Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Sihem Oujdi

21 Spatial Data Mining by Decision Trees

Authors: Sihem Oujdi, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Existing methods of data mining cannot be applied on spatial data because they require spatial specificity consideration, as spatial relationships. This paper focuses on the classification with decision trees, which are one of the data mining techniques. We propose an extension of the C4.5 algorithm for spatial data, based on two different approaches Join materialization and Querying on the fly the different tables. Similar works have been done on these two main approaches, the first - Join materialization - favors the processing time in spite of memory space, whereas the second - Querying on the fly different tables- promotes memory space despite of the processing time. The modified C4.5 algorithm requires three entries tables: a target table, a neighbor table, and a spatial index join that contains the possible spatial relationship among the objects in the target table and those in the neighbor table. Thus, the proposed algorithms are applied to a spatial data pattern in the accidentology domain. A comparative study of our approach with other works of classification by spatial decision trees will be detailed.

Keywords: C4.5 algorithm, decision trees, S-CART, spatial data mining

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20 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba

Abstract:

In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols

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19 Effect of Manual Compacting and Semi-Automatic Compacting on Behavior of Stabilized Earth Concrete

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fattoum Kharchi, Fahim Kahlouche, Youcef Benna

Abstract:

In the recent years, a considerable level of interest has been developed on the use of earth in construction, led by its rediscovery as an environmentally building material. The Stabilized Earth Concrete (SEC) is a good alternative to the cement concrete, thanks to its thermal and moisture regulating features. Many parameters affect the behavior of stabilized earth concrete. This article presents research results related to the influence of the compacting nature on some SEC properties namely: The mechanical behavior, capillary absorption, shrinkage and sustainability to water erosion, and this, basing on two types of compacting: Manual and semi-automatic.

Keywords: behavior, compacting, manual, SEC, semi-automatic

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18 Effect of Dust Rejected by Iron and Steel Complex on Roots of Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Labiba Zerari Bourafa, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Berrebah Houria, Khadri Sihem, Chiheb Linda

Abstract:

The study of the effect of metal dust (pollutants) was performed on higher plant white beans Phaseolus vulgaris; the experience took place in cellular toxicology laboratory (in vitro culture). The seeds of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris are cultured in a metal contaminated dust medium (a single treatment by different increasing doses), at a rate of 10 seeds per box, for 10 days. The measurement of morpho-metric parameters is performed during the first 96 hours that follow the germination; while the dosage of the proline, the protein content and histological sections are formed on the tenth day (240 h). All morpho-metric and biochemical parameters measured were highly disturbed by metal dust; histological sections confirm this disurbance.

Keywords: conductive fabrics, metal dust, osmoticums, roots, Phaseolus vulgaris

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17 Development of Extemporaneous Pediatric Syrup of Prednisone

Authors: Amel Chenafa, Sihem Boulenouar, Linda Aoued, Imane Sediri, Ismahan Djebbar, Mohamed Adil Selka

Abstract:

Introduction: The specialties intended for adults are often inadequate marketed for pediatric use, such as for a galenic form or in the dosage. For an industrial, development of a pediatric drug is confronted to various problems. So, the hospital pharmacies have to respond to adaptation needs of pharmaceutical forms for pediatric use. The objective of our work is to develop an oral form of prednisone for pediatric use since no adapted form to children is commercialized. Materials and Methods: Therefore an extemporaneous syrup of prednisone was prepared at the concentration of 0,5mg/ml from 5mg tablets and stored in amber glass bottles. Organoleptic and microbiological stability was studied in two temperatures: 5°C and 25°C, and evaluated at D0, D15, and D30. Results: No organoleptic changes have been detected on the syrup conserved at 25 and 5°C. The results show that there is no presence of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in the syrups stored at both temperatures during the analysis period. Conclusion: Sheltered from light, the developed syrup of prednisone remained stable at room temperature and/or refrigerator for 30 days.

Keywords: extemporaneous syrup, pediatric drug, prednisone, stability

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16 Occurrence of Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck) in the 'Marnes De Smail' from the Bellezma-Batna Range (Algeria): An Index Species for the Middle Cenomanian 

Authors: Salmi-Laouar Sihem, Aouissi Riadh

Abstract:

The Cenomanian formations of the Bellezma-Batna Range are yielding very diversified fossiliferous beds. Among the abundant and well-preserved fossils stands out Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck). This taxon is assigned to the Family Latomeandridae (Alloiteau) for the presence of six symmetry axes. The outer morphology of sampled specimens documents a low-energy environment with a high sedimentary rate and a mud-supported bottom. Its provincialism evidences some characteristic thermal gradients of the marked Tethysian climatic areas. Biometric measurements are given. Coral size increases from the North towards the southeastern Tethysian margin where waters are supposed warmer; this feature is also underlined by a frequent bio-erosion of sampled specimens. Its limited stratigraphic range makes it a good candidate for an index species for the Middle Cenomanian.

