Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: endocarditis

12 COVID-19: The Cause or the Confounder

Authors: Praveenkumar Natarajan

Abstract:

A 59-year-old male with no known co-morbidities was admitted to a private hospital for complaints of fever and cough and was diagnosed to haveCOVID-19. CT of the thorax revealed the involvement of 50% of the lungs. Screening ECG and ECHO were normal. The patient was treated with oxygen therapy and drugs and was discharged after 12 days of admission. Post-discharge, the patient remained symptom-free and continued his work. After one month, the patient developed a fever for three days, for which he took antipyretics. Subsequently, the patient developed sudden onset breathlessness, which rapidly progressed to grade 4 NYHA, and developed a cough as well. Suspecting COVID-19 reinfection, the patient visited a nearby hospital, where COVID–19 rt-PCR swabs turned out to be positive, and was referred to our hospital. On receiving, the patient had diffuse lung crepitations and a diastolic murmur in the neo-aortic area. CT thorax revealed pulmonary edema with areas of consolidation. ECHO revealed vegetation on the aortic valve with severe aortic regurgitation. Blood cultures were taken, which revealed the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and the patient was started on appropriate treatment. COVID–19 has effects on various systems, including the cardiovascular system. Even though infective endocarditis is common in the elderly with valvular heart disease, this patient had developed infective endocarditis in an apparently normal aortic valve. Infective endocarditis and COVID–19 can have similar presentations leading to diagnostic difficulties. COVID–19, affecting the heart valves causing valvulitis and predisposing them to the development of infective endocarditis, is also an area to be explored.

Keywords: aortic regurgitation, COVID-19, infective endocarditis, valvulitis

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11 An Atlantic Canadian Case of Disseminated Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection

Authors: Albert Chang, Duncan Webster

Abstract:

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infections in humans can be contracted through contact with domestic animals or unpasteurized dairy products. Although infection in humans is rare, the course can be fulminant. We describe the case of a 75-year-old, immunocompetent male, who developed disseminated disease with bacteremia, native aortic valve endocarditis, suppurative pericarditis with cardiac tamponade, meningitis and bilateral endopthalmitis. Despite treatment with pericardial drain placement, intravenous ceftriaxone and rifampin the patient, unfortunately, did not survive. To date, reported cases of disseminated infection by S. zooepidemicus are few. Furthermore, with the review of the literature, this case demonstrates the broadest organ system involvement reported. Of interest, previous studies have suggested an affinity of this organism for certain organ systems and this case corroborates an emerging association of S. zooepidemicus with endopthalmitis. In addition, this is the second Canadian case of documented human infection with both cases being similar in clinical features, presentation, and geographical location. A discussion regarding previous S. zooepidemicus outbreaks and the potential for zoonotic outbreaks to occur is included. In short, this case report should serve to warn clinicians regarding complications and sites of haematogenous seeding in the setting of disseminated S. zooepidemicus infections.

Keywords: endopthalmitis, endocarditis, meningitis, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus

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10 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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9 Molecular Docking of Marrubiin in Candida Rugosa Lipase

Authors: Benarous Khedidja, Yousfi Mohamed

Abstract:

Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. These Candida species have been reported to have lipolytic activity by secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. These Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin, which bind to a major component of the fungal cell membrane (ergosterol). This binding forms pores in the membrane that lead to death of the fungus. Due to their secondary effects, scientists have thought of another treatment basing on lipase inhibition but we haven’t found any lipase inhibitors used as candidiasis treatment. In this work, we are interested to lipases inhibitors such as alkaloids as another candidiasis treatment. In the first part, we have proceeded to optimize the alkaloid structures and protein 3D structure using Hyperchem software. Secondly, we have docked inhibitors using Genetic algorithm with GOLD software. The results have shown ten possibilities of binding inhibitor to Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) but only one possibility has been accepted depending on the weakest binding energy.

Keywords: marrubiin, candida rugosa lipase, docking, gold

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8 Molecular Survey and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae Strains Infecting Stray Cats from Algeria

Authors: Naouelle Azzag, Nadia Haddad, Benoit Durand, Elisabeth Petit, Ali Ammouche, Bruno Chomel, Henri J. Boulouis

Abstract:

Bartonella henselae is a small, gram negative, arthropod-borne bacterium that has been shown to cause multiple clinical manifestations in humans including cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. In this research, we report the results of a cross sectional study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in stray cats from Algiers. Whole blood of 227 stray cats from Algiers was tested for the presence of Bartonella species by culture and for the evaluation of the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA). Bacteremia prevalence was 17% and only B. henselae was identified. Type I was the predominant type (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles. 51 of these profiles were specific to Algerian cats/identified for the first time. 20/30 cats (67%) harbored 2 to 7 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering showed that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

Keywords: Bartonella, cat, MLVA, genetic

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7 Epidemiological, Clinical and Bacteriological Profile of Human Brucellosis in the District of Tunis

