Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: pluronic

13 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, pluronic, thermoreversible hydrogel

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12 Preparation and Study of Pluronic F127 Monolayers at Air-Water Interface

Authors: Neha Kanodia, M. Kamil

Abstract:

Properties of mono layers of Pluronic F127 at air/water interface have been investigated by using Langmuir trough method. Pluronic F127 is a triblock copolymer of poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO groups)– poly (propylene oxide) (PO groups)–poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO groups). Surface pressure versus mean molecular area isotherms is studied. The isotherm of the mono layer showed the characteristics of a pancake-to-brush transition upon compression of the mono layer. The effect of adding surfactant (SDS) to polymer and the effect of increasing loading on polymer was also studied. The effect of repeated compression and expansion cycle (or hysteresis curve) is investigated to know about stability of the film formed. Static elasticity of mono layer gives information about molecular arrangement, phase structure and phase transition.

Keywords: surface-pressure, mean molecular area isotherms, hysteresis, static elasticity

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11 Behavior of hFOB 1.19 Cells in Injectable Scaffold Composing of Pluronic F127 and Carboxymethyl Hexanoyl Chitosan

Authors: Lie-Sian Yap, Ming-Chien Yang

Abstract:

This study demonstrated a novel injectable hydrogel scaffold composing of Pluronic F127, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan (CA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for encapsulating human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB) 1.19. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing F127 and GA in CA solution at 4°C. The mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of this hydrogel were determined through rheological measurements and MTT assay, respectively. After encapsulation process, the hFOB 1.19 cells morphology was examined using fluorescent and confocal imaging. The results indicated that the Tgel of this system was around 30°C, where sol-gel transformation occurred within 90s and F127/CA/GA gel was able to remain intact in the medium for more than 1 month. In vitro cell culture assay revealed that F127/CA/GA hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Encapsulated hFOB 1.19 cells not only showed the spherical shape and formed colonies, but also reduced their size. Moreover, the hFOB 1.19 cells showed that cells remain alive after the encapsulation process. Based on these results, these F127/CA/GA hydrogels can be used to encapsulate cells for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan, cell encapsulation, hFOB 1.19, Pluronic F127

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10 Preliminary Studies on Poloxamer-Based Hydrogels with Oregano Essential Oil as Potential Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Papillomas

Authors: Ana Maria Muț, Georgeta Coneac, Ioana Olariu, Ștefana Avram, Ioana Zinuca Pavel, Ionela Daliana Minda, Lavinia Vlaia, Cristina Adriana Dehelean, Corina Danciu

Abstract:

Oregano essential oil is obtained from different parts of the plant Origanum vulgare (fam. Lamiaceae) and carvacrol and thymol are primary components, widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Poloxamers are triblock copolymers (Pluronic®), formed of three non-ionic blocks with a hydrophobic polyoxypropylene central chain flanked by two polyoxyethylene hydrophilic chains. They are known for their biocompatibility, sensitivity to temperature changes (sol-to-gel transition of aqueous solution with temperature increase), but also for their amphiphilic and surface active nature determining the formation of micelles, useful for solubilization of different hydrophobic compounds such as the terpenes and terpenoids contained in essential oils. Thus, these polymers, listed in European and US Pharmacopoeia and approved by FDA, are widely used as solubilizers and gelling agents for various pharmaceutical preparations, including topical hydrogels. The aim of this study was to investigate the posibility of solubilizing oregano essential oil (OEO) in polymeric micelles using polyoxypropylene (PPO)-polyoxyethylene (PEO)-polyoxypropylene (PPO) triblock polymers to obtain semisolid systems suitable for topical application. A formulation screening was performed, using Pluronic® F-127 in concentration of 20%, Pluronic® L-31, Pluronic® L-61 and Pluronic® L-62 in concentration of 0.5%, 0.8% respectively 1% to obtain the polymeric micelles-based systems. Then, to each selected system, with or without 10% absolute ethanol, 5% or 8% OEO was added. The obtained transparent poloxamer-based hydrogels containing solubilized OEO were further evaluated for pH, rheological characteristics (flow behaviour, viscosity, consistency and spreadability), using consacrated techniques like potentiometric titration, stationary shear flow test, penetrometric method and parallel plate method. Also, in vitro release and permeation of carvacrol from the hydrogels was carried out, using vertical diffusion cells and synthetic hydrophilic membrane and porcine skin respectively. The pH values and rheological features of all tested formulations were in accordance with official requirements for semisolid cutaneous preparations. But, the formulation containing 0.8% Pluronic® L-31, 10% absolute ethanol, 8% OEO and water and the formulation with 1% Pluronic® L-31, 5% OEO and water, produced the highest cumulative amounts of carvacrol released/permeated through the membrane. The present study demonstrated that oregano essential oil can be successfully solubilized in the investigated poloxamer-based hydrogels. These systems can be further investigated as potential topical therapy for cutaneous papillomas.

