Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 614

Search results for: autosomal markers

614 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

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Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

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613 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

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Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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612 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly

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Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: correlation, molecular markers, polymorphism, marker index

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611 An Analysis of Discourse Markers Awareness in Writing Undergraduate Thesis of English Education Student in Sebelas Maret University

Authors: Oktanika Wahyu Nurjanah, Anggun Fitriana Dewi

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An undergraduate thesis is one of the academic writings which should fulfill some characteristics, one of them is coherency. Moreover, a coherence of a text depends on the usage of discourse markers. In other word, discourse markers take an essential role in writing. Therefore, the researchers aim to know the awareness of the discourse markers usage in writing the under-graduate thesis of an English Education student at Sebelas Maret University. This research uses a qualitative case study in order to obtain a deep analysis. The sample of this research is an under-graduate thesis of English Education student in Sebelas Maret University which chosen based on some criteria. Additionally, the researchers were guided by some literature attempted to group the discourse markers based on their functions. Afterward, the analysis was held based on it. From the analysis, it found that the awareness of discourse markers usage is moderate. The last point, the researcher suggest undergraduate students to familiarize themselves with discourse markers, especially for those who want to write thesis.

Keywords: discourse markers, English education, thesis writing, undergraduate student

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610 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

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This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

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609 An Examination of Self-Mentions and Engagement Markers on the Academic IELTS Reading Exam

Authors: Hilda Freimuth

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This study examined the interactional resources of self-mentions and engagement markers in twenty official IELTS reading exam passages to determine the passages’ similarity to academic research papers. Although the findings revealed a variation ranging from zero to 22 instances for any given passage, the study found the average number of markers (5.5) per passage in line with those found on research papers. This finding confirms that the IELTS exam’s reading passages mirror the academic nature of research papers in this regard.

Keywords: IELTS exam, IELTS reading, interpersonal resources, self-mentions, engagement markers

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608 On the Absence of BLAD, CVM, DUMPS and BC Autosomal Recessive Mutations in Stud Bulls of the Local Alatau Cattle Breed of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengali Ussenbekov, Valery Terletskiy, Orik Zhanserkenova, Shynar Kasymbekova, Indira Beyshova, Aitkali Imanbayev, Almas Serikov

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Currently, there are 46 hereditary diseases afflicting cattle with known molecular genetic diagnostic methods developed for them. Genetic anomalies frequently occur in the Holstein cattle breeds from American and Canadian bloodlines. The data on the incidence of BLAD, CVM, DUMPS and BC autosomal recessive lethal mutations in pedigree animals are discordant, the detrimental allele incidence rates are high for the Holstein cattle breed, whereas the incidence rates of these mutations are low in some breeds or they are completely absent. Data were obtained on the basis of frozen semen of stud bulls. DNA was extracted from the semen with the DNA-Sorb-B extraction kit. The lethal mutation in the genes CD18, SLC35A3, UMP and ASS of Alatau stud bulls (N=124) was detected by polymerase chain reaction and RFLP analysis. It was established that stud bulls of the local Alatau breed were not carriers of the BLAD, CVM, DUMPS, and BC detrimental mutations. However, with a view to preventing the dissemination of hereditary diseases it is recommended to monitor the pedigree stock using molecular genetic methods.

Keywords: PCR, autosomal recessive point mutation, BLAD, CVM, DUMPS, BC, stud bulls

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607 Image Segmentation of Visual Markers in Robotic Tracking System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm with Connected-Component Labeling

Authors: Shu-Yu Hsu, Chen-Chien Hsu, Wei-Yen Wang

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Color segmentation is a basic and simple way for recognizing the visual markers in a robotic tracking system. In this paper, we propose a new method for color segmentation by incorporating differential evolution algorithm and connected component labeling to autonomously preset the HSV threshold of visual markers. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a ROBOTIS OP2 humanoid robot is used to conduct the experiment, where five most commonly used color including red, purple, blue, yellow, and green in visual markers are given for comparisons.