Keywords: Aspidiscus cristatus, coral, Middle Cenomanian, Batna, Bellezma, Algeria

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15 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Fahim Kahlouche, Alaoua Bouaicha, Sihem Chaîbeddra, Sid-Ali Rafa, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D

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14 Characterization of Stabilized Earth in the Construction Field

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fatoum Kharchi

Abstract:

This study deals with the characterization of stabilized earth in the field of construction from the behavior under changes in conservation conditions that may occur during the lifetime of the material, namely, the exposure to high humidity and temperature variations. These two parameters are involved increasingly, because of climate changes that are confronting earth-based constructions to conditions for which they were not originally designed. These exposure conditions may affect the long-term behavior of the material and the entire structure. A cement treatment was adopted for stabilizing the earth with dosages ranging from 4, 6, 8 to 10%. The influence of addition percentage was analyzed in this context based on laboratory tests measuring the evolution of compressive strength, rate of absorption and shrinkage, and finally thermal conductivity. It was shown that the behaviour was dependent on the ambient conditions which influence the action of the binder. Temperate cure has proved beneficial for the material as the cement content increased. Moisture has less affected the compressive strength with increasing the cement content. The absorption was reduced with the increase of cement dosage. Regarding the variation of shrinkage, cement assays have presented an optimum value beyond which the addition of further quantities was less advantageous. The thermal conductivity on the other hand, increased with increasing cement content, which decreased the insulating properties of the material.

Keywords: behavior, characterization, construction, earth, stabilization

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13 Sustainable Tourism at the Bedside of Local Development of a Rural Coastline Village: Taleza, Collo, Algeria

Authors: Sihem Ferah, Karima Messaoudi

Abstract:

Tourism is far from of being apprehended as a closed space limited to a defined area. The different experiences in the world have shown that tourism should be set up in the city, where locals can meet tourists, to know their history, tradition, culture, and relationship with the territory. In Algeria, the strategy employed in the context of promoting tourism is to integrate sustainable tourism based on a set of instruments such as the tourism expansion areas named ZET. Unfortunately, these areas have promoted the economic and environmental dimension, neglecting the social dimension which is the responsible of the community well–being. The case of Taleza village in Collo (characterized by its various potential) demonstrates clearly this paradox between the planned tourism in the ZET in Taleza as an economic product and the Tourism lived inside this local environment. When people by their genius and innovative action have succeeded to create an alternative tourism (social tourism) developed through guesthouses, sales of local products which have participated in promoting local Tourism Taleza. The aim of this research is to find a strong position between the planned space ZET and the village of Taleža where sustainable tourism can be installed that encourages the social membership, preservation of the natural heritage of Taleza and generates economic benefits that will ensure a local development of the village and will succeed in maintain sustainable tourism on its territory.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, local development, rural areas, tourism expansion zone

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12 Freezing Characteristics and Texture Variation of Apple Fruits after Dehydrofreezing Assisted by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Treatment

Authors: Leila Ben Haj Said, Sihem Bellagha, Karim Allaf

Abstract:

The present study deals with the dehydrofreezing assisted by instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) treatment of apple fruits. Samples previously dehydrated until different water contents (200, 100, and 30% dry basis (db)) and DIC treated were frozen at two different freezing velocities (V+ and V-), depending on the thermal resistance established between the freezing airflow and the sample surface. The effects of sample water content (W) and freezing velocity (V) on freezing curves and characteristics, exudate water (EW) and texture variation were examined. Lower sample water content implied higher freezing rates, lower initial freezing points (IFP), lower practical freezing time (PFT), and lower specific freezing time (SFT). EW (expressed in g exudate water/100 g water in the product) of 200% and 100% db apple samples was approximately 3%, at low freezing velocity (V-). Whereas, it was lower than 0.5% for apple samples with 30% db water content. Moreover, the impact of freezing velocity on EW was significant and very important only for high water content samples. For samples whose water content was lower than 100% db, firmness (maximum puncture force) was as higher as the water content was lower, without any insignificant impact of freezing velocity.