Keywords: oregano essential oil, carvacrol, poloxamer, topical hydrogels

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9 Synergistic Behavior of Polymer Mixtures in Designing Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Maria Bercea, Monica Diana Olteanu

Abstract:

Investigation of polymer systems able to change inside of the body into networks represent an attractive approach, especially when there is a minimally invasive and patient friendly administration. Pharmaceutical formulations based on Pluronic F127 [poly (oxyethylene) (PEO) blocks (70%) and poly(oxypropylene) (PPO) blocks (30%)] present an excellent potential as drug delivery systems. The use of Pluronic F127 alone as gel-forming solution is limited by some characteristics, such as poor mechanical properties, short residence time, high permeability, etc. Investigation of the interactions between the natural and synthetic polymers and surfactants in solution is a subject of great interest from both scientific and practical point of view. As for example, formulations based on Pluronics and chitosan could be used to obtain dual phase transition hydrogels responsive to temperature and pH changes. In this study, different materials were prepared by using poly(vinyl alcohol), chitosan solutions mixed with aqueous solutions of Pluronic F127. The rheological properties of different formulations were investigated in temperature sweep experiments as well as at a constant temperature of 37oC for exploring in-situ gel formation in the human body conditions. In addition, some viscometric investigations were carried out in order to understand the interactions which determine the complex behaviour of these systems. Correlation between the thermodynamic and rheological parameters and phase separation phenomena observed for the investigated systems allowed the dissemination the constitutive response of polymeric materials at different external stimuli, such as temperature and pH. The rheological investigation demonstrated that the viscoelastic moduli of the hydrogels can be tuned depending on concentration of different components as well as pH and temperature conditions and cumulative contributions can be obtained.

Keywords: hydrogel, polymer mixture, stimuli responsive, biomedical applications

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8 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

Authors: Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian

Abstract:

Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.

Keywords: pluronic, polymeric micelles, solubility, 4-allylpyrocathecol, Streptococcus mutans, anti-biofilm

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7 Formulation of the N-Acylethanolamine, Linoleoylethanolamide into Cubosomes for Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Authors: Younus Mohammad, Anita B. Fallah, Ben J. Boyd, Shakila B. Rizwan

Abstract:

N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipids, which have neuromodulatory properties. NAEs have shown neuroprotective properties in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ischemic stroke. However, NAEs are eliminated rapidly in vivo by enzymatic hydrolysis. We propose to encapsulate NAEs in liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) to increase their biological half-life and explore their therapeutic potential. Recently, we have reported the co-formulation and nanostructural characterization of cubosomes containing the NAE, oleoylethanolamide and a synthetic cubosome forming lipid phytantriol. Here, we report on the formulation of cubosomes with the NAE, linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) as the core cubosome forming lipid. LEA-cubosomes were formulated in the presence of three different steric stabilisers: two brain targeting ligands, Tween 80 and Pluronic P188 and a control, Pluronic F127. Size, morphology and internal structure of formulations were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo–TEM) and small angle X–ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. Chemical stability of LEA in formulations was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of formulations towards human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was also investigated using an MTT (3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. All cubosome formulations had mean particle size of less than 250 nm and were uniformly distributed with polydispersity indices less than 0.2. Cubosomes produced had a bicontinuous cubic internal structure with an Im3m space group but different lattice parameters, indicating the different modes of interaction between the stabilisers and LEA. LEA in formulations was found to be chemically stable. At concentrations of up to 20 µg/mL LEA in the presence of all the stabilisers, greater than 80% cell viability was observed.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cubosomes, linoleoyl ethanolamide, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs)

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6 Formulation and Evaluation of Glimepiride (GMP)-Solid Nanodispersion and Nanodispersed Tablets

Authors: Ahmed. Abdel Bary, Omneya. Khowessah, Mojahed. al-jamrah

Abstract:

Introduction: The major challenge with the design of oral dosage forms lies with their poor bioavailability. The most frequent causes of low oral bioavailability are attributed to poor solubility and low permeability. The aim of this study was to develop solid nanodispersed tablet formulation of Glimepiride for the enhancement of the solubility and bioavailability. Methodology: Solid nanodispersions of Glimepiride (GMP) were prepared using two different ratios of 2 different carriers, namely; PEG6000, pluronic F127, and by adopting two different techniques, namely; solvent evaporation technique and fusion technique. A full factorial design of 2 3 was adopted to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the prepared nanodispersion properties. The best chosen formula of nanodispersed powder was formulated into tablets by direct compression. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis were conducted for the thermal behavior and surface structure characterization, respectively. The zeta potential and particle size analysis of the prepared glimepiride nanodispersions was determined. The prepared solid nanodispersions and solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP were evaluated in terms of pre-compression and post-compression parameters, respectively. Results: The DSC and FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between GMP and all the excipients used. Based on the resulted values of different pre-compression parameters, the prepared solid nanodispersions powder blends showed poor to excellent flow properties. The resulted values of the other evaluated pre-compression parameters of the prepared solid nanodispersion were within the limits of pharmacopoeia. The drug content of the prepared nanodispersions ranged from 89.6 ± 0.3 % to 99.9± 0.5% with particle size ranged from 111.5 nm to 492.3 nm and the resulted zeta potential (ζ ) values of the prepared GMP-solid nanodispersion formulae (F1-F8) ranged from -8.28±3.62 mV to -78±11.4 mV. The in-vitro dissolution studies of the prepared solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP concluded that GMP- pluronic F127 combinations (F8), exhibited the best extent of drug release, compared to other formulations, and to the marketed product. One way ANOVA for the percent of drug released from the prepared GMP-nanodispersion formulae (F1- F8) after 20 and 60 minutes showed significant differences between the percent of drug released from different GMP-nanodispersed tablet formulae (F1- F8), (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preparation of glimepiride as nanodispersed particles proven to be a promising tool for enhancing the poor solubility of glimepiride.

Keywords: glimepiride, solid Nanodispersion, nanodispersed tablets, poorly water soluble drugs

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5 Chitosan Hydrogel Containing Nitric Oxide Donors with Potent Antibacterial Effect

Authors: Milena Trevisan Pelegrino, Bruna De Araujo Lima, Mônica H. M. Do Nascimento, Christiane B. Lombello, Marcelo Brocchi, Amedea B. Seabra

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including vasodilatation, control of inflammatory pain, wound healing, and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, the design of drugs that generates therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, in an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior, and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications, at physiological and skin temperatures. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which correspondents to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interesting, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated antibacterial effect was not found toxic to Vero mammalian cell. Thus, GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial, chitosan, biocompatibility, S-nitrosothiols

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4 Development of Essential Oil-Loaded Gelatin Hydrogels for Use as Antibacterial Wound Dressing

Authors: Piyachat Chuysinuan, Nitirat Chimnoi, Arthit Makarasen, Nanthawan Reuk-Ngam, Pitt Supaphol, Supanna Techasakul

Abstract:

In this work, biomaterial wound dressings was developed based on gelatin containing herbal substances (essential oil), a substance from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng (Crofton weed) that used as traditional wound healers. Gelatin hydrogel was prepared from a 10 wt-% gelatin solution. The oil in water (o/w) emulsion Eupatorium adenophorum of essential oil were prepared and used Pluronic F68 as a surfactant. The 10, 20, and 30 % v/v emulsion were mixed with gelatin solution and cast into film. These hydrogels were tested for their gel fraction, swelling and weight loss behavior. With an increase in the emulsion concentration the emulsion-loaded in hydrogels, the gel fraction were decreased due to the crosslink density, while the swelling and weight loss behavior were increased with an increasing in the emulsion content. The potential to use the emulsion-containing gelatin hydrogels as wound dressing was assessed on investigation the release characteristics of the as-loaded hydrogels. The E. adenophorum essential oil was first identified the chemical composition by using GC-MS analysis. The principal components of the oil were p-cymene (16.23%), bornyl acetate (11.84%), and amorpha-4, 7(11)-diene (10.51%). The hydrogel wound dressing containing essential oil was then characterized for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative in order to elucidate their potential for use as antibacterial wound dressings by using agar disk diffusion methods. The result showed that E. adenophorum essential oil and the emulsion-loaded gelatin hydrogel inhibited the growth of the test pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and increased with increasing the initial amount of essential oil in the hydrogels which confirmed their application as antibacterial wound dressings. Furthermore, the potential use of these wound dressings was further assessed in terms of the indirect cytotoxicity, in vitro attachment and proliferation of dermal human fibroblasts cultured in the hydrogel wound dressings.