Keywords: color segmentation, differential evolution, connected component labeling, humanoid robot

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606 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta

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Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers

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605 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad

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In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: wheat, molecular markers, SSR, RAPD

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604 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

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This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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603 ArUco Maker Based Localization and Node Graph Approach to Mapping

Authors: Abhijith Sampathkrishna, Arun Giriyapur

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This paper explores a method of localization and navigation of indoor mobile robots using a node graph of landmarks that are based on fiducial markers. The use of ArUco markers and their 2-D orientation with respect to the camera of the robot and the distance to the markers from the camera is used to calculate the relative position of the robot as well as the relative positions of other markers. The proposed method combines aspects of beacon-based navigation, and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) based navigation. The implementation of this method uses a depth camera to obtain the distance to the marker. After calculating the required orientation of the marker, it relies on odometry calculations for tracking the robot’s position after localization with respect to the marker. Using the odometry and the relative position of one marker, the robot is then localized with respect to another marker. The relative positions and orientation of the two markers are then calculated. The markers are represented as nodes, the relative distances and orientations are represented as edges connecting the nodes, and a node graph can be generated that represents a map for the robot. The method was tested on a wheeled humanoid robot with the objective of having it autonomously navigate to a charging station inside a room. This objective was successfully achieved, and the limitations and future improvements are briefly discussed.

Keywords: ArUco, node graph, mapping, locomotion, localization, navigation

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602 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

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Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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601 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

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Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: colorectal carcinoma, stem cells, CD133+, CD44+

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600 Effect of High-Pressure and Thermal Treatments on Quality Markers of Strawberry Nectars

Authors: Karen Louise Lacey, Dario Javier Pavon Vargas, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Luca Cattani, Sara Rainieri

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The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatments (TT) on quality markers of strawberry nectar (12 °Brix, 3,3 pH) was studied before and after treatments. TT and HPP treatments ensured a 3-log aerobic bacteria inactivation. No significant difference was detected in terms of pH and °Brix. TT samples were less red (a* less positive) than all HPP treated samples, while all samples were less red than the control. Apparent viscosity was significantly increased in all the HPP treatments, at 10 1/s shear rate, control was 79.04±7.94 mPa•s and the 600 MPa-20 min treatment were 327.10±1.64 mPa•s. This work suggests that HPP treatments may maintain the quality markers of strawberry nectar better.

Keywords: HPP, strawberry nectar, colour , viscosity

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599 Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Genomic-SSR Markers in Asian Long-Horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Authors: Zhao Yang Liu, Jing Tao

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The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is a wood-borer and polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and killing healthy trees. As it causes serious danger to trees, the beetle has been paid close attention in the world. However, the genetic markers limited, especially microsatellite. In this study, 24 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. We developed SSR loci of 2 to 6 repeated and perfect units including 9895 points, the density of SSRs was found one SSR per 56.57 kb and the abundance of SSR was 0.02/kb, besides 140 types of repeats motifs were found. Half of the 48 pairs SSR primers (containing 4 di-, 7 tri-, 2 tetra- and 11 hexamers SSRs) we selected randomly from 1222 pairs of primers were polymorphism. The number of alleles for these markers in 48 individuals varied from 3 to 21 with an average of 7.71, the number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 9.97 with an average of 3.54. Besides this, the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.18 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.65, And Shannon's Information index (I) ranged from 0.46 to 2.62 with an average of 1.44. The results suggest that the method for screening of SSR in the whole genome is feasible and efficient. SSR markers developed in this study can be used for population genetic studies of A. glabripennis. Moreover, they may also be helpful for the development of microsatellites for other Coleoptera.

