Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus

155 An Atlantic Canadian Case of Disseminated Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection

Authors: Albert Chang, Duncan Webster

Abstract:

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infections in humans can be contracted through contact with domestic animals or unpasteurized dairy products. Although infection in humans is rare, the course can be fulminant. We describe the case of a 75-year-old, immunocompetent male, who developed disseminated disease with bacteremia, native aortic valve endocarditis, suppurative pericarditis with cardiac tamponade, meningitis and bilateral endopthalmitis. Despite treatment with pericardial drain placement, intravenous ceftriaxone and rifampin the patient, unfortunately, did not survive. To date, reported cases of disseminated infection by S. zooepidemicus are few. Furthermore, with the review of the literature, this case demonstrates the broadest organ system involvement reported. Of interest, previous studies have suggested an affinity of this organism for certain organ systems and this case corroborates an emerging association of S. zooepidemicus with endopthalmitis. In addition, this is the second Canadian case of documented human infection with both cases being similar in clinical features, presentation, and geographical location. A discussion regarding previous S. zooepidemicus outbreaks and the potential for zoonotic outbreaks to occur is included. In short, this case report should serve to warn clinicians regarding complications and sites of haematogenous seeding in the setting of disseminated S. zooepidemicus infections.

Keywords: endopthalmitis, endocarditis, meningitis, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus

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154 Oral Microflora and the Risk of Dental Caries in Portuguese Children

Authors: Sara Sousa, Veronique Gomes, Nélio Veiga, Maria José Correia

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Objectives: To assess the presence or absence of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius in the oral biofilm of children in an elementary school of Viseu, Portugal, and verify the relationship between Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius and the absence of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with a final sample of 40 children aged 6-11 years old. Oral examination was accomplished with the identification of their oral health status and oral biofilm collection. Analysis of biological samples by molecular techniques of DNA isolation and identification of three Streptococci bacteria by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was made. Results: We identified Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus gordoni only in the lower interincisal region. These species were also present mainly in the first permanent non-decayed molars. On the contrary, Streptococcus mutans was found mostly in decayed first permanent molars. Conclusion: This preliminary study establishes a possible association between the absence of dental caries and the presence of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius. Since these two species are described as alkali producers, it is suggested that their presence somehow confers protection against caries. These results support new dental caries prevention strategies based on oral biofilm modulation by enrichment with alkalinogenic species.

Keywords: dental caries, oral biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus salivarius

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153 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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152 Peculiarities of Microflora of Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes in the Central Kazakhstan Region

Authors: Aliya Tokbergenova, Maida Tusupbekova, Daulet Dzhangaliyev, Alena Lavrinenko

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Background: Odontogenic phlegmons are ranked the first among pyoinflammatory processes in the frequency of hospitalization in maxillofacial surgery in the post-Soviet countries. The main role in etiology is played by obligate anaerobes and aerobes. According to numerous data, the structure of aerobic pathogens is dominated by staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria. Aim: The research aim is to study the microflora of the purulent discharge odontogenic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: A total of 220 patients have been examined, of which 120 patients aged 25-59 years have been included in the research who did not have comorbidity hospitalized in the maxillofacial hospital in Karaganda (Kazakhstan) from January 2016 to July 2017. The bacteriological research has been carried out on the basis of the multiaccess laboratory of the KSMU, through the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) apparatus. The material sample was pus from the inflammation focus, taken during the operating period. Results: According to the research among 120 patients (100%), 15 patients (12.5%) have had microorganisms not grown. From 105 (87.5%) bacteriological results, it has been revealed the following 1) Streptococcus: 51 (42.5%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 17 (14.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 12 (10%), Streptococcus anginosus: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus oralis: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus constellatus: 6 (5.0%); 2) Staphylococci: 27 (22.5%): Staphylococci aureus: 14 (11.7%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 13 (10.8%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 12 (10%); 4) Neisseria: 11 (9.1%): Neisseria mucosa: 5 (4.1%) and Neisseria macacae: 6 (5.0%); 5) Klebsiella pneumoniae: 2 (1.7%); 6) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: 2 (1.7%). 15 patients (12.5%) experienced complications in the form of 1) The dissemination of the process in 10 patients (8.4%). 2) Osteomyelitis in 3 (2.5%). 3) Mediastinitis in 1 (0.8%). 4) Sinusitis in 1 (0.8%). 15 patients (100%) were carried out repeated bacteriological examination, the following was revealed: 1) Streptococcus: 10 (66.7%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 4 (26.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus аnginosus: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus oralis: 1 (6.7%), Streptococcus constellatus: 1 (6.7%); 2) Staphylococci: 4 (26.7%): Staphylococci aureus: 3 (20%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 1 (6.7%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 1 (6.7%). Conclusions: Thus, according to our research data, streptococci predominate in the odontogenic processes microflora in aerobic flora in the central Kazakhstan region, which refutes the leading role of staphylococci in the development of odontogenic inflammatory processes, thus creating prerequisites for studying new treatment approaches.

