Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: salvia officinalis

59 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Salvia officinals Extracts on Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammed A. Alshehri

Abstract:

Salvia officinalis is an aromatic plant member of the mint (Labiatae) family. It is popular kitchen herb. Not surprise to find that the name of this herb related to cure, in Latin language Salvia means to cure where officinalis means medicinal which answer why the sage has a top place in the list of medicinal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattusrattus) to Salvia officinals. For this purpose, adult female rats, weighing 200–250 g, were used as donors. A total of 36 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the experimental groups (rats were intraperitonealy injected with Salvia officinalis pure extract at (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.1mg/kg body weight, the same dose was administered once a day. Control group (rats were injected intraperitonealy physiological saline. And positive control were injected with Cyclophosphamide. On the 21st days following Salvia officinalis pure extract exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of bone marrow were collected. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micro-nucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index), and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic, and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a no significant increase in the frequency of micro-nucleatedas well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells. In light of these results, if Salvia officinalis pure extract may considered to be safe from the stand point of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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58 The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Salvia officinalis Harvested in Boumerdes

Authors: N. Mezıou-Cheboutı, A. Merabet, N. Behidj, F. Z. Bissaad

Abstract:

The Algeria by its location, offers a rich and diverse vegetation. A large number of aromatic and medicinal plants grow spontaneously. The interest in these plants has continued to grow in recent years. Their particular properties due to the essential oil fraction can be utilized to treat microbial infections. To this end, and in the context of the valuation of the Algerian flora, we became interested in the species of the family Lamiaceae which is one of the most used as a global source of spices and extracts strong families antimicrobial potency. The plant on which we have based our choice is a species of sage "Salvia officinalis" from the Isser localized region within the province of Boumerdes. This work focuses on the study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of salvia officinalis. The extraction is carried out by HE hydrodistillation and reveals a yield of 1.06℅. The study of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil by the method of at aromatogramme shown that Gram positive bacteria are most susceptible (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) with a strong inhibition of growth. The yeast Candida albicans fungus Aspergillus niger and have shown moderately sensitive.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis, steam distillation, essential oil, aromatogram, anti-microbial activity

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57 In vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Boris Botman, Marek Halenár, Tomáš Slanina, Norbert Lukáč

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In vitro storage and processing of animal semen represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P<0.05; Time 24 h). At the same time, a long-term exposure of spermatozoa to concentrations ranging between 0.05 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL had a negative impact on the mitochondrial metabolism (P<0.05; Time 24 h). The viability staining revealed that 0.001-1 µg/mL Salvia extract had no effects on bovine male gametes, however 2 µg/mL Salvia had a persisting negative effect on spermatozoa (P<0.05). Furthermore 0.05-2 µg/mL Salvia exhibited an immediate ROS-promoting effect on the sperm culture (P>0.05; Time 0 h and 2 h), which remained significant throughout the entire in vitro culture (P<0.05; Time 24 h). Our results point out to the necessity to examine specific effects the biomolecules present in Salvia officinalis may have individually or collectively on the in vitro sperm vitality and oxidative profile.

Keywords: bulls, CASA, MTT test, reactive oxygen species, sage, Salvia officinalis, spermatozoa

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56 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouzned Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim

Abstract:

This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenols in the methanolic extract of the leaves from Salvia officinalis extract was determined by spectrophoto- metrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oil showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50= 37.29µg/ml) test. Appreciable total phenolic content (31.25mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant has rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, flavonoid, polyphenol, salvia officinalis

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55 Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia Officinalis and, Mentha Pulegium on Three Strains of Streptococcus Mutants, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and, Actinomyces Viscosus Dental Caries in-vitro

Authors: H. Nabahat, E. Amiri, F. AzaditalabDavoudabadi, N. Zaeri

Abstract:

Tooth decay is one of the most common forms of oral and dental illness in the world, which causes huge costs of treatment, especially in high-risk groups such as people with oral dry mouth, prevention and control of it are very important. The use of traditional treatments such as extraction of drugs from medicinal plants is of paramount importance to Iran and the international community as well. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the antibacterial effect of the extract of Salvia officinalis and Mentha pulegium, which are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of oral and teeth bacterial (Streptococcus mutant, Lactobacillus rhamnosis, and Actinomyces viscosis) in vitro method. In this experimental study, two herbs of Salvia and Mentha were prepared by maceration of hydroalcoholic extract, and the antibacterial effect was evaluated by broth macro dilution on streptococcal mutagen bacteria, lactobacillus rhamnosis, and viscose actinomycosis. The results were analyzed by the Whitney Mann test (P > 0.05). The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the salmonella extract for Streptococcus mutan were 6.25 and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for lactobacillus of 1.56 and 3.12 μg/ml, respectively, and for actinomycosis viscose, The order of 12.5 and 100 μg/ml was obtained. As a result, broth macro dilution showed that both extracts of Salvia and Mentha had an inhibitory effect on all three species of bacteria. This effect for Salvia was significantly (P < 0.05) more than Mentha and was within the concentration range of both the extracts and had a bactericidal effect on all three bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, dental bacteria, herbal extracts , salvia officinalis, mentha pulegium

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54 Impact of a Biopesticide Formulated an Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae et Abstracts of Two Different Plants Sage (Salvia officinalis) and American Paper (Schinus molle) on Aphis Fabae (Homoptera - Aphididae)

Authors: Hicham Abidallah

Abstract:

In this work we realized a formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with a dose of 1,7 x 105 spores/ml, and aqueous abstracts of two different plants sage (Salvia officinalis) and American paper (Schinus molle) with they’re full dose and half dose, on a black bean aphid populations (Aphis fabae) on a bean crop planted in pots at semi-controlled conditions. Five formulations were achieved (Met, Fd, F1/2d, Sd et S1/2d) and tested on six blocks each one contained six pots. This study revealed that four (04) formulations exercised an influence over black bean aphid (Met, Fd, F1/2d, Sd), of which Metarhizium marked the most elevated and aggressive toxicity with an efficiency of 99,24%, however, sage formulation with the half dose (S1/2d ) marked a weak toxicity with an efficiency of 18%. Test of Metarhizium anisopliae on bees didn’t show toxicity, and no mortality has been marked, and no trace of green Muscardine observed.

Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, salvia officinalis, Schinus molle, Aphis fabae, efficiency degree

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53 Potential of Salvia sclarea L. for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko M. Todorov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Salvia sclarea L. for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The content of heavy metals in different parts of Salvia sclarea L. (roots, stems, leaves and inflorescences) was determined by ICP. The essential oil of the Salvia sclarea L. was obtained by steam distillation in laboratory conditions and was analyzed for heavy metals and its chemical composition was determined. Salvia sclarea L. is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Salvia sclarea L. can be classified as Pb hyperaccumulator and Cd and Zn accumulators, therefore, this plant has suitable potential for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Favorable is also the fact that heavy metals do not influence the development of the Salvia sclarea L., as well as on the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For clary sage oil obtained from the processing of clary sage grown on highly contaminated soils, its key odour-determining ingredients meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and BS ISO 7609 regarding Bulgarian clary sage oil and/or have values that are close to the limits of these standards. The possibility of further industrial processing will make Salvia sclarea L. an economically interesting crop for farmers of phytoextraction technology.

Keywords: clary sage, heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils

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52 Comparation of Essential Oils Composition from the Leaves and Flowers of Salvia pratensis L.

Authors: Valerija Dunkić, Nada Bezić

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Salvia is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Lamiaceae family and growing wild throughout the world. This abstract reports the comparation of the essential oils from leaves and flowers composition of Salvia pratensis L. from mountain Velebit, Croatia. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. Fifty-three constituents, representing 99.4% of the leaf oil composition; 51 constituents, representing 86.8% of the flower oil composition. Essential oil yield varied from 0.9% to 1.3% in the leaf and flower parts of the plant. The flower essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of E-caryophyllene (21.9%) and germacrene D (10.2%). Major constituents of the leaf oil were linalool (17.7%), linalool acetate (15.3%) and limonene (9.8%). The comparative results clearly indicated that the leaf and flower oil compositions of S. pratensis were quite different in terms of major components content. The present study gives additional knowledge about secondary metabolites contents on the genus Salvia.

Keywords: essential oil, leaf, flower, Salvia pratensis L.

