowledge and understanding of disabilities, (2) knowledge and expertise in group counseling to students with disabilities, (3), knowledge and experience in specific related service components, (4) knowledge and experience in evidence-based counseling interventions, (5) knowledge and experiencing in evidenced-based transition and career planning services, that school counselors can enter the field with the necessary expertise to adequately serve all students. Other examples and strategies are suggested, and recommendations for preparation programs seeking to integrate a model to prepare school counselors to implement evidenced-based transition strategies in supporting students with disabilities are included

Keywords: transition education, social cognitive career theory, self-determination, counseling

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4935 Barriers That Special Education Teachers Faced When Working with Students with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusion Schools

Authors: Faris Algahtani

Abstract:

Every child has a right to education. This is one of the laws in the constitution and it empowers every child to access knowledge but it does not, however, allocate special interest to the rights of education for children with disabilities. It also does not address the challenges that teachers of such children face while trying to educate them. This study was conducted at government schools of Saudi Arabia. As the teaching profession is the most valuable profession and deserves to have its challenges tackled. This paper explores the challenges that teachers face as they try to teach students who have intellectual disabilities (ID). It looks at the daily challenges of a teacher who has to teach both children with disabilities and those without. The literature review shed light on the various aspects of mainstream education from the classroom to the outside environment to the teachers involved in mainstream education. The study employed qualitative methods in which Focus Group Discussions were utilized and Twenty (N=20) special education teachers were randomly sampled from primary schools through 6 groups of teachers from 6 different schools were interviewed through semi-structured interviews with the aim of drawing collective perceptions rather than personal perceptions about the challenges. The study found that most teachers had similar perceptions about the challenges that teachers face as they educate students with intellectual disabilities. The study recommends that The Ministry of Education should consider increasing the availability of special needs courses, workshops and conference for special education teachers.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, mainstream schools, disabilities, special education teachers

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4934 Higher Education and Students with Disabilities in Azerbaijan

Authors: Rima Mammadova

Abstract:

Azerbaijan is a developing country that tries to keep its own culture and traditions. At the same time tries to get benefit from the experience and knowledge of the developed countries. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan got its independence and currently, implements various programs and policy initiatives to the development of different fields, such as an education, human rights, etc. Disability related issues are also in the main priority list of the country. During the Soviet Union, children with disabilities studied in the special schools, which called boarding schools. They were isolated from the society and most of them were not able to get their higher education. As the result of this kind of tendency, they were in dependence on their parents, relatives and especially the government, as there were several kind of pensions provided by the government depending on the level of disability. Although Azerbaijan maintain different programs, the remnants of the Soviet period still exists. This paper investigates the current situation in Azerbaijan concerning the higher education of people with disabilities. Qualitative and quantitative research methods used in this paper. As a qualitative method a literature review was done on what the term “disability” is and what kind of education rights possess people with disabilities in Azerbaijan. A detailed research also was done on legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan concerning the education rights of people with disabilities in Azerbaijan. As a quantitative method, questionnaire was used. The questionnaires were sent to the 8 Azerbaijani Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) which are located in different regions of Azerbaijan in order to assess and evaluate the situation concerning the students with disabilities. The main aims of these questionnaires were to find out how many students with disabilities study in Higher Education Institutions in 8 HEIs and what kind of obstacles and challenges Institutions face concerning the education of students with disabilities. The researches provided for the project brought up the results that people with disabilities possess all rights concerning the education rights legally. However in the practice they face various types of obstacles and challenges. The number of students with disabilities in HEIs in Azerbaijan is significantly low. There are several kind of reasons that affect the number of students with disabilities in HEIs. As was mentioned before the remnants of the Soviet period exists in Azerbaijan and children with disabilities get their education in boarding schools and in most cases, these boarding schools give education till the 9th class, but to enter the University, pupils have to finish 11 classes in Azerbaijan. As a result, pupils with disabilities automatically disqualify to enter the university. The paper comes into conclusion that to eliminate the isolation of pupils with disabilities from HEIs, the government should pay more attention to the special schools for the pupils with disabilities, the boarding schools should be cancelled and etc. By the applying these kind of changes the rights of people with disabilities will be provided not only theoretically but also practically.