Keywords: maxillofacial surgery, microflora, odontogenic phlegmons, pyo-inflammatory

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151 Bioactivity of Local Isolated Probiotic to Inhibiting Important Bacterial Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: Abhichet Nobhiwong, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Udomluk Sompong

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Six probiotic strains isolated from Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai province, Thailand; CR1-2, CM3-4, CM5-2, CR7-8, CM10-5 and CM10-8 were used to study their morphology and inhibition activity on three pathogenic bacteria; Aeromonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Flavobacterium sp. that isolated from infected Nile tilapia. The agar well diffusion technique was applied for 24 and 48 hours incubation. Interestingly, some probiotics showed good inhibition activity both 24 and 48 hours on each 3 bacterial pathogens. The capable inhibiting Aeromonas sp. were CR1-2 and CR5-2 with inhibition diameters of 13.0 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively. For Streptococcus sp., effective probiotics were CR10-2 with inhibition diameters of 10.7 mm. Whereas for Flavobacterium sp., effective probiotics were CR5-2 with inhibition diameter of 9.7 mm. It can be concluded that these probiotics have potentiality to develop as the pathogens biocontrol products. These will be support for safety and organic aquaculture that which the most worthy for people health.

Keywords: probiotics, Aeromanas sp., Streptococcus sp., Flavobacterium sp.

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150 Use of Lactic Strains Isolated from Algerian Ewe's Milk in the Manufacture of a Natural Yogurt

Authors: Chougrani Fadela, Cheriguene Abderrahim

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Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe’s milk. Identification reveals the presence of nineteen strains (36%) of Lactobacillus sp., seventeen strains (32%) of Lactococcus sp., nine strains (17%) of Streptococcus thermophilus and eight strains (15%) of Leuconostoc sp. The strains were characterized for their technological properties. A high diversity of properties among the studied strains was demonstrated. On the basis of technological characteristics, two strains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were screened with respect to their acid and flavour production for the preparation of a natural yogurt and compared to a commercial starter cultures. Sensorial analyses revealed that the product manufactured on the basis of the isolated strains have a cohesiveness and adhesiveness corresponding to standard products. The pH and the acidity recorded are also within accepted levels during all the period of conservation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, yoghurt, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, Algerian ewe’s milk

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149 Survey of the Effect of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT/PTEN, and MAPK Signaling Pathways at Co-Culture with KB Oral Cancer Cell Line and HUVEC Cells

Authors: Negar Zaheddoust, Negin Zaheddoust, Abbas Asoudeh-Fard

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Probiotic bacteria have been employed as a novel and less side-effect strategy for anticancer therapy. Since the oral cavity is a host for probiotic and pathogen bacteria to colonize, more investigation is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this novel adjunctive treatment for oral cancer. We considered Lactobacillus plantarum as a probiotic and Streptococcus mutans as a pathogen bacterium in our study. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT / PTEN, and MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in apoptosis or survival of oral cancer KB cells. On the other hand, to study the effects of these bacteria on normal cells, we used HUVEC cells. The KB and HUVEC cell lines were co-cultured with Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans isolated from traditional Iranian dairy and dental plaque, respectively. The growth-inhibitory effects of these two bacteria on KB and HUVEC cells were determined by (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. MTT results demonstrated that the proliferation of KB cells was affected in a time, dose, and strain-dependent manner. In the following, the examination of induced apoptosis or necrosis in co-cultured KB cells with the best IC50 concentration of the Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans will be analyzed by FACS flow cytometry, and the changes in gene expression of Casp3, AKT / PTEN, MAPK genes will be evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Keywords: cancer therapy, induced apoptosis, oral cancer, probiotics