Authors: Jihene Bettaieb, Ghassen kharroubi, Rym mallekh, Ines Cherif, Taoufik Atawa, Kaouther Harrabech

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a major worldwide zoonosis. It is a reportable condition in Tunisia where the disease remains endemic, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and bacteriological profile of human brucellosis cases notified in the district of Tunis. It was a retrospective descriptive study of cases reported in the district of Tunis through the national surveillance system between the 1st January and 31th December 2017. During the study period, 133 brucellosis confirmed cases were notified. The mean age was 37.5 ± 18.0 years, and 54.9% of cases were males. More than four-fifths (82.7%) of cases were reported in spring and summer with a peak in the month of May (36 cases). Fever and sweats were the most common symptoms; they occurred in 95% and 72% of cases, respectively. Osteoarticular complications occurred in 10 cases, meningitis in one case and endocarditis in one other case. Wright agglutination test and Rose Bengale test were positive in 100% and 91% of cases, respectively. While blood culture was positive in 9 cases and PCR in 2 cases. Brucella melitensis was the only identified specie (9 cases). Almost all cases (99.2%) reported the habit of consuming raw dairy products. Only 5 cases had a suspect contact with animals; among them, 3 persons were livestock breeders. The transmission was essentially due to raw dairy product consumption. It is important to enhance preventive measures to control animal Brucellosis and to educate the population regarding the risk factors of the disease.

Keywords: brucellosis, risk factors, surveillance system, Tunisia

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6 A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Routinely Performed Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Setting of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: John Rothrock

Abstract:

Background: The role of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute ischemic stroke remains controversial. While many stroke subspecialist reserve TTE for selected patients, others consider the procedure obligatory for most or all acute stroke patients. This study was undertaken to assess the cost vs. benefit of 'routine' TTE. Methods: We examined a consecutive series of patients who were admitted to a single institution in 2019 for acute ischemic stroke and underwent TTE. We sought to determine the frequency with which the results of TTE led to a new diagnosis of cardioembolism, redirected therapeutic cerebrovascular management, and at least potentially influenced the short or long-term clinical outcome. We recorded the direct cost associated with TTE. Results: There were 1076 patients in the study group, all of whom underwent TTE. TTE identified an unsuspected source of possible/probable cardioembolism in 62 patients (6%), confirmed an initially suspected source (primarily endocarditis) in an additional 13 (1%) and produced findings that stimulated subsequent testing diagnostic of possible/probable cardioembolism in 7 patients ( < 1%). TTE results potentially influenced the clinical outcome in a total of 48 patients (4%). With a total direct cost of $1.51 million, the mean cost per case wherein TTE results potentially influenced the clinical outcome in a positive manner was $31,375. Diagnostically and therapeutically, TTE was most beneficial in 67 patients under the age of 55 who presented with 'cryptogenic' stroke, identifying patent foramen ovale in 21 (31%); closure was performed in 19. Conclusions: The utility of TTE in the setting of acute ischemic stroke is modest, with its yield greatest in younger patients with cryptogenic stroke. Given the greater sensitivity of transesophageal echocardiography in detecting PFO and evaluating the aortic arch, TTE’s role in stroke diagnosis would appear to be limited.

Keywords: cardioembolic, cost-benefit, stroke, TTE

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5 Assessment of Cardioprotective Effect of Deferiprone on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in a Rat Model

Authors: Sadaf Kalhori

Abstract:

Introduction: Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity is widely known as the most severe complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer. It is unknown whether Deferiprone (DFP), could reduce the severity of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting free radical reactions. Thus, this study was performed to assess the protective effect of Deferiprone on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups. Group one was a control group. Group 2 was DOX (2 mg/kg/day, every other day for 12 days), and Group three to five which receiving DOX as in group 2 and DFP 75,100 and 150 mg/kg/day, for 19 days, respectively. DFP was starting 5 days prior to the first DOX injection and two days after the last DOX injection throughout the study. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic studies, along with histopathological examination, were conducted. In addition, serum sample was taken and total cholesterol, Malone dialdehyde, triglyceride, albumin, AST, ALT, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, total anti-oxidant and creatine kinase were assessed. Result: Our results showed the normal structure of endocardial, myocardial and pericardial in the control group. Pathologic data such as edema, hyperemia, bleeding, endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis, hyaline degeneration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, myofilament degeneration and nuclear chromatin changes were assessed in all groups. In the DOX group, all pathologic data was seen with mean grade of 2±1.25. In the DFP group with a dose of 75 and 100 mg, the mean grade was 1.41± 0.31 and 1±.23, respectively. In DFP group with a dose of 150, the pathologic data showed a milder change in comparison with other groups with e mean grade of 0.45 ±0.19. Most pathologic data in DFP groups showed significant changes in comparison with the DOX group (p < 0.001). Discussion: The results also showed that DFP treatment significantly improved DOX-induced heart damage, structural changes in the myocardium, and ventricular function. Our data confirm that DFP is protective against cardiovascular-related disorders induced by DOX. Clinical studies are needed to be involved to examine these findings in humans.