Keywords: Azerbaijan, disability, students with disabilities, boarding schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4933 Bullying Rates Among Students with Special Needs in the United States

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Past studies have indicated students who have disabilities are at a higher risk of experiencing bullying victimization in comparison to other student groups. Extracurricular activity participation has been shown to establish better social outcomes for students. These positive social outcomes indirectly decrease the number of times a student is bullied. The following study uses the National Crime Victimization Survey – School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS) to analyze the bullying concurrences experienced among students, with disabilities being a focal variable. To explore the relationship between extracurricular involvement and bullying occurrence rates, this study employs a binary logistic regression to determine if athletic and non-athletic extracurricular activities have an impact on the number of times a student with disabilities experiences bullying. Implications for future social welfare practice and research are discussed.

Keywords: disability, bullying, extracurricular activities, athletics

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
4932 Beyond Diagnosis: Innovative Instructional Methods for Children with Multiple Disabilities

Authors: Patricia Kopetz

Abstract:

Too often our youngest children with disabilities receive diagnostic labels and accompanying treatment plans based upon perceptions that the children are of limited aptitude and/or ambition. However, children of varied-ability levels who are diagnosed with ‘multiple disabilities,’ can participate and excel in school-based instruction that aligns with their desires, interests, and fortitude – criteria components not foretold by scores on standardized assessments. The paper represents theoretical work in Special Education Innovative Instruction, and includes presenting research materials, some developed by the author herself. The majority of students with disabilities are now served in general education settings in the United States, embracing inclusive practices in our schools. ‘There is now a stronger call for special education to step up and improve efficiency, implement evidence-based practices, and provide greater accountability on key performance indicators that support successful academic and post-school outcomes for students with disabilities.’ For example, in the United States, the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is focusing on results-driven indicators to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. School personnel are appreciating the implications of research-driven approaches for students diagnosed with multiple disabilities, and aim to align their practices toward such focus. The paper presented will provide updates on current theoretical principles and perspectives, and explore advancements in latest, evidence-based and results-driven instructional practices that can motivate children with multiple disabilities to advance their skills and engage in learning activities that as nonconventional, innovative, and proven successful.

Keywords: childhood special education, educational technology , innovative instruction, multiple disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4931 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

Abstract:

Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: classmates, disability, students, tolerance

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4930 Attitudes towards People with Disability and Career Interest in Disability Studies: A Study of Clinical Medical Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Ebele V. Okoli, Emmanuel Nwobi, Dozie Ezechukwu, Ijeoma Itanyi

Abstract:

One in seven people worldwide suffer from a disability. 80% of people with disabilities live in developing countries. Negative attitudes and misconceptions among health-care providers constitute barri¬ers to optimal health care for people with disabilities. This underscores the relevance of a study of the attitude of Nigerian medical students towards disability and their willingness to work in the disability sector. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 254 penultimate and final year medical students of a university in southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the students was 24.8 ± 3.12 years. Majority of the students were male (75.2%), single (96.9%), of the Igbo tribe (86.6%), Christian (97.6%) and grew up in urban areas (68.1%). Results indicated that the medical students had a predominantly positive attitude towards people with disability as 73.8% had a positive attitude and mean attitude score was 67.03 ± 0.14 (positive attitude = 61 – 120, negative attitude = 0 - 60). Chi-square analysis did not show any significant effect of demographic and social factors on the students’ attitude towards People with Disabilities. The students were mostly willing to work in areas that address the challenges of people with disability (70.4%) but a greater proportion had never heard about Disability Studies (67.5%). About a third of the students (33.2%) would like to travel abroad to practice in the disability sector. Conclusions: The students generally had a positive attitude towards people with disability and a greater percentage were willing to work in the disability sector in their future career. About two-thirds had however, never heard about disability studies. There was some potential for brain drain among the students as a third of the population intended to practice abroad on graduation.