Keywords: SSR markers, Anoplophora glabripennis, genetic diversity, whole genome

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598 Molecular Characterization of Polyploid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Rajendra K. Meena, Maneesh S. Bhandari, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal

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Microsatellite markers are the most valuable tools for the characterization of plant genetic resources or population genetic analysis. Since it is codominant and allelic markers, utilizing them in polyploid species remained doubtful. In such cases, the microsatellite marker is usually analyzed by treating them as a dominant marker. In the current study, it has been showed that despite losing the advantage of co-dominance, microsatellite markers are still a powerful tool for genotyping of polyploid species because of availability of large number of reproducible alleles per locus. It has been studied by genotyping of 19 subpopulations of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (hexaploid bamboo species) with 17 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Among these, ten primers gave typical banding pattern of microsatellite marker as expected in diploid species, but rest 7 gave an unusual pattern, i.e., more than two bands per locus per genotype. In such case, genotyping data are generally analyzed by considering as dominant markers. In the current study, data were analyzed in both ways as dominant and co-dominant. All the 17 primers were first scored as nonallelic data and analyzed; later, the ten primers giving standard banding patterns were analyzed as allelic data and the results were compared. The UPGMA clustering and genetic structure showed that results obtained with both the data sets are very similar with slight variation, and therefore the SSR marker could be utilized to characterize polyploid species by considering them as a dominant marker. The study is highly useful to widen the scope for SSR markers applications and beneficial to the researchers dealing with polyploid species.

Keywords: microsatellite markers, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, dominant and codominant, polyploids

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597 Genetic Variation of Autosomal STR Loci from Unrelated Individual in Iraq

Authors: H. Imad, Q. Cheah, J. Mohammad, O. Aamera

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The aim of this study is twofold. One is to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty STR loci and Amelogenin including D3S1358, D13S317, PentaE, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, THO1, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, TPOX, D8S1179, FGA, D2S1338, D5S818, D6S1043, D12S391, D19S433, and Amelogenin amplified by using power plex21® kit. PCR products detected by genetic analyzer 3730xL then data analyzed by PowerStatsV1.2. Based on the allelic frequencies, several statistical parameters of genetic and forensic efficiency have been estimated. This includes the homozygosity and heterozygosity, effective number of alleles (n), the polymorphism information content (PIC), the power of discrimination (DP), and the power of exclusion (PE). The power of discrimination values for all tested loci was from 75% to 96% therefore, those loci can be safely used to establish a DNA-based database for Iraq population.

Keywords: autosomal STR, genetic variation, Middle and South of Iraq, statistical parameters

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596 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

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Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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595 Implementation of Metabolomics in Conjunction with Chemometrics for the Dentification of the Differential Chemical Markers of Different Grades of Sri Lankan White, Green and Black Tea: Camellia Sinenesis L.

Authors: Dina A. Selim, Eman Shawky, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair

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In the current study, UPLC-MS/MS combined to chemometrics were applied on seven Sri Lankan tea grades; Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings, Broken Orange Pekoe black tea, green tea, silver tips and golden tips white tea grades for their comprehensive metabolic profiling. Certain metabolites, namely, Theasensinin C and E, theaflavin and theacitrin appeared to be the main chemical markers of black tea type, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, methyl epigallocatechin were the main discriminatory markers of green tea type, while theanine, oolongotheanine and quercetin glycosides were the main chemical markers of white tea type. Theogalloflavin, epigallocatechin and flavonoid glycosides were the main down-accumulated metabolites while theaflavin gallate, and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin were the chief up- accumulated metabolites between whole and broken black tea leave grades while puerin A and C and gallic acid was the main down- accumulated metabolites and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin gallate was the main up-accumulated one between broken and fanning black tea grades.