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148 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal

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Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: abscess, bacterial infection, bacteremia, Streptococcus anginosus

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147 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn

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Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

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146 Molecular Basis of Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Adherence Activity of Syzygium aromaticum on Streptococcus mutans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Asad U. Khan, Vasantha Rupasinghe HP

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The study examined the effects of Syzygium aromaticum extracts on the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. The activity of glucosyltransferases in the presence of crude and diethylether fraction was reduced to 80% at concentration 78.12μg/ml and 39.06μg/ml respectively. The glycolytic pH drop by S. mutans cells was also disrupted by these extracts without affecting the bacterial viability. Microscopic analysis revealed morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilms, indicating that these plant extracts at sub-MICs could significantly affect the ability of S. mutans to form biofilm with distorted extracellular matrix. Furthermore, with the help of quantitative RT-PCR, the expression of different genes involved in adherence, quorum sensing, in the presence of these extracts were down regulated. The crude and active fractions were found effective in preventing caries development in rats. The data showed that S. aromaticum holds promise as a naturally occurring source of compounds that may prevent biofilm-related oral diseases.

Keywords: biofilm, quorum sensing, Streptococcus mutans, Syzygium aromaticum extract

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145 Studies on Some Aspects of Sub Clinical Mastitis in Cattle

Authors: Kavita Jaidiya, Anju Chahar, Chitra Jaidiya

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The present study was conducted on 200 quarters from 50 apparently healthy cows. Samples are subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), cultural examination, and mPCR. Milk samples were also subjected to changes in composition Viz. fat, protein, and lactose. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis based on culture examination was 30(60/200), 36 (72/200), and 40 percent (93/200) based on CMT, culture examination, and mPCR on a quarterly basis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis on animal basis was 40 (20/50), 46 (23/50), and 52 percent (26/50) based on CMT, Culture examination, and mPCR. The highest prevalence was observed in IVth parity on a quarterly basis and in Vth parity on cow basis. On culture examination, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism (50.56%), followed by Streptococcus dysaglactiae (11.33%), E. coli (7.8 %), Staphylococcus agalactiae (13.48 %), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2 %), Streptococcus hyicus (6.94%), Streptococcus uberis (5.16%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.74%). On isolation by bacterial mPCR, Staphylococcus spp. (42%) was the major pathogen. Organisms isolated in mixed infections are Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginous. The average mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in subclinically affected milk samples were 3.40 ± 0.101, 3.009 ± 0.033, and 4.48 ± 0.03, and the mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in normal milk were 4.13 ± 0.035, 3.39 ± 0.021, and 5.10 ± 0.016. The mean blood level of reduced glutathione in subclinical mastitis (30.44 ± 1.87 ng/ml) was lower than healthy cows (47.98 ± 4.04ng/ml). The concentration of malondialdehyde (10.026 ± 0.21mmol/L) in subclinical mastitis was significantly higher as compared to healthy group cows (2.19 ± 0.23mmol/L).

Keywords: cow, subclinical mastitis, mPCR, California Mastitis test

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144 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum

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Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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143 High-Throughput Artificial Guide RNA Sequence Design for Type I, II and III CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Genome Editing

Authors: Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohd Y. Rafii

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A huge revolution has emerged in genome engineering by the discovery of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The function of type II Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR/Cas9 system has been confirmed in various species. Other S. thermophilus (St) CRISPR-Cas systems, CRISPR1-Cas and CRISPR3-Cas, have been also reported for preventing phage infection. The CRISPR1-Cas system interferes by cleaving foreign dsDNA entering the cell in a length-specific and orientation-dependant manner. The S. thermophilus CRISPR3-Cas system also acts by cleaving phage dsDNA genomes at the same specific position inside the targeted protospacer as observed in the CRISPR1-Cas system. It is worth mentioning, for the effective DNA cleavage activity, RNA-guided Cas9 orthologs require their own specific PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) sequences. Activity levels are based on the sequence of the protospacer and specific combinations of favorable PAM bases. Therefore, based on the specific length and sequence of PAM followed by a constant length of target site for the three orthogonals of Cas9 protein, a well-organized procedure will be required for high-throughput and accurate mining of possible target sites in a large genomic dataset. Consequently, we created a reliable procedure to explore potential gRNA sequences for type I (Streptococcus thermophiles), II (Streptococcus pyogenes), and III (Streptococcus thermophiles) CRISPR/Cas systems. To mine CRISPR target sites, four different searching modes of sgRNA binding to target DNA strand were applied. These searching modes are as follows: i) coding strand searching, ii) anti-coding strand searching, iii) both strand searching, and iv) paired-gRNA searching. The output of such procedure highlights the power of comparative genome mining for different CRISPR/Cas systems. This could yield a repertoire of Cas9 variants with expanded capabilities of gRNA design, and will pave the way for further advance genome and epigenome engineering.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas systems, gRNA mining, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus thermophiles