Keywords: dehydrofreezing, instant controlled pressure drop DIC, freezing time, texture

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11 Contribution to the Study of Some Phytochemicals and Biological Aspects of Artemisia absinthium L

Authors: Sihem Benmimoune, Abdelbaki Lemgharbi, Ahmed Ait Yahia, Abdelkrim Kameli

Abstract:

Our study is based on chemical and phytochemical characterization of Artemisia absinthium L and in vitro tests to demonstrate the biological activities of essential oil and natural extract. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the essential oil extracted by two extraction procedures was performed by analysis of CG/SM and the yield calculation. The method of hydrodistillation has a chemical composition and provides oil content than the best training water vapor. These oils are composed mainly of thujone followed chamazulene and ρ-cymene. The antimicrobial activity of wormwood oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on four plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus sp, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium sp). The study of the antifungal effect showed that this oil has an inhibitory effect counterpart the microorganisms tested in particular the strain Botrytis cinerea. Otherwise, this activity depends on the nature of the oil and the germ itself. The antioxidant activity in vitro was studied with the DPPH method. The activity test shows that the oil and extract of Artemisia absinthium have a very low antioxidant capacity compared to the antioxidants used as a reference. The extract has a potentially high antiradical power not from its oil. The quantitative determinations of phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteu revealed that absinthe is low in total polyphenols and tannins.

Keywords: artemisia absinthium, biological activities, essential oil, extraction processes

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10 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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9 Biodegradation Study of a Biocomposite Material Based on Sunflower Oil and Alfa Fibers as Natural Resources

Authors: Sihem Kadem, Ratiba Irinislimane, Naima Belhaneche

Abstract:

The natural resistance to biodegradation of polymeric materials prepared from petroleum-based source and the management of their wastes in the environment are the driving forces to replace them by other biodegradable materials from renewable resources. For that, in this work new biocomposites materials have been synthesis from sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and alfa plants (Stipatenacissima) as natural based resources. The sunflower oil (SFO) was chemically modified via epoxidation then acrylation reactions to obtain acrylated epoxidized sunflower oil resin (AESFO). The AESFO resin was then copolymerized with styrene as co-monomer in the presence of boron trifluoride (BF3) as cationic initiator and cobalt octoate (Co) as catalyst. The alfa fibers were treated with alkali treatment (5% NaOH) before been used as bio-reinforcement. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing the resin with untreated and treated alfa fibers at different percentages. A biodegradation study was carried out for the synthesized biocomposites in a solid medium (burial in the soil) by evaluated, first, the loss of mass, the results obtained were reached between 7.8% and 11% during one year. Then an observation under an optical microscope was carried out, after one year of burial in the soil, microcracks, brown and black spots were appeared on the samples surface. This results shows that the synthesized biocomposites have a great aptitude for biodegradation.

Keywords: alfa fiber, biocomposite, biodegradation, soil, sunflower oil

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8 The EAO2 in Essouabaa, Tebessa, Algeria: An Example of Facies to Organic Matter

Authors: Sihem Salmi Laouar, Khoudair Chabane, Rabah Laouar, Adrian J. Boyce et Anthony E. Fallick

Abstract:

The solid mass of Essouabaa belongs paléogéography to the field téthysian and belonged to the area of the Mounts of Mellègue. This area was not saved by the oceanic-2 event anoxic (EAO-2) which was announced, over one short period, around the limit cénomanian-turonian. In the solid mass of Essouabba, the dominant sediments, pertaining to this period, are generally fine, dark, laminated and sometimes rolled deposits. They contain a rather rich planktonic microfaune, pyrite, and grains of phosphate, thus translating an environment rather deep and reducing rather deep and reducing. For targeting well the passage Cénomanian-Turonian (C-T) in the solid mass of Essouabaa, of the studies lithological and biostratigraphic were combined with the data of the isotopic analyses carbon and oxygen like with the contents of CaCO3. The got results indicate that this passage is marked by a biological event translated by the appearance of the "filaments" like by a positive excursion of the δ13C and δ18O. The cénomanian-turonian passage in the solid mass of Essouabaa represents a good example where during the oceanic event anoxic a facies with organic matter with contents of COT which can reach 1.36%. C E massive presents biostratigraphic and isotopic similarities with those obtained as well in the areas bordering (ex: Tunisia and Morocco) that throughout the world.