Keywords: cardiomyopathy, deferiprone, doxorubicin, rat

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4 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc

Abstract:

Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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3 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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2 A Retrospective Study: Correlation between Enterococcus Infections and Bone Carcinoma Incidence

Authors: Sonia A. Stoica, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Selena Rashid, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction Enterococcus is a vast genus of lactic acid bacteria, gram-positivecocci species. They are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90–95%) and E. faecium (5–10%). Rare groups of infections can occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus. The most common infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections, biliary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, septicemia, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The treatment for sensitive strains of these bacteria includes ampicillin, penicillin, cephalosporins, or vancomycin, while the treatment for resistant strains includes daptomycin, linezolid, tygecycline, or streptogramine. Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 is an encouraging nominee for being considered as a probiotic strain. E. faecalis CECT7121 enhances and skews the profile of cytokines to the Th1 phenotype in situations such as vaccination, anti-tumoral immunity, and allergic reactions. It also enhances the secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNF alpha, and IL-10. Cytokines have been previously associated with the development of cancer. The intention of this study was to therefore evaluate the correlation between Enterococcus infections and incidence of bone carcinoma. Methods A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes for bone carcinoma diagnosis in a previously Enterococcus infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Access to the database was granted by Holy Cross Health for academic research. Chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results A total number of 17,056 patients was obtained in Enterococcus infected group as well as in the control population (matched by Age range and CCI score). Subsequent bone carcinoma development was seen at a rate of 1.07% (184) in the Enterococcal infectious group and 3.42% (584) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-¹⁶, Odds Ratio = 0.355 (95% CI 0.311 - 0.404) Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 78 out of 6,624 (1.17%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 202 out of 6,624 (3.04%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed bone carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-), Odds Ratio=0.456 (95% CI 0.396-0.525). Conclusion This study shows a statistically significant correlation between Enterococcus infection and a decreased incidence of bone carcinoma. The immunologic response of the organism to Enterococcus infection may exert a protecting mechanism from developing bone carcinoma. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential mechanism of Enterococcus in reducing bone carcinoma incidence.

Keywords: anti-tumoral immunity, bone carcinoma, enterococcus, immunologic response

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1 Settings of Conditions Leading to Reproducible and Robust Biofilm Formation in vitro in Evaluation of Drug Activity against Staphylococcal Biofilms

Authors: Adela Diepoltova, Klara Konecna, Ondrej Jandourek, Petr Nachtigal

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A loss of control over antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a global issue due to severe and often untreatable infections. This state is reflected in complicated treatment, health costs, and higher mortality. All these factors emphasize the urgent need for the discovery and development of new anti-infectives. One of the most common pathogens mentioned in the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacterial agents have developed several mechanisms against the effect of antibiotics. One of them is biofilm formation. In staphylococci, biofilms are associated with infections such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, etc. To author's best knowledge, no validated and standardized methodology evaluating candidate compound activity against staphylococcal biofilms exists. However, a variety of protocols for in vitro drug activity testing has been suggested, yet there are often fundamental differences. Based on our experience, a key methodological step that leads to credible results is to form a robust biofilm with appropriate attributes such as firm adherence to the substrate, a complex arrangement in layers, and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. At first, for the purpose of drug antibiofilm activity evaluation, the focus was put on various conditions (supplementation of cultivation media by human plasma/fetal bovine serum, shaking mode, the density of initial inoculum) that should lead to reproducible and robust in vitro staphylococcal biofilm formation in microtiter plate model. Three model staphylococcal reference strains were included in the study: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35983). The total biofilm biomass was quantified using the Christensen method with crystal violet, and results obtained from at least three independent experiments were statistically processed. Attention was also paid to the viability of the biofilm-forming staphylococcal cells and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The conditions that led to robust biofilm biomass formation with attributes for biofilms mentioned above were then applied by introducing an alternative method analogous to the commercially available test system, the Calgary Biofilm Device. In this test system, biofilms are formed on pegs that are incorporated into the lid of the microtiter plate. This system provides several advantages (in situ detection and quantification of biofilm microbial cells that have retained their viability after drug exposure). Based on our preliminary studies, it was found that the attention to the peg surface and substrate on which the bacterial biofilms are formed should also be paid to. Therefore, further steps leading to the optimization were introduced. The surface of pegs was coated by human plasma, fetal bovine serum, and L-polylysine. Subsequently, the willingness of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm was monitored. In conclusion, suitable conditions were revealed, leading to the formation of reproducible, robust staphylococcal biofilms in vitro for the microtiter model and the system analogous to the Calgary biofilm device, as well. The robustness and typical slime texture could be detected visually. Likewise, an analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a complex three-dimensional arrangement of biofilm forming organisms surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix.

Keywords: anti-biofilm drug activity screening, in vitro biofilm formation, microtiter plate model, the Calgary biofilm device, staphylococcal infections, substrate modification, surface coating

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