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142 Rapid and Cheap Test for Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae with Antibiotic Resistance Identification

Authors: Marta Skwarecka, Patrycja Bloch, Rafal Walkusz, Oliwia Urbanowicz, Grzegorz Zielinski, Sabina Zoledowska, Dawid Nidzworski

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Upper respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for visiting a general doctor. Streptococci are the most common bacterial etiological factors in these infections. There are many different types of Streptococci and infections vary in severity from mild throat infections to pneumonia. For example, S. pyogenes mainly contributes to acute pharyngitis, palatine tonsils and scarlet fever, whereas S. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for several invasive diseases like sepsis, meningitis or pneumonia with high mortality and dangerous complications. There are only a few diagnostic tests designed for detection Streptococci from the infected throat of patients. However, they are mostly based on lateral flow techniques, and they are not used as a standard due to their low sensitivity. The diagnostic standard is to culture patients throat swab on semi selective media in order to multiply pure etiological agent of infection and subsequently to perform antibiogram, which takes several days from the patients visit in the clinic. Therefore, the aim of our studies is to develop and implement to the market a Point of Care device for the rapid identification of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae with simultaneous identification of antibiotic resistance genes. In the course of our research, we successfully selected genes for to-species identification of Streptococci and genes encoding antibiotic resistance proteins. We have developed a reaction to amplify these genes, which allows detecting the presence of S. pyogenes or S. pneumoniae followed by testing their resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. What is more, the detection of β-lactamase-encoding genes that could protect Streptococci against antibiotics from the ampicillin group, which are widely used in the treatment of this type of infection is also developed. The test is carried out directly from the patients' swab, and the results are available after 20 to 30 minutes after sample subjection, which could be performed during the medical visit.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, Streptococci, respiratory infections, diagnostic test

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141 Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Ahmed H. H. El-Ghandour, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad

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Eighteen carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) schiff bases and their reduced derivatives have been synthesized. They were characterized by spectral analyses (FT-IR and H1-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy observation. Their antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB 010010), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB 010067), as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) as Gram negative bacteria and the antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 02568), Geotricum candidum (RCMB 05097), and Candida albicans (RCMB 05031) were examined using agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate how the antibacterial and the antifungal activity are clearly affected by both the nature and position of the substituent groups in the aryl ring of the prepared derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base and its reduced form show higher antimicrobial activity comparing with other para substituted derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base: 18.3, 17, and 15.6 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 16.2, 17.3, and 16.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. CMCh-4-nitroBenz reduced form: 19.5, 18.7, and 16.2 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 17.5, 19.5, and 17.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. Also CMCh-3-bromoBenz show good results; CMCh-3-bromoBenz schiff base: 19.2, 16.9, and 14.6 mm Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 18.4, 17.6, and 15.9 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively.

Keywords: chitosan, schiff base, minimum inhibition concentration, antimicrobial activity

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140 Bacterial Profiling and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine mastitis

Authors: Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Tayyab, Yung Fu Chang

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For the identification of bovine mastitic pathogen, an economical, rapid and sensitive molecular diagnostic assay is developed by PCR multiplexing of gene and pathogenic species specific DNA sequences. The multiplex PCR assay is developed for detecting nine important bacterial pathogens causing mastitis Worldwide. The bacterial species selected for this study are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes Mycoplasma bovis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A single reaction assay was developed and validated by 27 reference strains and further tested on 276 bacterial strains obtained from culturing mastitic milk. The multiplex PCR assay developed here is further evaluated by applying directly on genomic DNA isolated from 200 mastitic milk samples. It is compared with bacterial culturing method and proved to be more sensitive, rapid, economical and can specifically identify 9 bacterial pathogens in a single reaction. It has detected the pathogens in few culture negative mastitic samples. Recognition of disease is the foundation of disease control and prevention. This assay can be very helpful for maintaining the udder health and milk monitoring.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacteria, mastitis, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
139 Mothwash Formulation of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera) and Its Activity as an Antibacterial for Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: Amalia Dwi Berliyanti Amel