Keywords: tea grading, Sri Lankan tea, chemometrics, metabolomics, chemical markers

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594 Joubert Syndrome in Children as Multicentric Screening in Ten Different Places in World

Authors: Bajraktarevic Adnan, Djukic Branka, Sporisevic Lutvo, Krdzalic Zecevic Belma, Uzicanin Sajra, Hadzimuratovic Admir, Hadzimuratovic Hadzipasic Emina, Abduzaimovic Alisa, Kustric Amer, Suljevic Ismet, Serafi Ismail, Tahmiscija Indira, Khatib Hakam, Semic Jusufagic Aida, Haas Helmut, Vladicic Aleksandra, Aplenc Richard, Kadic Deovic Aida

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Introduction: Joubert syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. It is referred as the brain malfunctioning and caused due to the underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis. Associated conditions involving the eye, the kidney, and ocular disease are well described. Aims: Research helps us better understand this diseases, Joubert syndrome and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Different several conditions have been described in which the molar tooth sign and characteristics of Joubert syndrome in ten different places in the world. Carrier testing and diagnosis are available if one of these gene mutations has been identified in an affected family member. Results: Authors have described eleven cases during twenty years of Joubert syndrome. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis with the characteristic neuroradiologic molar tooth sign, and accompanying neurologic symptoms, including dysregulation of breathing pattern and developmental delay. We made confirmation of diagnosis in twin sisters with Joubert syndrome with renal anomalies. Ocular symptoms have existed in seven cases (63.64%) from total eleven. Eleven cases were different sex, five boys (45.45%) and six girls (54.44%). Conclusions: Joubert syndrome is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with several features of the disease.

Keywords: Joubert syndrome, cerebellooculorenal syndrome, autosomal recessive genetic disorder (ARGD), children

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593 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan

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The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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592 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana

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In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, microsatellite, polymorphism

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591 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

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The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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590 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar

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For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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589 A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA

Authors: Junghwa An, Sungkyoung Choi, Eun Ye, San Hoon Han, Young-Gun Choi, Chul Oun Jung

Abstract:

The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.

Keywords: copper-winged bat, microsatellite, population genetics, South Korea

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588 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath

Abstract:

Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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587 CMT4G: Rare Form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Slovak Roma Patient

Authors: Dana Gabriková, Martin Mistrík, Jarmila Bernasovská, Iveta Tóthová, Jana Kisková

Abstract:

The Roma (Gypsies) is a transnational minority with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. Similar to other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbor a number of unique or rare genetic disorders. This paper discusses about a rare form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease – type 4G (CMT4G), also called Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy type Russe, an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation private to Roma characterized by abnormally increased density of non-myelinated axons. CMT4G was originally found in Bulgarian Roma and in 2009 two putative causative mutations in the HK1 gene were identified. Since then, several cases were reported in Roma families mainly from Bulgaria and Spain. Here we present a Slovak Roma family in which CMT4G was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and genetic testing. This case is a further proof of the role of the HK1 gene in pathogenesis of the disease. It confirms that mutation in the HK1 gene is a common cause of autosomal recessive CMT disease in Roma and should be considered as a common part of a diagnostic procedure.

Keywords: gypsies, HK1, HSMN-Russe, rare disease

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586 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin

Abstract:

The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression, taxonomy

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585 The Efficiency of AFLP and ISSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Iranian Landrace Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Germplasm

Authors: Reza Talebi

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in Iran. Understanding genetic variability among the landrace wheat germplasm is important for breeding. Landraces endemic to Iran are a genetic resource that is distinct from other wheat germplasm. In this study, 60 Iranian landrace wheat accessions were characterized AFLP and ISSR markers. Twelve AFLP primer pairs detected 128 polymorphic bands among the sixty genotypes. The mean polymorphism rate based on AFLP data was 31%; however, a wide polymorphism range among primer pairs was observed (22–40%). Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.28 to 0.4, with a mean of 0.37. According to AFLP molecular data, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in five distinct clusters. .ISSR markers generated 68 bands (average of 6 bands per primer), which 31 were polymorphic (45%) across the 60 wheat genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for ISSR markers was calculated in the range of 0.14 to 0.48 with an average of 0.33. Based on data achieved by ISSR-PCR, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in three distinct clusters. Both AFLP and ISSR markers able to showed that high level of genetic diversity in Iranian landrace wheat accessions has maintained a relatively constant level of genetic diversity during last years.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, AFLP, ISSR

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