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51 Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and Essential Oil Composition Salvia verticillata L. Subsp. amasiaca

Authors: Tanju Teker, Yener Tekeli̇, Esra Karpuz

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Salvia species are known as medicinal plant and often used in public. The antimicrobial effects and essential oil composition of Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca were determined. The antimicrobial activity is determined by using disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one kind of yeast and essential oil composition was determined by GC - MS. As a result of antimicrobial analysis while sample has shown very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and low effective against Enterococcus faecalis, it has not shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and C. albicans. Trans-caryophyllene (% 35.07), germacrene-d (% 10.98) and caryopyllene oxide (% 5.81) are the main components of essential oil composition.

Keywords: salvia, medicinal plant, antimicrobial activity, essential oil

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50 Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity of Rosemary´s (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Different Extracts on Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa Armigera Hubner

Authors: Monireh Movahedi

Abstract:

Considering undesirable effects of chemical insecticides on environment and human health, most studies focused on insecticidal effects of plant materials. Here, the insecticidal effects of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on larval stage of the cotton bollworm were studied. From each extract, six concentrations, including 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/ml were prepared and added on larval artificial diet. Moreover, solution of distilled water and tween 2% considered as check treatment. All experiments were done in laboratory temperature of 25±3 ºC, RH =50±10% and natural photoperiod during growing season. Each treatment had four replications and each replication carried out on 10 first instar larva with <24h age. Larval mortality was recorded 3 and 7 days after treat. Based on results, LC50 of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of R. officinalis were 2.78, 15.87 and 15.70 ml/mg, respectively. On the other hand, antifeedant effect of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan for R. officinalis estimated as 43.13%, 55.11% and 9.19%, respectively. All the obtained results revealed that methanol and ethylacetat extracts of R. officinalis are effective extracts for controlling the cotton bollworm population.

Keywords: Helocoverpa armigera, Rosemarinus officinalis, extract, methanol, ethylacetat, n-Hexan

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49 Characteristic Components in Cornusofficinalis to AGEs Injury Protective Effect and Mechanism of HUVEC

Authors: Yu-Han Tao, Hui-Qin Xu

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The present study aimed to explain the protective effect of Cornus officinalis characteristic components, under AGEs damage to HUVEC. After cultured HUVEC adhered, Cornus officinalis characteristic components such as loganin, morroniside, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and aminoguanidine (positive control dug) hatched, after 1h the AGEs (200 mg/L) were added. After 24h, LDH, SOD, MDA, NO, ET, and AngⅡ, TGF-β, IL-1β, ROS in the supernatant were determined. The results showed the Cornus officinalis characteristic compounds could improve vitality of SOD, NO, reduce the MDA, ET, AngⅡ, TGF-β, IL-1β, ROS significantly when compared with the model groug. Loganin, oleanic acid, ursolic acid, had significant protective effect on AGEs injured HUVEC. As a conclusion, characteristic components in Cornus officinalis had a positive effect after HUVEC injured by AGEs.

Keywords: Cornus officinalis, morroniside, oganin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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48 Egg Hatching Inhibition Activity of Volatile Oils Extracted from Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla

Authors: Anil F. Felek, Mehmet M. Ozcan, Faruk Akyazi

Abstract:

Volatile oils of medicinal and aromatic plants are important for managing nematological problems in agriculture. In present study, volatile oils extracted from five medicinal and aromatic plants including Origanum onites (flower+steam+leaf), Salvia officinalis (leaf), Lippia citriodora (leaf+seed), Mentha spicata (leaf) and Mentha longifolia (leaf) were tested for egg hatching inhibition activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under laboratory conditions. The essential oils were extracted using water distillation method with a Clevenger system. For the homogenisation process of the oils, 2% gum arabic solution was used and 4 µl oils was added into 1ml filtered gum arabic solution to prepare the last stock solution. 5 ml of stock solution and 1 ml of M. hapla egg suspension (about 100 eggs) were added into petri dishes. Gum arabic solution was used as control. Seven days after exposure to oils at room temperature (26±2 °C), the cumulative hatched and unhatched eggs were counted under 40X inverted light microscope and Abbott’s formula was used to calculate egg hatching inhibition rates. As a result, the highest inhibition rate was found as 54% for O. onites. In addition, the other inhibition rates varied as 31.4%, 21.6%, 23.8%, 25.67% for the other plants, S. officinalis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and L. citriodora, respectively. Carvacrol was found as the main component (68.8%) of O. onites followed by Thujone 27.77% for S. officinalis, I-Menthone 76.92% for M. longifolia, Carvone 27.05% for M. spicata and Citral 19.32% for L. citriodora.