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Streptococcus mutants bacteria are bacteria that are believed to be the cause of the growth of dental plaque which can further adversely affect dental caries if left unchecked. Previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract can slow down the growth rate of this bacterium. This study aims to make the best formulation of mouthwash with the active ingredient of Moringa leaf extract based on its antibacterial and organoleptic test results. Nine mouthwash variations were carried out with two factors and three levels, namely a comparison of the concentration of sorbitol (A) with three levels namely 15% (A1), 20% (A2), and 25% (A3), and peppermint added (B) with three levels, namely 0.2% (B1), 0.25% (B2), and 0.3% (B3). The test parameters performed as the determination of the best mouthwash are based on physicochemical properties which include pH and viscosity as well as organoleptic test results which include color, viscosity, aroma, taste, sensation in the mouth, and general appearance. The results showed that the bright zone as a test for the antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutants began to be seen at a concentration of 5%. Moringa leaf mouthwash formulation has a pH value between 6 - 7, with a control of 6. Whereas the mucosa leaf mouthwash vascularity produced between 1.1 - 1.7 cP with a control of 1.1 cP. Moringa leaf mouthwash and control have the same total number of microbes, namely 0 colonies / mL. Based on organoleptic tests performed with 20 panelists, it was shown that the best mouthwash formulation was formulation A1B3 with sorbitol composition 15% and peppermint 0.3%.

Keywords: antibasteria, formula, moringa leaf, mouthwash

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138 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin

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The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression, taxonomy

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137 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez

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Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

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136 Re-Introduction of the Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) in Fenced Protected Area of Central Semi-Arid Area in Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. Zafar-ul Islam

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The Arabian Ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus is a distinct subspecies that became extinct in the wild during the mid-20th century, due to over-hunting and commercial exploitation. The extant of S. c. camelus, a red-necked form that occurs in Northeastern Africa and is considered the most closely related, and possibly the same subspecies as the extinct Arabian form has been chosen for the reintroduction in 1988-89 by obtaining red-necked ostrich from Sudan from a private collection. Few birds were translocated to Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in 25 ha fenced enclosure in 1994. Until now a total of 96 red-necked ostrich have been released in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd, and the estimated population is between 125 to 150 individuals. Since captive flock of ostriches were translocated to Mahazat, their survival rate increased (>41%) by the end of 2000. On an average 22-30 chicks are hatched annually. A total of 137 ostriches recorded dead over the period of 13 years during the drought period. One of the key questions is what proportion of birds makes use of the supplementary food and water provisions, and what happens to those birds that do not use it? Captive-bred and wild-born adult and young ostriches died of starvation and thirst, despite being provisioned with alfalfa and water in several years. The present population of ostrich in Mahazat is more than 300.

Keywords: red-necked ostrich, Struthio camelus camelus, reintroduction, Saudi Arabia, drought

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
135 Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia Officinalis and, Mentha Pulegium on Three Strains of Streptococcus Mutants, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and, Actinomyces Viscosus Dental Caries in-vitro

Authors: H. Nabahat, E. Amiri, F. AzaditalabDavoudabadi, N. Zaeri

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Tooth decay is one of the most common forms of oral and dental illness in the world, which causes huge costs of treatment, especially in high-risk groups such as people with oral dry mouth, prevention and control of it are very important. The use of traditional treatments such as extraction of drugs from medicinal plants is of paramount importance to Iran and the international community as well. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the antibacterial effect of the extract of Salvia officinalis and Mentha pulegium, which are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of oral and teeth bacterial (Streptococcus mutant, Lactobacillus rhamnosis, and Actinomyces viscosis) in vitro method. In this experimental study, two herbs of Salvia and Mentha were prepared by maceration of hydroalcoholic extract, and the antibacterial effect was evaluated by broth macro dilution on streptococcal mutagen bacteria, lactobacillus rhamnosis, and viscose actinomycosis. The results were analyzed by the Whitney Mann test (P > 0.05). The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the salmonella extract for Streptococcus mutan were 6.25 and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for lactobacillus of 1.56 and 3.12 μg/ml, respectively, and for actinomycosis viscose, The order of 12.5 and 100 μg/ml was obtained. As a result, broth macro dilution showed that both extracts of Salvia and Mentha had an inhibitory effect on all three species of bacteria. This effect for Salvia was significantly (P < 0.05) more than Mentha and was within the concentration range of both the extracts and had a bactericidal effect on all three bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, dental bacteria, herbal extracts , salvia officinalis, mentha pulegium

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134 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

Authors: Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian

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Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.

