Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Sung-Kie Youn

30 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park

Abstract:

Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: element-independent formulation, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers, non-matching interface

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29 A Study on the Calculation of Bearing Life of Electric Motor Using Accelerated Life Test

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Hae-Joong Kim, Jae-Won Moon

Abstract:

This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out and it is compared with the bearing life expectancy by ISO 281.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, bearing, HALT, life expectancy, motor

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28 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

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27 A Study on the Application of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Motor for Machine Tools

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out, and it is compared with the life expectancy by finite element method (FEM) and bearing theory.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, bearing, HALT, life expectancy, motor

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26 Detection of Nutrients Using Honeybee-Mimic Bioelectronic Tongue Systems

Authors: Soo Ho Lim, Minju Lee, Dong In Kim, Gi Youn Han, Seunghun Hong, Hyung Wook Kwon

Abstract:

We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking honeybee taste systems for the detection and discrimination of various nutrients. Here, carbon nanotube field effect transistors with floating electrodes (CNT-FET) were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee nutrient receptors, gustatory receptors of Apis mellifera. This strategy enables us to detect nutrient substance with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of nutrients in liquid food. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a simple, but highly effective strategy in many different basic research areas about sensory systems. Moreover, our research provides opportunities to develop various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

Keywords: taste system, CNT-FET, insect gustatory receptor, biolelectronic tongue

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25 Study on Connecting Method of Box Pontoons

Authors: Young-Jun You, Youn-Ju Jeong, Min-Su Park, Du-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Due to a lot of limited conditions, a large box type floating structure is inevitably constructed by connecting many pontoons. When a floating structure is made with concrete, concrete shear key with saw-teeth shape is often used to carry shear force. Match casting for the shear key and precise construction on a sea are very important for making separated two pontoons as one body but those are not easy work and may increase construction time and cost. To solve this problem, one-way shear key is studied in this paper for a connected part where there is some difference between upward and downward shear force. It has only one inclined plane and can resist shear force in one direction. Big shear force is resisted by concrete which forms an inclined plane and small shear force is resisted by steel bar. This system can reduce manufacturing cost of individual pontoon and construction time and cost for constructing a floating structure on a sea. In this paper, the feasibility study about one-way shear key system is performed by comparing with design example.

Keywords: connection, floating container terminal, pontoon, pre-stressing, shear key

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24 A Study on the Functional Safety Analysis of Stage Control System Based on International Electronical Committee 61508-2

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Hye-Mi Kim, Sang-Hoon Seo, Jaden Cha

Abstract:

This International standard IEC 61508 sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) elements that are used to perform safety functions. The control unit in stage control system is safety related facilities to control state and speed for stage system running, and it performs safety-critical function by stage control system. The controller unit is part of safety loops corresponding to the IEC 61508 and classified as logic part in the safety loop. In this paper, we analyze using FMEDA (Failure Mode Effect and Diagnostic Analysis) to verification for fault tolerance methods and functional safety of control unit. Moreover, we determined SIL (Safety Integrity Level) for control unit according to the safety requirements defined in IEC 61508-2 based on an analyzed functional safety.

Keywords: safety function, failure mode effect, IEC 61508-2, diagnostic analysis, stage control system

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23 A Study on the Method of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Rotating System

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the study on the method of accelerated life test to electrical rotating system. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors and generators, there is a growing need for research on the life expectancy. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. In this paper, the accelerated life test methods of the electrical rotating system are classified according to the application. This paper describes the development of the test procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 100kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) of electric vehicle. Finally, it explains how to select acceleration load for vibration, temperature, bearing load, etc. for accelerated life test.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, electric vehicle motor, HALT, life expectancy, vibration

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22 Prerequisites for the Acquisition of Mammalian Pathogenicity by Influenza A Virus with a Prototypic Avian PB2 Gene

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Ilhwan Kim, Du-Min Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon

Abstract:

The polymerase of avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a heterotrimer composed of PB2, PB1 and PA. PB2 plays a role in overcoming the host barrier; however, the genetic prerequisites for avian PB2 to acquire mammalian pathogenic mutations have not been well elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that key amino acid mutations (I66M, I109V and I133V, collectively referred to as MVV) of prototypic avian PB2 increase the replication efficiency of recombinant PR8 virus carrying the mutated PB2 in both avian and mammalian hosts. The MVV mutations caused no weight loss in mice, but they did allow replication in infected lungs, and the viruses acquired fatal mammalian pathogenic mutations such as Q591R/K, E627K, or D701N in the infected lungs. The MVV mutations are located at the interfaces of the trimer and are predicted to increase the strength of this structure. Thus, gaining MVV mutations might be the first step for AIV to acquire mammalian pathogenicity. These results provide new insights into the evolution of AIV in birds and mammals.

Keywords: avian influenza A virus, prototypic PB2, polymerase activity, mammalian pathogenicity, first-step mutations

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21 Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Functional Polypropylene Films Incorporated with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ Useful as Returnable Packaging in Seafood Distribution

Authors: Suman Singh, Myungho Lee, Insik Park, Yangjai Shin, Youn Suk Lee

Abstract:

Active antimicrobial films prepared by incorporating AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ at 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% (w/w) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization were carried out of all formulations and determined the antimicrobial efficiency and returnable antimicrobial efficiency according to the Japanese Industrial Standard method. The morphology of the films showed agglomerates of particles in the composites. The active formulation had decreased elongation compared to the pure PP sample. Thermal analyses indicated that the active formulation compositions had increased thermal stability. The films showed 50% antimicrobial properties after the fifth wash against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive ones. These findings suggest that PP films with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ particles could provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of seafood in the distribution chain.

Keywords: antimicrobial film, properties and characterization, returnable packaging, sea food

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
20 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motor

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19 Aquafaba Derived from Korean Soybean Cultivars: A Novel Vegan Egg Replacer

Authors: Yue He, Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin J. T. Reaney

Abstract:

Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. Aquafaba) has been used as an important and cost-effective alternative to eggs in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. The aquafaba (AQ) is primarily due to its excellent ability to stabilize foams and emulsions in foods. However, the functional ingredients of this excellent AQ are usually discarded with the compound release. This study developed a high-functional food material, AQ, using functional soybean AQ that has not been studied in Korea. A zero-waste and cost-effective hybrid process were used to produce oil emulsifiers from Korean soybeans. The treatment technique was implemented using a small number of efficient steps. Aquafaba from Backtae had the best emulsion properties (92%) and has the potential to produce more stable food oil emulsions. Therefore, this study is expected to be utilized in the development of the first gluten-free, vegan product for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies, utilizing wastewater from cooked soybeans as a source of plant protein that can replace animal protein.

Keywords: aquafaba, soybean, chickpea, emulsifiers, egg replacer, egg-free products

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18 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Scale Growth Characteristics of Crystallisation Scale in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M .M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Crystallisation scale occurs when dissolved minerals precipitate from an aqueous solution. To investigate the crystallisation scale growth of normal solubility salt, a lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark using potassium nitrate as the test fluid. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution in this test leads to crystallisation scale on heat transfer surfaces. This experimental investigation has focused on the effect of surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate on the low-temperature heat exchange surfaces on the wall of the agitation tank. The impeller agitation rate affects the scaling rate at the low-temperature agitation wall and it shows a decreasing scaling rate with an increasing agitation rate. It was observed that there was a significant variation of heat transfer coefficients and scaling resistance coefficients with different agitation rate as well as with varying impeller size, tank with and without baffles and solution concentration.