Keywords: attitudes, career interest, disability, medical students

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4929 Physical Aggression and Language Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Maryam Razmjoee

Abstract:

Physical aggression is one of the most common behavioural problems among children with intellectual disabilities. Behaviours such as hitting, kicking, and threatening with the intent to harm others are examples of physical aggression. Identified language delays are related to physically aggressive behaviours, as children with poor language skills are often frustrated by socially interactions with their peers, leaving them at risk engaging in acts of physical aggression. As a result of this concern, physical aggression and language skills of children with mild intellectual disabilities was investigated. In the current study, 102 students, from years 1-3, with mild intellectual disabilities (51 girls and 51 boys) have been recruited from five educational centres which cater for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the city of Shiraz (a major city in Iran). The Test of Language Development-Primary: 3rd Edition (TOLD-3) and Overt and Relational Aggression Questionnaire were used to assess these children. Results showed that physical aggression had a significant negative association with expressive (p = 0.008), and receptive (p = 0.019) language skills. In addition, boys demonstrated more physically aggressive behaviours than girls (p = 0.014). No difference was found in expressive and receptive language skills between girls and boys with mild intellectual disabilities. The overall findings suggest that improving the language skills of children with intellectual disabilities experiencing language delays will help them to avoid exhibiting antisocial behaviours in social interactions.

Keywords: behaviour, language skills, mild intellectual disabilities, physical aggression, primary school students

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4928 Analysis of the Barriers and Aids That Lecturers Offer to Students with Disabilities

Authors: Anabel Moriña

Abstract:

In recent years, advances have been made in disability policy at Spanish universities, especially in terms of creating more inclusive learning environments. Nevertheless, while efforts to foster inclusion at the tertiary level -and the growing number of students with disabilities at university- are clear signs of progress, serious barriers to full participation in learning still exist. The research shows that university responses to diversity tend to be reactive, not proactive; as a result, higher education (HE) environments can be especially disabling. It has been demonstrated that the performance of students with disabilities is closely linked to the good will of university faculty and staff. Lectures are key players when it comes to helping or hindering students throughout the teaching/learning process. This paper presents an analysis of how lecturers respond to students with disabilities, the initial question being: do lecturers aid or hinder students? The general aim is to analyse-by listen to the students themselves-lecturers barriers and support identified as affecting academic performance and overall perception of the higher education (HE) experience. Biographical-narrative methodology was employed. This research analysed the results differentiating by fields of knowledge. The research was conducted in two phases: discussion groups along with individual oral/written interviews were set up with 44 students with disabilities and mini life histories were completed for 16 students who participated in the first stage. The study group consisted of students with disabilities enrolled during three academic years. The results of this paper noted that participating students identified many more barriers than bridges when speaking about the role lecturers play in their learning experience. Findings are grouped into several categories: Faculty attitudes when “dealing with” students with disabilities, teaching methodologies, curricular adaptations, and faculty training in working with students. Faculty does not always display appropriate attitudes towards students with disabilities. Study participants speak of them turning their backs on their problems-or behaving in an awkward manner. In many cases, it seems lecturers feel that curricular adaptations of any kind are a form of favouritism. Positive attitudes, however, often depend almost entirely on the good will of faculty and-although well received by students-are hard to come by. As the participants themselves suggest, this study confirms that good teaching practices not only benefit students with disabilities but the student body as a whole. In this sense, inclusive curricula provide new opportunities for all students. A general coincidence has been the lack of training on behalf of lecturers to adequately attend disabled students, and the need to cover this shortage. This can become a primary barrier and is more often due to deficient faculty training than to inappropriate attitudes on the part of lecturers. In conclusion, based on this research we can conclude that more barriers than bridges exist. That said, students do report receiving a good deal of support from their lecturers-although almost exclusively in a spirit of good will; when lecturers do help, however, it tends to have a very positive impact on students' academic performance.