Keywords: hydrogel, antibacterial wound dressing, Eupatorium adenophorum essential oil, gelatin

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3 Development and Characterization of Topical 5-Fluorouracil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Effective Treatment of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, V. R. Sinha

Abstract:

Background: The topical and systemic toxicity associated with present nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment therapy using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) make it necessary to develop a novel delivery system having lesser toxicity and better control over drug release. Solid lipid nanoparticles offer many advantages like: controlled and localized release of entrapped actives, nontoxicity, and better tolerance. Aim:-To investigate safety and efficacy of 5-FU loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Method: Topical solid lipid nanoparticles of 5-FU were prepared using Compritol 888 ATO (Glyceryl behenate) as lipid component and pluronic F68 (Poloxamer 188), Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80), Tyloxapol (4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl) phenol polymer with formaldehyde and oxirane) as surfactants. The SLNs were prepared with emulsification method. Different formulation parameters viz. type and ratio of surfactant, ratio of lipid and ratio of surfactant:lipid were investigated on particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Results: Characterization of SLNs like–Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scannig calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size determination, Polydispersity index, Entrapment efficiency, Drug loading, ex vivo skin permeation and skin retention studies, skin irritation and histopathology studies were performed. TEM results showed that shape of SLNs was spherical with size range 200-500nm. Higher encapsulation efficiency was obtained for batches having higher concentration of surfactant and lipid. It was found maximum 64.3% for SLN-6 batch with size of 400.1±9.22 nm and PDI 0.221±0.031. Optimized SLN batches and marketed 5-FU cream were compared for flux across rat skin and skin drug retention. The lesser flux and higher skin retention was obtained for SLN formulation in comparison to topical 5-FU cream, which ensures less systemic toxicity and better control of drug release across skin. Chronic skin irritation studies lacks serious erythema or inflammation and histopathology studies showed no significant change in physiology of epidermal layers of rat skin. So, these studies suggest that the optimized SLN formulation is efficient then marketed cream and safer for long term NMSC treatment regimens. Conclusion: Topical and systemic toxicity associated with long-term use of 5-FU, in the treatment of NMSC, can be minimized with its controlled release with significant drug retention with minimal flux across skin. The study may provide a better alternate for effective NMSC treatment.

Keywords: 5-FU, topical formulation, solid lipid nanoparticles, non melanoma skin cancer

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2 Formulation of a Submicron Delivery System including a Platelet Lysate to Be Administered in Damaged Skin

Authors: Sergio A. Bernal-Chavez, Sergio Alcalá-Alcalá, Doris A. Cerecedo-Mercado, Adriana Ganem-Rondero

Abstract:

The prevalence of people with chronic wounds has increased dramatically by many factors including smoking, obesity and chronic diseases, such as diabetes, that can slow the healing process and increase the risk of becoming chronic. Because of this situation, the improvement of chronic wound treatments is a necessity, which has led to the scientific community to focus on improving the effectiveness of current therapies and the development of new treatments. The wound formation is a physiological complex process, which is characterized by an inflammatory stage with the presence of proinflammatory cells that create a proteolytic microenvironment during the healing process, which includes the degradation of important growth factors and cytokines. This decrease of growth factors and cytokines provides an interesting strategy for wound healing if they are administered externally. The use of nanometric drug delivery systems, such as polymer nanoparticles (NP), also offers an interesting alternative around dermal systems. An interesting strategy would be to propose a formulation based on a thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with polymeric nanoparticles that allows the inclusion and application of a platelet lysate (PL) on damaged skin, with the aim of promoting wound healing. In this work, NP were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, using polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as biodegradable polymer. Firstly, an aqueous solution of PL was emulsified into a PLGA organic solution, previously prepared in dichloromethane (DCM). Then, this disperse system (W/O) was poured into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution to get the double emulsion (W/O/W), finally the DCM was evaporated by magnetic stirring resulting in the NP formation containing PL. Once the NP were obtained, these systems were characterized by morphology, particle size, Z-potential, encapsulation efficiency (%EE), physical stability, infrared spectrum, calorimetric studies (DSC) and in vitro release profile. The optimized nanoparticles were included in a thermosensitive gel formulation of Pluronic® F-127. The gel was prepared by the cold method at 4 °C and 20% of polymer concentration. Viscosity, sol-gel phase transition, time of no flow solid-gel at wound temperature, changes in particle size by temperature-effect using dynamic light scattering (DLS), occlusive effect, gel degradation, infrared spectrum and micellar point by DSC were evaluated in all gel formulations. PLGA NP of 267 ± 10.5 nm and Z-potential of -29.1 ± 1 mV were obtained. TEM micrographs verified the size of NP and evidenced their spherical shape. The %EE for the system was around 99%. Thermograms and in infrared spectra mark the presence of PL in NP. The systems did not show significant changes in the parameters mentioned above, during the stability studies. Regarding the gel formulation, the transition sol-gel occurred at 28 °C with a time of no flow solid-gel of 7 min at 33°C (common wound temperature). Calorimetric, DLS and infrared studies corroborated the physical properties of a thermosensitive gel, such as the micellar point. In conclusion, the thermosensitive gel described in this work, contains therapeutic amounts of PL and fulfills the technological properties to be used in damaged skin, with potential application in wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Keywords: growth factors, polymeric nanoparticles, thermosensitive hydrogels, tissue regeneration