Keywords: pluronic, polymeric micelles, solubility, 4-allylpyrocathecol, Streptococcus mutans, anti-biofilm

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133 Antimicrobial Effect of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride, Xylitol or Xylitol-Probiotic on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in Children

Authors: Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun, Bilal Ozmen, Feridun Basak

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic in vivo, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15 years old children. Method: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 received fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite) and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic). Subjects were asked to use the allocated dentifrice two times a day, for 6 weeks. We performed tests on the samples of saliva in the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks’ duration following the use of toothpaste. Result and Conclusion: All of the participants of the study stated that they brushed their teeth well twice a day by using the toothpastes given to them for 6 weeks. Majority of the subjects had high counts of salivary mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus at baseline. When the number of cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Lactobacillus) at the start of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste usage are compared with the results measured after 6 weeks, an important decrease is observed in the S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria according to the CRT Tests. After the 6-week use of Probiotic toothpaste, the S. mutans (≥105) decreased to 20% from 75% in the group with S. mutans and Lactobacillus (≥105) decreased to 30% from 60% in the group with Lactobacillus. In addition, an important decrease was recorded in the participants with the S. mutans percentage (80% - 45%) and Lactobacillus (70% - 55%) after using the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste for six weeks. On the other hand, it was determined with the Chi-square that there were not important changes between the Xyliwhite toothpaste group and the other groups with S. mutans (80% - 75%) and Lactobacillus (75% -65%). It was also determined after the comparison of the groups that the decrease in the S. mutans was higher than the group using PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste at a significant level, when compared with the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste and Xyliwhite toothpaste. S. mutans were more sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste and to the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste when compared with the Lactobacillus. In the light of the data obtained in this in vivo study, the use of probiotics ensure the balance between the bacterial flora in the oral cavity.

Keywords: lactobacillus, probiotic, Streptococcus mutans, toothpaste

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132 Phenotypical and Genotypical Assessment Techniques for Identification of Some Contagious Mastitis Pathogens

Authors: Ayman El Behiry, Rasha Nabil Zahran, Reda Tarabees, Eman Marzouk, Musaad Al-Dubaib

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Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Its classic diagnosis using bacterial culture and biochemical findings is a difficult and prolonged method. In this research, using of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) permitted identification of different microorganisms with high accuracy and rapidity (only 24 hours for microbial growth and analysis). During the application of MALDI-TOF MS, one hundred twenty strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were identified, and the results were compared with those obtained by traditional methods as API and VITEK 2 Systems. 37 of totality 39 strains (~95%) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were exactly detected by MALDI TOF MS and then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique, whereas accurate identification was observed in 100% (50 isolates) of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (31 isolates). In brief, our results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology.

Keywords: identification, mastitis pathogens, mass spectral, phenotypical

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131 Studies on Virulence Factors Analysis in Streptococcus agalactiae from the Clinical Isolates

Authors: Natesan Balasubramanian, Palpandi Pounpandi, Venkatraman Thamil Priya, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Karubbiah Balakrishnan, Mandayam Anandam Thirunarayan