Keywords: barriers, disability, higher education, lecturers

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4927 Teachers' Disability Disclosure: A Multiple Perspective

Authors: N. Tal-Alon, O. Shapira-Lishchinsky

Abstract:

Disability disclosure is one of the most complicated dilemmas that people with invisible disabilities face. There are only a few research studies that have focused on the difficulties and dilemmas of teachers who have different disabilities. In addition, there are currently no research studies focusing specifically on the different aspects of disability disclosure, which are unique to teachers. This research has, therefore, broadened the knowledge base and understanding of the dilemma of disability disclosure among teachers with invisible physical disabilities. In addition, it has shed light on the ways this issue is perceived by different groups: the perspective of school principals, the perspective of colleagues, and the perspective of teachers with physical disabilities themselves. The study sample included 12 teachers with invisible physical disabilities, 10 school principals who employ at least one teacher with an invisible physical disability, and 10 professional colleagues of at least one teacher with an invisible physical disability. This particular research study was conducted using a qualitative approach through the Narralizer computer program based on a series of in-depth interviews. The data analysis was carried out by grouping major points of interest into specific categories and sub-categories. The findings of this research suggest that teachers with disabilities struggle with the dilemma of whether or not to reveal their disability to the school staff and to their students. It was found that there were considerable differences between the issues that faculty members considered regarding this dilemma and the ones that teachers with disabilities considered. While the principals and professional colleagues focused solely on their own interests, the teachers with a disability emphasized more on the ways that they might have a positive influence on their students, as well as their own individual interests. In addition, school principals on a whole tended to view negatively the option of disclosing the disability to the students and were often critical towards teachers who concealed their disability from the school staff. The importance of this research is in its potential to influence policy decisions that can be implemented by the Ministry of Education regarding the support system for teachers with invisible physical disabilities.

Keywords: education, employment, invisible disabilities, teachers

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4926 Errors and Misconceptions for Students with Mathematical Learning Disabilities: Quest for Suitable Teaching Strategy

Authors: A. K. Tsafe

Abstract:

The study investigates the efficacy of Special Mathematics Teaching Strategy (SMTS) as against Conventional Mathematics Teaching Strategy (CMTS) in teaching students identified with Mathematics Learning Disabilities (MLDs) – dyslexia, Down syndrome, dyscalculia, etc., in some junior secondary schools around Sokoto metropolis. Errors and misconceptions in learning Mathematics displayed by these categories of students were observed. Theory of variation was used to provide a prism for viewing the MLDs from theoretical perspective. Experimental research design was used, involving pretest-posttest non-randomized approach. Pretest was administered to the intact class taught using CMTS before the class was split into experimental and control groups. Experimental group of the students – those identified with MLDs was taught with SMTS and later mean performance of students taught using the two strategies was sought to find if there was any significant difference between the performances of the students. A null hypothesis was tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. T-test was used to establish the difference between the mean performances of the two tests. The null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the performance of students, identified with MLDs taught using SMTS was found to be better than their earlier performance taught using CMTS. The study, therefore, recommends amongst other things that teachers should be encouraged to use SMTS in teaching mathematics especially when students are found to be suffering from MLDs and exhibiting errors and misconceptions in the process of learning mathematics.

Keywords: disabilities, errors, learning, misconceptions

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4925 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

Abstract:

The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literatures based on the literatures on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together was analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment, and behaviors of teachers and parents, and the society as a whole.

Keywords: children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education, disabled children

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4924 The Impact of Exercise on Osteoporosis and Body Composition in Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Hisham Mughrabi

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases in the world and, its seriousness lies in the lack of clear symptoms. The researcher aims to identify the impact of sports activities on osteoporosis and the body component of those with mild intellectual disabilities of students in the schools in Saudi Arabia -Medina. The research sample was selected in an intentional manner and consisted of 45 students and they were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 23 individuals participate in sports and the second group consisted of 22 individuals does not participate in sports. The researcher used the descriptive method and collected the data by measuring osteoporosis using and ultrasound osteoporosis screening device (OSTEO PRO B.M. Tech) and measured the body composition by using a Tanita devise (Body Composition Analyzer TBF- 300 Tanita). The results indicated that there was a statistical significant difference between the two comparing groups in osteoporosis measurement and body composition for the benefit of the group of sport participants. The researcher recommended the need to involve individuals with mild intellectual disabilities in physical activities to improve their rate of osteoporosis and body composition as well as to develop sports programs for individuals with mild intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: body composition, mild intellectual disabilities, osteoporosis, physical activities