Keywords: egg hatching, Meloidogyne hapla, medicinal and aromatic plants, root-knot nematodes, volatile oils

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47 Effect of Dietary Melissa officinalis Leaves Supplementation on Lipid Oxidation of Broiler Breast Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Khosro Ghazvinian, Touba Khodaeian

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To improve the oxidative stability of meat products, the use of dietary form of antioxidants can extend the shelf life and acceptability of muscle food during exposition or storage condition. As shown, this method is more effective than adding direct preservatives due to uniform incorporation of dietary additives into sub cellular membrane and therefore, they can properly inhibit the oxidative reaction at their localized sites. Furthermore, postmortem addition of antioxidants to meat cannot directly inhibit the oxidation in membrane phospholipids. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of feed supplementation with Melissa officinalis leaves on lipid peroxidation of chicken breast fillets during refrigerated storage. In this study, 72 one-day old Ross 308 broilers distributed in four groups with six replicates (3 chickens each) were fed a basal diet (CONT) or basal diet supplemented with 5, 10, and 15 gr/Kg M.officinalis, for 6 weeks. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4 °C in the dark for 12 days, and lipid oxidation was assessed on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. Results showed that incorporation of M.officinalis in broiler diets delayed lipid oxidation in raw breast meat during refrigerated storage comparative with CONT(p<0.05). In this regard, TBARS levels of breast samples containing higher concentrations (10 and 15 gr/Kg) of M. officinalis (625.43 and 504.32 µg/kg MDA equivalents, respectively )were significantly lower than those of control and 5g/kg samples (872.75 and 841.32 µg/kg MDA equivalents, respectively) (p<0.05). Therefore, M. officinalis might be utilized in novel applications as a nutritional supplement or a functional food component.

Keywords: breast fillet, lipid oxidation, Melissa officinalis, TBARS assay

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46 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Tzu Yu Huang, Ya Ping Chen, Chun Mel Lu

Abstract:

This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Salvia officinalis, aromatherapy, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, heart rate variability, parasympathetic nerves

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45 Synergistic Interactions between Secondary Metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Authors: Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Ona Ragazinskiene

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This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from species Rosmarinus officinalis L. This is a study of synergistic effects between phenolic fraction and essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L. originated from the sector of medicinal plants, Kaunas botanical garden of Vytautas Magnus University Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species. Investigated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were described by determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Preliminary results show that the MIC range between 9.0 % and 12.0 % for the different Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts and bacterial species. The total amounts of phenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. The chemical composition for essential oils analysed by GC/MS. Predominant components were alpha pinene (20%), camphor (10%), 1.8‐cineole (5%), phellandrene (6%), camphene (5%), beta pinene (4%), bornylacetate (4%), limonene (2%), borneol (3%), alpha terpineol (3%), cymene (2%), caryophyllene (15%), verbenone (7%), alpha terpinene (3%), eucalyptol (11%).

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Rosmarinus officinalis L., escherichia coli

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44 Evaluation of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Five Essential Oils

Authors: G. Ozturk, B. Demirci

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It is well known that essential oils used for therapeutic purposes for many years. In this study, five different Pharmacopoeia grade essential oils (Achillea millefolium L., Pimpinella anisum L., Matricaria recutita L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Salvia officinalis L.) which obtained from commercial sources were evaluated for chemical compositions, synergistic antimicrobial activities, and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitions. Volatile components were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer, simultaneously. The potential antimicrobial activity of essential oils was tested against oral pathogenic standard strains such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium striatum, Candida albicans and Candida krusei by broth microdilution methods. Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole were used positive controls. It has been observed that the essential oils tested have average inhibitory antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of 20-0.625 mg/mL. The active essential oils have been combined with antibiotics and synergistic effects have been evaluated by Checkerboard method. ƩFIC values were determined. In combination with antibiotics M. recutita essential oil has been shown to have a synergistic effect against S. aureus in combination with tetracycline (ƩFIC 0.46). In addition, 5-LOX inhibitory activity was measured by modifying the spectrophotometric method developed by Baylac and Racine. As a result, 5-LOX % inhibition of S. officinalis, E. globulus and M. recutita were calculated as 34.0 ± 6.66, 72.7 ± 2.78 and 27.7 ± 0.60, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oils, synergistic activity, 5-lipoxygenase inhibition