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1 Hybrid Materials on the Basis of Magnetite and Magnetite-Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

Authors: Mariia V. Efremova, Iana O. Tcareva, Anastasia D. Blokhina, Ivan S. Grebennikov, Anastasia S. Garanina, Maxim A. Abakumov, Yury I. Golovin, Alexander G. Savchenko, Alexander G. Majouga, Natalya L. Klyachko

Abstract:

During last decades magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) attract a deep interest of scientists due to their potential application in therapy and diagnostics. However, magnetite nanoparticles are toxic and non-stable in physiological conditions. To solve these problems, we decided to create two types of hybrid systems based on magnetite and gold which is inert and biocompatible: gold as a shell material (first type) and gold as separate NPs interfacially bond to magnetite NPs (second type). The synthesis of the first type hybrid nanoparticles was carried out as follows: Magnetite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were obtained by co-precipitation of iron (II, III) chlorides then they were covered with gold shell by iterative reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. According to the TEM, ICP MS and EDX data, final nanoparticles had an average diameter of 31±4 nm and contained iron even after hydrochloric acid treatment. However, iron signals (K-line, 7,1 keV) were not localized so we can’t speak about one single magnetic core. Described nanoparticles covered with mercapto-PEG acid were non-toxic for human prostate cancer PC-3/ LNCaP cell lines (more than 90% survived cells as compared to control) and had high R2-relaxivity rates (>190 mМ-1s-1) that exceed the transverse relaxation rate of commercial MRI-contrasting agents. These nanoparticles were also used for chymotrypsin enzyme immobilization. The effect of alternating magnetic field on catalytic properties of chymotrypsin immobilized on magnetite nanoparticles, notably the slowdown of catalyzed reaction at the level of 35-40 % was found. The synthesis of the second type hybrid nanoparticles also involved two steps. Firstly, spherical gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were synthesized by the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with oleylamine; secondly, they were used as seeds during magnetite synthesis by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in octadecene. As a result, so-called dumbbell-like structures were obtained where magnetite (cubes with 25±6 nm diagonal) and gold nanoparticles were connected together pairwise. By HRTEM method (first time for this type of structure) an epitaxial growth of magnetite nanoparticles on gold surface with co-orientation of (111) planes was discovered. These nanoparticles were transferred into water by means of block-copolymer Pluronic F127 then loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin and also PSMA-vector specific for LNCaP cell line. Obtained nanoparticles were found to have moderate toxicity for human prostate cancer cells and got into the intracellular space after 45 minutes of incubation (according to fluorescence microscopy data). These materials are also perspective from MRI point of view (R2-relaxivity rates >70 mМ-1s-1). Thereby, in this work magnetite-gold hybrid nanoparticles, which have a strong potential for biomedical application, particularly in targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging, were synthesized and characterized. That paves the way to the development of special medicine types – theranostics. The authors knowledge financial support from Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (14.607.21.0132, RFMEFI60715X0132). This work was also supported by Grant of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation К1-2014-022, Grant of Russian Scientific Foundation 14-13-00731 and MSU development program 5.13.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetite-gold, MRI contrast agents, nanoparticles, toxicity

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