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Streptococcus agalactiae is commonly known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and it is the most common cause of life-threatening bacterial infection. GBS first considered as a veterinary pathogen causing mastitis in cattle later becomes a human pathogen for severe neonatal infections. In this present study, a total of 20 new clinical isolates of S. agalactiae were collected from male (6) and female patient (14) with different age group. The isolates were from Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood, pus and eye ulcer. All the 20 S. agalactiae isolates has clear hemolysis properties on blood agar medium and were identified by serogrouping and MALTI-TOF-MS analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility/resistance test was performed for 20 S. agalactiae isolates, further phenotypic resistance pattern was observed for tetracycline, vancomycin, ampicillin and penicillin. Genotypically we found two antibiotic resistance genes such as Betalactem antibiotic resistance gene (Tem) (70%) and tetracycline resistance gene Tet(O) 15% in our isolates. Six virulence factors encoding genes were performed by PCR in twenty GBS isolates, cfb gene (100%), followed by, cylE(90.47%), lmp(85.7%), bca(71.42%), rib (38%) and low frequency in bac gene (4.76%) were determined. Most of the S. agalactiae isolates produced strong biofilm in the polystyrene surface (hydrophobic), and low-level biofilm formation was found in glass tube (hydrophilic) surface. lytR is secreted protein and localized in bacterial cell wall, extra cellular membrane, and cytoplasm. In silico docking studies were performed for lytR protein with four antibiofilm compounds, including a peptide (PR39) with the docking study showed peptide has strong interaction followed by ellagic acid and interaction length is 2.95, 2.97 and 2.95 A°. In ligand EGCGO10 and O11 two atoms intract with lytR (Leu271), with binding bond affinity length is 3.24 and 3.14. The aminoacid Leu 271 is act as an impartant aminoacid, since ellagic acid and EGCG interact with same aminoacid.

Keywords: antibiotics, biofilms, clinical isolates, S. agalactiae, virulence

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130 Protection and Immune Responses of DNA Vaccines Targeting Virulence Factors of Streptococcus iniae in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Ha Thanh Dong, Nopadon Pirarat, Channarong Rodkhum

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Streptococcus iniae (SI) is a devastating pathogenic bacteria causing heavy mortality in farmed fish. The application of commercialized bacterin vaccine has been reported failures as the outbreaks of the new serotype of SI were emerged in farms after vaccination and subsequently caused severe losses. In the present study, we attempted to develop effective DNA vaccines against SI infection using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as an animal model. Two monovalent DNA vaccines were constructed by the insertion of coding sequences of cell wall-associated virulence factors-encoding genes, comprised of eno (α-enolase) and mtsB (hydrophobic membrane protein), into cytomegalovirus expression vector (pCI-neo). In the animal trial, 30-g Nile tilapia were injected intramuscularly with 15 µg of each vaccine (mock vaccine group was injected by naked pCI-neo) and maintained for 35 days prior challenging with pathogenic SI at the dosage of 107 CFU/fish. At 13 days post-challenge, the relative percent survival of pEno, pMtsB and mock vaccine were 57%, 45% and 27%, respectively. The expression levels of immune responses-associated genes, namely, IL1β, TNF-α, TGF-β, COX2, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13, were investigated from the spleen of experimental animal at 7 days post-vaccination (PV) and 7 days post-challenge (PC) using quantitative RT-PCR technique. Generally, at 7 days PV, the pEno vaccinated group exhibited highest level of up-regulation (1.7 to 2.9 folds) of every gene, but TGF-β, comparing to pMtsB and mock vaccine groups. However, at 7 days PC, pEno group showed significant up-regulation (1.4 to 8.5 folds) of immune-related genes as similar as mock vaccine group, while pMtsB group had lowest level of up-regulation (0.7 to 3.3 folds). Summarily, this study indicated that the pEno and pMtsB vaccines could elicit the immune responses of the fish and the magnitude of gene expression at 7 days PV was also consistent with the protection level conferred by the vaccine.

Keywords: gene expression, DNA vaccine, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus iniae

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129 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. Growing in Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: N. Meziou-Chebouti, A. Merabet, Y. Chebouti N. Behidj

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This work is a contribution to the knowledge of physicochemical characteristics of mature carob followed by evaluation of the activity, antimicrobial phenolics leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. physicochemical study shows that mature carob it has a considerable content of sugar (50.90%), but poor in proteins (7%), fat (8%) and also has a high mineral content. The results obtained from phenolic extracts of leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. show a wealth leaf phenolic extract especially flavonoids (0,545 mg EqQ/g) relative to the extract of green pods (0,226 mgEqQ/g). Polyphenols leaves have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoiae, Streptococcus sp and Sanmonella enteritidis, a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Pseudomonas strain aerogenosa. Moreover, polyphenols pod have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus sp strains, Pseudomonas and aerogenosa Sanmonella enteritidis, a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteria, clove, Ceratonia siliqua, polyphenols