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43 Extracting Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils from the Lamiaceae Plant Family in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Highlights on Great Possibilities and Sever Difficulties

Authors: Suzan M. Shahin, Mohammed A. Salem

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Essential oils are expensive phytochemicals produced and extracted from specific species belonging to particular families in the plant kingdom. In the United Arab Emirates country (UAE), which is located in the arid region of the world, nine species, from the Lamiaceae family, having the capability to produce therapeutic grade essential oils. These species include; Mentha spicata, Ocimum forskolei, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia aegyptiaca, Salvia macilenta, Salvia spinosa, Teucrium polium, Teucrium stocksianum, and Zataria multiflora. Although, such potential species are indigenous to the UAE, however, there are almost no studies available to investigate the chemical composition and the quality of the extracted essential oils under the UAE climatological conditions. Therefore, great attention has to be given to such valuable natural resources, through conducting highly supported research projects, tailored to the UAE conditions, and investigating different extraction techniques, including the application of the latest available technologies, such as superficial fluid CO2. This is crucially needed; in order to accomplish the greatest possibilities in the medicinal field, specifically in the discovery of new therapeutic chemotypes, as well as, to achieve the sustainability of this natural resource in the country.

Keywords: essential oils, extraction techniques, Lamiaceae, traditional medicine, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

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42 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi

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Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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41 Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats

Authors: Prerna Kalra, Surender Singh

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Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent used in different solid tumors, but its main limiting factor is dose-dependent nephrotoxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Additional adjuvant therapies to decrease the toxicity of this chemotherapeutic drug are essential. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of Emblica officinalis Geartn (Indian gooseberry) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Emblica officinalis was orally administered to Wistar rats (n=6) for 10 days in 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight. On day 7, 8mg/kg of cisplatin was administered intra-peritoneally to rats in all groups. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and antioxidant levels were measured on day10. The renal damage was evaluated by histopathological and transmission electron microscopy. We found that 200mg/kg dose of Emblica officinalis significantly inhibited the elevation of biochemical parameters i.e. serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, oxidant stress marker (malondialdehyde) and increased the reduced levels of antioxidant marker (endogenous glutathione and superoxide dismutase). Cisplatin treated rats have shown acute tubular necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rat kidney which was reversed after treating the animals with Emblica officinalis in the treatment group. In ultrastructural changes cisplatin treated group showed the damaged mitochondria (M) with dissolved cristae and large number of lysosomes (L) and vacuole (V) formation in tubular epithelial cells. EOE administered group showed visible cristae formation and sign of autophagy vacuoles at a dose of 200mg/kg. Further in-silico studies revealed that ellagic acid is responsible for its nephroprotective effect. The above findings conclude that the Emblica officinalis may be used as an adjuvant therapy in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cisplatin, Emblica officinalis, in silico, nephrotoxicity

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40 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

Abstract:

Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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39 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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38 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Abstract:

Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: bacteria, eco-friendly management, organic, pear, plant extract

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37 Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria (Djelfa)

Authors: Samah Lakehal, A. Meliani, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

In the last few years, due to the misuse of antibiotics and an increasing incidence of immunodeficiency-related diseases, the development of microbial drug resistance has become more and more of a pressing problem. Recently, natural products from medicinal plants represent a fertile ground for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. The present study describes antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil known medicinally for its powerful antibacterial properties. The essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (Djelfa city of south Algeria) was investigated by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 1.4 %. The major components were found to be camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole. The essential oil has been tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive), and three fungi including Candida albicans. Inhibition of growth was tested by the agar diffusion method based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity and therefore can be used as a natural antimicrobial agent for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by those germs, which have developed resistance to antibiotics.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oils, GC/MS, camphor

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36 Mesoporous Nanocomposites for Sustained Release Applications

Authors: Daniela Istrati, Alina Morosan, Maria Stanca, Bogdan Purcareanu, Adrian Fudulu, Laura Olariu, Alice Buteica, Ion Mindrila, Rodica Cristescu, Dan Eduard Mihaiescu