Keywords: crystallisation, heat transfer coefficient, scale, resistance

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17 Achievement of High L-Cysteine Yield from Enzymatic Conversion Using Eutectic Mixtures of the Substrate ATC

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin

Abstract:

L-Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, has been often used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, and feed additive industries. This amino acid has been usually produced by acid-hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. There are many problems, such as avoidance for use of animal hair, low yields, and formation of harmful waste material. As an alternative, the enzymatic conversion of D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) to L-cysteine has been developed as an environmental-friendly method. However, the substrate solubility was too low to be used in industry. In this study, high concentrations of eutectic substrate solutions were prepared to solve the problem. Eutectic melting occurred at 39°C after mixing ATC and malonic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1. The characteristics of eutectic mixtures were analyzed by FE-SEM, EDS mapping, and XPS. However, since sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH should be added as supplements to the substrate mixture for the activation and stabilization of the enzyme, strategies for sequential addition of total five compounds, ATC, malonic acid, sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were established. As a result, eutectic substrate mixtures of 670 mM ATC were successfully formulated. After 6 h of enzymatic reaction, 550 mM L-cysteine was made.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, eutectic solution, l-cysteine

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16 Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Jae-Hong Kim

Abstract:

A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.

Keywords: avian influenza virus, egg adaptation, H9N2, N-glycosylation, stalk deletion of neuraminidase

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15 High Dissolution of ATC by pH Control and Its Enzymatic Conversion to L-Cysteine

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin

Abstract:

L-Cysteine is extensively used as a supplement of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and feed additives. It has obtained industrially by hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. However, there are some problems such as the restriction of using materials from animals and the intractable waste pollution. The enzymatic conversion has been regarded as an environmental-friendly method. Currently, the biggest bottle-neck of enzymatic conversion is the low yield of L-cysteine due to the low substrate solubility. In this study, the method of enhancing the solubility of the substrate D,L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid (ATC) was developed and the enzymatic reaction at high concentration levels was performed. A large amount of substrate in aqueous solutions was dissolved by pH control using salts. As the pH of the solution increased, the solubility of ATC increased. It was thought that a shift of ATC from acid form (-COOH) to dissociated carboxylic group (-COO-) would improve its hydrophilicity leading to solubility increase. The highest solubility of ATC was 610 mM at pH 10.5, whereas the maximum reaction rate was obtained at pH 8.3. As a result, a high L-cysteine yield of 250 mM was achieved at pH 9.1, which was obtained from a combination of optimum pH conditions for ATC solubility and enzymatic conversion. This yield corresponds to approximately 18 times of that in previous reports.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, high-substrate solubilization, L-Cysteine

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14 Effects of Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination

Authors: Yong Ho Jeon, Youn Mi Lee, Yong Yoon Lee

Abstract:

Effects of cold plasma treatment on various plant seed germination were studied. The seeds of hot pepper, cucumber, tomato and arabidopsis were exposed to plasma and the plasma was generated in various devices. The germination speed was evaluated compared to an unexposed control. A positive effect on germination speed was observed in all tested seeds but the effects strongly depended on the type of the used plasma device (Argon-DBD, surface-DBD or MARX generator), time of exposure (6s~10min or 1~10shots) and kind of seeds. The SEM images showed that arrays of gold particles along the cell wall were observed on the surface of cucumber seeds showed a germination-accelerating effect by plasma treatment, which was the same as untreated. However, when treated with the high dose plasma, gold particles were not arrayed at the seed surface, it seems that due to the surface etching. This may suggest that the germination is not promoted by etching or damage of surface caused by the plasma treatment. Seedling growth improvement was also observed by indirect plasma treatment. These lead to an important conclusion that the effect of charged particles on plasma play the essential role in plant germination and indirect plasma treatment offers new perspectives for large scale application.

Keywords: cold plasma, cucumber, germination, SEM

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13 Social Network Based Decision Support System for Smart U-Parking Planning

Authors: Jun-Ho Park, Kwang-Woo Nam, Seung-Mo Hong, Tae-Heon Moon, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to build ‘Ubi-Net’, a decision-making support system for systematic establishment in U-City planning. We have experienced various urban problems caused by high-density development and population concentrations in established urban areas. To address these problems, a U-Service contributes to the alleviation of urban problems by providing real-time information to citizens through network connections and related information. However, technology, devices, and information for consumers are required for systematic U-Service planning in towns and cities where there are many difficulties in this regard, and a lack of reference systems. Thus, this study suggests methods to support the establishment of sustainable planning by providing comprehensive information including IT technology, devices, news, and social networking services(SNS) to U-City planners through intelligent searches. In this study, we targeted Smart U-Parking Planning to solve parking problems in an ‘old’ city. Through this study, we sought to contribute to supporting advances in U-Space and the alleviation of urban problems.