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4923 Study on the Focus of Attention of Special Education Students in Primary School

Authors: Tung-Kuang Wu, Hsing-Pei Hsieh, Ying-Ru Meng

Abstract:

Special Education in Taiwan has been facing difficulties including shortage of teachers and lack in resources. Some students need to receive special education are thus not identified or admitted. Fortunately, information technologies can be applied to relieve some of the difficulties. For example, on-line multimedia courseware can be used to assist the learning of special education students and take pretty much workload from special education teachers. However, there may exist cognitive variations between students in special or regular educations, which suggests the design of online courseware requires different considerations. This study aims to investigate the difference in focus of attention (FOA) between special and regular education students of primary school in viewing the computer screen. The study is essential as it helps courseware developers in determining where to put learning elements that matter the most on the right position of screen. It may also assist special education specialists to better understand the subtle differences among various subtypes of learning disabilities. This study involves 76 special education students (among them, 39 are students with mental retardation, MR, and 37 are students with learning disabilities, LDs) and 42 regular education students. The participants were asked to view a computer screen showing a picture partitioned into 3 × 3 areas with each area filled with text or icon. The subjects were then instructed to mark on the prior given paper sheets, which are also partitioned into 3 × 3 grids, the areas corresponding to the pictures on the computer screen that they first set their eyes on. The data are then collected and analyzed. Major findings are listed: 1. In both text and icon scenario, significant differences exist in the first preferred FOA between special and regular education students. The first FOA for the former is mainly on area 1 (upper left area, 53.8% / 51.3% for MR / LDs students in text scenario; and 53.8% / 56.8% for MR / LDs students in icons scenario), while the latter on area 5 (middle area, 50.0% and 57.1% in text and icons scenarios). 2. The second most preferred area in text scenario for students with MR and LDs are area 2 (upper-middle, 20.5%) and 5 (middle area, 24.3%). In icons scenario, the results are similar, but lesser in percentage. 3. Students with LDs that show similar preference (either in text or icons scenarios) in FOA to regular education students tend to be of some specific sub-type of learning disabilities. For instance, students with LDs that chose area 5 (middle area, either in text or icon scenario) as their FOA are mostly ones that have reading or writing disability. Also, three (out of 13) subjects in this category, after going through the rediagnosis process, were excluded from being learning disabilities. In summary, the findings suggest when designing multimedia courseware for students with MR and LDs, the essential learning elements should be placed on area 1, 2 and 5. In addition, FOV preference may also potentially be used as an indicator for diagnosing students with LDs.

Keywords: focus of attention, learning disabilities, mental retardation, on-line multimedia courseware, special education

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4922 Reasonable Adjustment for Students with Disabilities - Opportunities and Limits in Social Work Education

Authors: Bartelsen-Raemy Annabelle, Gerber Andrea

Abstract:

Objectives: The adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has the effect that higher education institutions in Switzerland are called upon to promote inclusive university education. In this context, our School of Social Work aims to provide fair participation and the removal of barriers in our study programmes at bachelor’s and master’s levels. In 2015 we developed a concept of reasonable adjustments for students with disabilities and chronic illness as an instrument to provide equal opportunities for those students. We reviewed the implementation of this concept as part of our quality management process. Using a qualitative research design, we explored how affected students and lecturers experience the processes and measures taken and which barriers they still perceive. Methods: We captured subjective perspectives and experience of measures by conducting 15 problem-centred interviews with affected students and three experimental focus groups with lecturers. The data was processed using structured qualitative content analysis and summarised as key categories. Results: All respondents evaluated the concept of reasonable adjustment very positively and emphasised its importance for equal opportunities. Our analysis revealed differences in the usage and perception of both groups and showed that the students interviewed were a heterogeneous group with different needs. Overall, the students described the adjustments, in particular in relation to examinations and other assignments, as a great relief. The lecturers expressed high standards for their own teaching and supervision of students and, at the same time, wished for more support from the university. However, despite the positive evaluation by the lecturers, the limits of reasonable adjustment became evident. It is necessary to consider the limits of reasonable adjustments in terms of professional skills. Conclusion: Reasonable adjustments should, therefore, be seen as an element of an inclusive university culture that must be complemented by further measures. Taking this into account, we have planned further research as a basis for the development of a diversity and inclusion policy.