Abstract:

Our present work is related to the synthesis, characterization and applications of new nanocomposite materials based on silica mesoporous nanocompozites systems. The nanocomposite support was obtained by using a specific step–by–step multilayer structure buildup synthetic route, characterized by XRD (X-Ray Difraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectrometry), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method) and loaded with Salvia officinalis plant extract obtained by a hydro-alcoholic extraction route. The sustained release of the target compounds was studied by a modified LC method, proving low release profiles, as expected for the high specific surface area support. The obtained results were further correlated with the in vitro / in vivo behavior of the nanocomposite material and recommending the silica mesoporous nanocomposites as good candidates for biomedical applications. Acknowledgements: This study has been funded by the Research Project PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0160, 49-PTE / 2016 (PROZECHIMED) and Project Number PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0884 / 2017.

Keywords: biomedical, mesoporous, nanocomposites, natural products, sustained release

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35 Evidence of Microplastics Ingestion in Two Commercial Cephalopod Species: Octopus Vulgaris and Sepia Officinalis

Authors: Federica Laface, Cristina Pedà, Francesco Longo, Francesca de Domenico, Riccardo Minichino, Pierpaolo Consoli, Pietro Battaglia, Silvestro Greco, Teresa Romeo

Abstract:

Plastics pollution represents one of the most important threats to marine biodiversity. In the last decades, different species are investigated to evaluate the extent of the plastic ingestion phenomenon. Even if the cephalopods play an important role in the food chain, they are still poorly studied. The aim of this research was to investigate the plastic ingestion in two commercial cephalopod species from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea: the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris (n=6; mean mantle length ML 10.7 ± 1.8) and the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (n=13; mean ML 13.2 ± 1.7). Plastics were extracted from the filters obtained by the chemical digestion of cephalopods gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in a 1:5 (w/v) ratio. Once isolated, particles were photographed, measured, and their size class, shape and color were recorded. A total of 81 items was isolated from 16 of the 19 examined GITs, representing a total occurrence (%O) of 84.2% with a mean value of 4.3 ± 8.6 particles per individual. In particular, 62 plastics were found in 6 specimens of O. vulgaris (%O=100) and 19 particles in 10 S. officinalis (%O=94.7). In both species, the microplastics size class was the most abundant (93.8%). Plastic items found in O. vulgaris were mainly fibers (61%) while fragments were the most frequent in S. officinalis (53%). Transparent was the most common color in both species. The analysis will be completed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy technique in order to identify polymers nature. This study reports preliminary data on plastic ingestion events in two cephalopods species and represents the first record of plastic ingestion by the common octopus. Microplastic items detected in both common octopus and common cuttlefish could derive from secondary and/or accidental ingestion events, probably due to their behavior, feeding habits and anatomical features. Further studies will be required to assess the effect of marine litter pollution in these ecologically and commercially important species.

Keywords: cephalopods, GIT analysis, marine pollution, Mediterranean sea, microplastics

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34 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Flavobacterium columnare, Clarias gariepinus, fish

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33 Antioxidant Activity of the Methanolic Extract and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria

Authors: Nassim Belkacem, Amina Azzam, Dalila Haouchine, Kahina Bennacer, Samira Soufit

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract along with the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in the region of Bejaia (northern center of Algeria). Materials and methods: The polyphenols and flavonoids contents of the methanolic extract were measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using two methods: the ABTS method and DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method against five bacterial strains (Three Gram positive strains and two Gram negative strains) and one fungus. Results: The total polyphenol and flavonoid content was about 43.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GA Eq/g) and 7.04 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (Q Eq/g), respectively. In the ABTS assay, the rosemary extract has shown an inhibition of 98.02% at the concentration of 500ug/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 194.92ug/ml. The results of DPPH assay have shown that the rosemary extract has an inhibition of 94.67 % with an IC50 value of 17.87ug/ml, which is lower than that of Butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) about 6.03ug/ml and ascorbic acid about 1.24μg/ml. The yield in essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation was 1.42%. Based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition, different antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was revealed against the six tested microbes. Escherichia coli from the University Hospital (UH), Streptococcus aureus (UH) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC have a minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) of 62.5µl/ml. However, Bacillus sp (UH) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC have an MIC value of 125μl/ml. The inhibition zone against Candida sp was about 24 mm. The aromatograms showed that the essential oil of rosemary exercises an antifungal activity more important than the antibacterial one.

Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L., maceration, essential oil, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity

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32 Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants from Cypriot Salvia fruticosa Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Vegetable oils, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidative deterioration. The lipid oxidation of oils results in the production of rancid odors and unpleasant flavors as well as the reduction of their nutritional quality and safety. Traditionally, synthetic antioxidants are employed for their retardation or prevention of oxidative deterioration of oils. However, these compounds are suspected to pose health hazards. Consequently, recently there has been a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin for improving the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. The genus Salvia (sage) is well known for its antioxidant activity. In the Cypriot flora Salvia fruticosa is the most distributed indigenous Salvia species. In the present study, extracts were prepared from S. fruticosa aerial parts using various solvents and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Moreover, the antioxidant efficacy of all extracts was assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate, which was subjected to accelerated aging (60 °C, 30 days). The progress of lipid oxidation was monitored by the determination of the peroxide, p-aniside, conjugated dienes and trienes value according to the official AOCS methods. Synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene-BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole-BHA) were employed at their legal limit (200 ppm) as reference. Finally, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the prepared extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that although all sage extracts prepared from S. fruticosa exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the methanolic extract, followed by the non-toxic, food grade ethanol. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the antioxidant potency and the TPC of extracts was observed in all cases. Interestingly, sage extracts prevented lipid oxidation in corn oil at all concentrations tested, however, the magnitude of stabilization was dose dependent. More specifically, results from the different oxidation parameters were in agreement with each other and indicated that the protection offered by the various extracts depended on their TPC. Among the extracts, the methanolic extract was more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Finally, both methanolic and ethanolic sage extracts at a concentration of 1000 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of the reference synthetic antioxidants. Based on the results of the present study, sage extracts could be used for minimizing or preventing lipid oxidation in oils and, thus, prolonging their shelf-life. In particular, given that the use of dietary alcohol, such as ethanol, is preferable than methanol in food applications, the ethanolic extract prepared from S. fruticosa could be used as an alternative natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, sage

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31 Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Dry Weight, Flower Diameter, and Number of Flower in Plant Variabilities under Effect of Compost and Nitrogen Different Levels in Four Harvest

Authors: Amin Rezazadeh, Parisa Farahpour, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Morteza Sam Deliri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and compost different levels on qualitative and quantitative performance of Calendula officinalis L. herb, an experiment was carried out in the research field of Chalous Azad University in 2011-2012. The experiment was done in factorial form as a randomized complete block design, in three replicates. Treatments consisted of nitrogen and compost. Considered nitrogen levels consisted of N0=0, N1=50, N2=100 kg/ha and compost levels were including C0=0, C1=6, C2=12 ton/ha. Investigated characteristics consisted of flower dry weight, number of flowers in plant, flower diameter. The results showed, nitrogen and compost treatments had statistically significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on studied characteristics. Flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant characteristics has been studied in four harvest; as, the performance of these characteristics had increasing procedure from the first harvest up to the forth harvest; and, in the fourth harvest, it has reached to its` maximum level. As, up to the forth harvest, the maximum flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant obtained by C1× N2 (C1=6 ton/ha compost and N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen) treatment.

Keywords: calendula, compost, nitrogen, flavonoid

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30 Health Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Authors: Jeremy J. Johnson

Abstract:

Mediterranean herbs including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain a variety of phytochemicals including diterpenes that possess extensive biological activity. Applications of diterpenes, including the more abundant forms carnosol and carnosic acid, have been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferation properties. To confirm these properties, we have evaluated rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for biological activity in cancer and inflammatory models. Our preliminary data have revealed that select diterpenes can disrupt androgen receptor functionality in prostate and breast cancer cells. This property is unique among natural products for hormone-responsive cancers. The second area of interest has been evaluating rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for activation of sestrin-2, an antioxidant protein, in colon cancer cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches have been utilized to characterize the activity of rosemary diterpenes in rosemary. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemicals found in rosemary have distinct pharmacological actions for disrupting cell-signaling pathways in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: rosemary, diterpene, cancer, inflammation

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