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128 Assessing Information Dissemination Of Group B Streptococcus In Antenatal Clinics, and Obstetricians and Midwives’ Opinions on the Importance of Doing so

Authors: Aakriti Chetan Shah, Elle Sein

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Background/purpose: Group B Streptococcus(GBS) is the leading cause of severe early onset infection in newborns, with the incidence of Early Onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) in the UK and Ireland rising from 0.48 to 0.57 per 1000 births from 2000 to 2015. A WHO study conducted in 2017, has shown that 38.5% of cases can result in stillbirth and infant deaths. This is an important problem to consider as 20% of women worldwide have GBS colonisation and can suffer from these detrimental effects. Current Royal College of Obstetricians and Midwives (RCOG) guidelines do not recommend bacteriological screening for pregnant women due to its low sensitivity in antenatal screening correlating with the neonate having GBS but advise a patient information leaflet be given to pregnant women. However, a Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch (HSIB) 2019 learning report found that only 50% of trusts and health boards reported giving GBS information leaflets to all pregnant mothers. Therefore, this audit aimed to assess current practices of information dissemination about GBS at Chelsea & Westminster (C&W) Hospital. Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire based on the RCOG GBS guidelines and the HSIB Learning report. The study was conducted in antenatal clinics at Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, from 29th January 2021 to 14th February 2021, with twenty-two practicing obstetricians and midwives participating in the survey. The main outcome measure was the proportion of obstetricians and midwives who disseminate information about GBS to pregnant women, and the reasons behind why they do or do not. Results: 22 obstetricians and midwives responded with 18 complete responses. Of which 12 were obstetricians and 6 were midwives. Only 17% of clinical staff routinely inform all pregnant women about GBS, and do so at varying timeframes of the pregnancy, with an equal split in the first, second and third trimester. The primary reason for not informing women about GBS was influenced by three key factors: Deemed relevant only for patients at high risk of GBS, lack of time in clinic appointments and no routine NHS screening available. Interestingly 58% of staff in the antenatal clinic believe it is necessary to inform all women about GBS and its importance. Conclusion: It is vital for obstetricians and midwives to inform all pregnant women about GBS due to the high prevalence of incidental carriers in the population, and the harmful effects it can cause for neonates. Even though most clinicians believe it is important to inform all pregnant women about GBS, most do not. To ensure that RCOG and HSIB recommendations are followed, we recommend that women should be given this information at 28 weeks gestation in the antenatal clinic. Proposed implementations include an information leaflet to be incorporated into the Mum and Baby app, an informative video and end-to-end digital clinic documentation to include this information sharing prompt.

Keywords: group B Streptococcus, early onset sepsis, Antenatal care, Neonatal morbidity, GBS

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127 The Comparison of pH Saliva before and after Brushing Teeth Using Tooth Paste Containing Betel Leaf Extracts

Authors: Ika Anisyah, Nety Trisnawaty

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Mechanical brushing can help control plaque and is the first step to control dental caries. The type of toothpaste used is one of the contributing factors in it since the benefits of toothpaste are to reduce plaque formation and strengthen the teeth against dental caries, clean and polish tooth surfaces, eliminate or reduce bad breath, give a fresh taste to the mouth and maintain gingival health. Betel leaf toothpaste has the ability to inhibit the Streptococcus mutans bacteria that can cause the increase of pH saliva. Betel leaf extracts can increase the pH saliva because betel leaf has an anti bacterial characteristic against Streptococcus mutans so that pH saliva increases. This study aims to see the difference between pH saliva before and after brushing teeth with toothpaste containing betel leaf extracts. This type of research is pre-experimental using One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. This study was conducted on 32 subjects taken randomly from the representatives of students aged 11-12 years old in SD Pesanggrahan 03. The result of statistic test using non parametric test showed a value of 0.000. The resulted value being smaller than 0.05 (p < 0.05) means there is a significant salivary pH difference before and after teeth brushing using toothpaste containing betel leaf. The conclusion of this study showed an increase in salivary pH after teeth brushing with toothpaste containing betel leaves extracts in children aged 11-12 years old.

Keywords: pH saliva, brushing teeth, tooth paste, betel leaves extracts

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126 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui

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The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: fermented milk, pectin, gelatin, whey proteins, functional properties, quality, conservation, valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 60