Keywords: opportunities and limits, reasonable adjustment, social work education, students with disabilities

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4921 The Interactions among Motivation, Persistence, and Learning Abilities as They Relate to Academic Outcomes in Children

Authors: Rachelle M. Johnson, Jenna E. Finch

Abstract:

Motivation, persistence, and learning disability status are all associated with academic performance, but to the author's knowledge, little research has been done on how these variables interact with one another and how that interaction looks different within children with and without learning disabilities. The present study's goal was to examine the role motivation and persistence play in the academic success of children with learning disabilities and how these variables interact. Measurements were made using surveys and direct cognitive assessments on each child. Analyses were run on student's scores in motivation, persistence, and ability to learn compared to other fifth grade students. In this study, learning ability was intended as a proxy for learning disabilities (LDs). This study included a nationally representative sample of over 8,000 fifth-grade children from across the United States. Multiple interactions were found among these variables of motivation, persistence, and motivation as they relate to academic achievement. The major finding of the study was the significant role motivation played in academic achievement. This study shows the importance of measuring the within-group. One key finding was that motivation was associated with academic success and was moderated by the other variables. The interaction results were different for math and reading outcomes, suggesting that reading and math success are different and should be addressed differently. This study shows the importance of measuring the within-group differences in levels of motivation to better understand the academic success of children with and without learning disabilities. This study's findings call for further investigation into motivation and the possible need for motivational intervention for students, especially those with learning disabilities

Keywords: academic achievement, learning disabilities, motivation, persistence

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4920 Internet of Things in Higher Education: Implications for Students with Disabilities

Authors: Scott Hollier, Ruchi Permvattana

Abstract:

The purpose of this abstract is to share the findings of a recently completed disability-related Internet of Things (IoT) project undertaken at Curtin University in Australia. The project focused on identifying how IoT could support people with disabilities with their educational outcomes. To achieve this, the research consisted of an analysis of current literature and interviews conducted with students with vision, hearing, mobility and print disabilities. While the research acknowledged the ability to collect data with IoT is now a fairly common occurrence, its benefits and applicability still need to be grounded back into real-world applications. Furthermore, it is important to consider if there are sections of our society that may benefit from these developments and if those benefits are being fully realised in a rush by large companies to achieve IoT dominance for their particular product or digital ecosystem. In this context, it is important to consider a group which, to our knowledge, has had little specific mainstream focus in the IoT area –people with disabilities. For people with disabilities, the ability for every device to interact with us and with each other has the potential to yield significant benefits. In terms of engagement, the arrival of smart appliances is already offering benefits such as the ability for a person in a wheelchair to give verbal commands to an IoT-enabled washing machine if the buttons are out of reach, or for a blind person to receive a notification on a smartphone when dinner has finished cooking in an IoT-enabled microwave. With clear benefits of IoT being identified for people with disabilities, it is important to also identify what implications there are for education. With higher education being a critical pathway for many people with disabilities in finding employment, the question as to whether such technologies can support the educational outcomes of people with disabilities was what ultimately led to this research project. This research will discuss several significant findings that have emerged from the research in relation to how consumer-based IoT can be used in the classroom to support the learning needs of students with disabilities, how industrial-based IoT sensors and actuators can be used to monitor and improve the real-time learning outcomes for the delivery of lectures and student engagement, and a proposed method for students to gain more control over their learning environment. The findings shared in this presentation are likely to have significant implications for the use of IoT in the classroom through the implementation of affordable and accessible IoT solutions and will provide guidance as to how policies can be developed as the implications of both benefits and risks continue to be considered by educators.

Keywords: disability, higher education, internet of things, students

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