Keywords: desigin and decision support system, smart u-parking planning, social network analysis, urban engineering

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12 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung

Abstract:

Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
11 Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M. M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.

Keywords: agitation tank, crystallisation, impeller speed, scale

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10 Biological Activities of Flaxseed Peptides (Linusorbs)

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney

Abstract:

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a super-food due to its health-promoting properties. The flax plant synthesizes an array of biolog-ically active cyclic peptides or linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides) from three or more ribosome-derived precursors. [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 and [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B2, sup-press immunity, induce apoptosis in human epithelial cancer cell line (Calu-3) cells, and inhibit T-cell proliferation, but the mechanism of LOs action is unknown. Using gene ex-pression analysis in nematode cultures and human cancer cell lines we have observed that LOs exert their activity, in part, through induction of apoptosis. Specific LOs’ properties include: 1) distribute throughout the body after flaxseed consumption; 2) induce heat shock protein (HSP) 70A production as an indicator of stress and addressed the issue in Caeno-rhabditis elegans (exposure of nematode cultures to [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 induced a 30% increase in production of the HSP 70A protein); 3) induce apoptosis in Calu-3 cells; and 4) modulate regulatory genes in microarray analysis. These diverse activities indicate that LOs might induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as versatile platforms to deliver a variety of biologically active molecules for cancer therapy.

Keywords: flaxseed, linusorb, oil seed, heat shock protein, anti-cancer

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9 The Effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) Inflammasome of Osteoarthritis

Authors: So Youn Park, Yi Sle Lee, Ki Whan Hong, Chi Dae Kim

Abstract:

The role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is an emerging field. Metabolic alterations may be a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and these changes influence joint destruction via several cytokine. Especially, in OA patients, levels of IL-1β are elevated in the synovial fluid, synovial membrane, subchondral bone, and cartilage. The IL-1β is activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes, and NLRP3 inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that drive the production of other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. In this study, we examined that SIRT1 suppresses IL-1β through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes and SIRT1 ameliorates osteoarthritis. OA fibroblasts were isolated from synovium of OA patients. IL-1β and NLRP3 were detected in synovium of OA patients by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulated the expression of active IL-1β mRNA in OA fibroblasts and combination of LPS, and adenosine triphosphate increased more the expression of active IL-1β in OA fibroblasts. The level of IL-1β was measured by western blot and ELISA assay. NLRP3 inflammasomes complex were measured by western blot. SIRT1 did not inhibit expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. So caspase-1, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 protein were expressed in OA fibroblasts. But SIRT1 suppressed activation of IL-1β by inhibiting activity of caspase-1 via NLRP3 inflammasome in OA fibroblasts under LPS plus ATP stimulation. These results suggest that SIRT1 is a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasomes in OA fibroblasts and ameliorate IL-1β, so expression of SIRT1 in OA fibroblast may be a potential strategy for OA inflammation treatment.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, inflammasome, SIRT1, IL-1beta

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8 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney

Abstract:

Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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7 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney

Abstract:

Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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6 Evaluation of the Safety and Performance of Blood Culture Practices Using BD Safety-Lokᵀᴹ Blood Collection Sets in the Emergency Room

Authors: Jeonghyun Chang, Taegeun Lee, Heungsup Sung, Yoon-Seon Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi-Na Kim

Abstract:

Background: Safety device has been applied to improve safety and performance of blood culture practice. BD vacutainer® Safety-Lokᵀᴹ blood collection sets with pre-attached holder (Safety-Lok) (BD, USA) was evaluated in the emergency room (ER) of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: From April to June 2017, interns and nurses in ER were surveyed for blood culture practices with a questionnaire before and after 2 or 3 weeks of experience of Safety-Lok. All of them participated in exercise workshop for 1 hour combined with video education prior to the initial survey. The blood volume, positive and contamination rates of Safety-Lok-drawn (SD) blood cultures were compared to those of overall blood cultures. Results: Eighteen interns and 30 nurses were enrolled. As a result of the initial survey, interns had higher rates of needlestick incidence (27.8%), carriage of the blood-filled syringe with needle (88.9%) and lower rates of vacutainer use (38.9%) than nurses (13.3%, 53.3%, and 60.0%). Interns preferred to use safety devices (88.9%) rather than nurses (40.0%). The number of overall blood cultures and SD blood cultures was 9,053 and 555, respectively. While the overall blood volume of aerobic bottles was 2.6±2.1 mL, those of SD blood cultures were 5.0±3.0 mL in aerobic bottles and 6.0±3.0 mL in anaerobic bottles. Positive and contamination rates were 6.5% and 0.72% with SD blood cultures and 6.2% and 0.3% with overall blood cultures. Conclusions: The introduction of the safety device would encourage healthcare workers to collect adequate blood volume as well as lead to safer practices in the ER.

Keywords: blood culture, needlestick, safety device, volume

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5 Transcriptome Analysis of Protestia brevitarsis seulensis with Focus On Wing Development and Metamorphosis in Developmental Stages

Authors: Jihye Hwang, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Youn Baek, Bia Park, Gyeongmin Kim, Chorong Shin, Joon Ha Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Ui Wook Hwang

Abstract:

White-spotted flower chafers are widely distributed in Asian countries and traditionally used for the treatment of chronic fatigue, blood circulation, and paralysis in the oriental medicine field. The evolution and development of insect wings and metamorphosis remain under-discovered subjects in arthropod evolutionary researches. Gene expression abundance analyses along with developmental stages based on the large-scale RNA-seq data are also still rarely done. Here we report the de novo assembly of a Protestia brevitarsis seulensis transcriptome along four different developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult) to explore its development and evolution of wings and metamorphosis. The de novo transcriptome assembly consists of 23,551 high-quality transcripts and is approximately 96.7% complete. Out of 8,545 transcripts, 5,183 correspond to the possible orthologs with Drosophila melanogaster. As a result, we could found 265 genes related to wing development and 19 genes related to metamorphosis. The comparison of transcript expression abundance with different developmental stages revealed developmental stage-specific transcripts especially working at the stage of wing development and metamorphosis of P. b. seulensis. This transcriptome quantification along the developmental stages may provide some meaningful clues to elucidate the genetic modulation mechanism of wing development and metamorphosis obtained during the insect evolution.

Keywords: white-spotted flower chafers, transcriptomics, RNA-seq, network biology, wing development, metamorphosis

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4 Preparation and Removal Properties of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Drinking Water

Authors: Seung Moon Woo, Youn Suk Chung, Sang Yong Nam

Abstract:

In the present time, we need advanced water treatment technology for separation of virus and bacteria in effluent which occur epidemic and waterborne diseases. Water purification system is mainly divided into two categorizations like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF). Membrane used in these systems requires higher durability because of operating in harsh condition. Of these, the membrane using in UF system has many advantages like higher efficiency and lower energy consume for water treatment compared with RO system. In many kinds of membrane, hollow fiber type membrane is possible to make easily and to get optimized property by control of various spinning conditions such as temperature of coagulation bath, concentration of polymer, addition of additive, air gap and internal coagulation. In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 1.5 LPM, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria and virus removal performance of prepared UF membranes were over 6 logs.

Keywords: hollow fiber membrane, drinking water, ultrafiltration, bacteria

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3 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, safe city, crime prevention, spatial analysis

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2 An Empirical Investigation on the Dynamics of Knowledge and IT Industries in Korea

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon, Youn Taik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam

Abstract:

Knowledge and IT inputs to other industrial production have become more important as a key factor for the competitiveness of national and regional economies, such as knowledge economies in smart cities. Knowledge and IT industries lead the industrial innovation and technical (r)evolution through low cost, high efficiency in production, and by creating a new value chain and new production path chains, which is referred as knowledge and IT dynamics. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and IT dynamics in Korea, which are analyzed through the input-output model and structural path analysis. Twenty-eight industries were reclassified into seven categories; Agriculture and Mining, IT manufacture, Non-IT manufacture, Construction, IT-service, Knowledge service, Non-knowledge service to take close look at the knowledge and IT dynamics. Knowledge and IT dynamics were analyzed through the change of input output coefficient and multiplier indices in terms of technical innovation, as well as the changes of the structural paths of the knowledge and IT to other industries in terms of new production value creation from 1985 and 2010. The structural paths of knowledge and IT explain not only that IT foster the generation, circulation and use of knowledge through IT industries and IT-based service, but also that knowledge encourages IT use through creating, sharing and managing knowledge. As a result, this paper found the empirical investigation on the knowledge and IT dynamics of the Korean economy. Knowledge and IT has played an important role regarding the inter-industrial transactional input for production, as well as new industrial creation. The birth of the input-output production path has mostly originated from the knowledge and IT industries, while the death of the input-output production path took place in the traditional industries from 1985 and 2010. The Korean economy has been in transition to a knowledge economy in the Smart City.

Keywords: knowledge and IT industries, input-output model, structural path analysis, dynamics of knowledge and it, knowledge economy, knowledge city and smart city

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1 Gathering Space after Disaster: Understanding the Communicative and Collective Dimensions of Resilience through Field Research across Time in Hurricane Impacted Regions of the United States

Authors: Jack L. Harris, Marya L. Doerfel, Hyunsook Youn, Minkyung Kim, Kautuki Sunil Jariwala

Abstract:

Organizational resilience refers to the ability to sustain business or general work functioning despite wide-scale interruptions. We focus on organization and businesses as a pillar of their communities and how they attempt to sustain work when a natural disaster impacts their surrounding regions and economies. While it may be more common to think of resilience as a trait possessed by an organization, an emerging area of research recognizes that for organizations and businesses, resilience is a set of processes that are constituted through communication, social networks, and organizing. Indeed, five processes, robustness, rapidity, resourcefulness, redundancy, and external availability through social media have been identified as critical to organizational resilience. These organizing mechanisms involve multi-level coordination, where individuals intersect with groups, organizations, and communities. Because the nature of such interactions are often networks of people and organizations coordinating material resources, information, and support, they necessarily require some way to coordinate despite being displaced. Little is known, however, if physical and digital spaces can substitute one for the other. We thus are guided by the question, is digital space sufficient when disaster creates a scarcity of physical space? This study presents a cross-case comparison based on field research from four different regions of the United States that were impacted by Hurricanes Katrina (2005), Sandy (2012), Maria (2017), and Harvey (2017). These four cases are used to extend the science of resilience by examining multi-level processes enacted by individuals, communities, and organizations that together, contribute to the resilience of disaster-struck organizations, businesses, and their communities. Using field research about organizations and businesses impacted by the four hurricanes, we code data from interviews, participant observations, field notes, and document analysis drawn from New Orleans (post-Katrina), coastal New Jersey (post-Sandy), Houston Texas (post-Harvey), and the lower keys of Florida (post-Maria). This paper identifies an additional organizing mechanism, networked gathering spaces, where citizens and organizations, alike, coordinate and facilitate information sharing, material resource distribution, and social support. Findings show that digital space, alone, is not a sufficient substitute to effectively sustain organizational resilience during a disaster. Because the data are qualitative, we expand on this finding with specific ways in which organizations and the people who lead them worked around the problem of scarce space. We propose that gatherings after disaster are a sixth mechanism that contributes to organizational resilience.

Keywords: communication, coordination, disaster management, information and communication technologies, interorganizational relationships, resilience, work

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