Keywords: limit cénomanian-turonian (C-T), COT, filaments, event anoxic 2 (EAO-2), stable isotopes, mounts of Mellègue, Algeria

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7 Crops Cold Stress Alleviation by Silicon: Application on Turfgrass

Authors: Taoufik Bettaieb, Sihem Soufi

Abstract:

As a bioactive metalloid, silicon (Si) is an essential element for plant growth and development. It also plays a crucial role in enhancing plants’ resilience to different abiotic and biotic stresses. The morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular background of Si-mediated stress tolerance in plants were unraveled. Cold stress is a severe abiotic stress response to the decrease of plant growth and yield by affecting various physiological activities in plants. Several approaches have been used to alleviate the adverse effects generated from cold stress exposure, but the cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and defensible approach is the supply of silicon. Silicon has the ability to neutralize the harmful impacts of cold stress. Therefore, based on these hypotheses, this study was designed in order to investigate the morphological and physiological background of silicon effects applied at different concentrations on cold stress mitigation during early growth of a turfgrass, namely Paspalum vaginatum Sw. Results show that silicon applied at different concentrations improved the morphological development of Paspalum subjected to cold stress. It is also effective on the photosynthetic apparatus by maintaining stability the photochemical efficiency. As the primary component of cellular membranes, lipids play a critical function in maintaining the structural integrity of plant cells. Silicon application decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and kept on membrane frontline barrier relatively stable under cold stress.

Keywords: crops, cold stress, silicon, abiotic stress

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6 International Classification of Primary Care as a Reference for Coding the Demand for Care in Primary Health Care

Authors: Souhir Chelly, Chahida Harizi, Aicha Hechaichi, Sihem Aissaoui, Leila Ben Ayed, Maha Bergaoui, Mohamed Kouni Chahed

Abstract:

Introduction: The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is part of the morbidity classification system. It had 17 chapters, and each is coded by an alphanumeric code: the letter corresponds to the chapter, the number to a paragraph in the chapter. The objective of this study is to show the utility of this classification in the coding of the reasons for demand for care in Primary health care (PHC), its advantages and limits. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4 PHC in Ariana district. Data on the demand for care during 2 days in the same week were collected. The coding of the information was done according to the CISP. The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: A total of 523 demands for care were investigated. The patients who came for the consultation are predominantly female (62.72%). Most of the consultants are young with an average age of 35 ± 26 years. In the ICPC, there are 7 rubrics: 'infections' is the most common reason with 49.9%, 'other diagnoses' with 40.2%, 'symptoms and complaints' with 5.5%, 'trauma' with 2.1%, 'procedures' with 2.1% and 'neoplasm' with 0.3%. The main advantage of the ICPC is the fact of being a standardized tool. It is very suitable for classification of the reasons for demand for care in PHC according to their specificity, capacity to be used in a computerized medical file of the PHC. Its current limitations are related to the difficulty of classification of some reasons for demand for care. Conclusion: The ICPC has been developed to provide healthcare with a coding reference that takes into account their specificity. The CIM is in its 10th revision; it would gain from revision to revision to be more efficient to be generalized and used by the teams of PHC.

Keywords: international classification of primary care, medical file, primary health care, Tunisia

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5 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni

Abstract:

Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: acute angina, classification of primary care, primary health care, tonsillitis, Tunisia

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4 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem

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The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa, salinity

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3 The Response of the Accumulated Biomass and the Efficiency of Water Use in Five Varieties of Durum Wheat Lines under Water Stress

Authors: Fellah Sihem

Abstract:

The optimal use of soil moisture by culture, is related to the leaf area index, which stood in the cycle and its modulation according to the prevailing stress intensity. For a given stock of water in the soil, cultivar adapted and saving water is one that is no luxury consumption during the preanthesis. It modulates the leaf area index to regulate sweating in the degree of its water supply. In plants water saving, avoidance of dehydration is related to the reduction of water loss by cuticular and stomatal pathways. Muchow and Sinclair reported that the test of relative water content (TRE) is considered the best indicator of leaf water status. The search for indicators of the ability of the plant to make good use of the water, under water stress is a prerequisite for progress in improving performance under water stress. This experiment aims to characterize a set of durum wheat varieties, tested jars and vegetation under different levels of water stress to the surface of the leaf, relative water content, cell integrity, the accumulated biomass and efficiency of water use. The experiment was conducted during the 2005/2006 academic year, at the Agricultural Research Station of the Field Crop Institute of Setif, under semi-controlled conditions. Five genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) were evaluated for their ability to tolerate moderate and severe water stress. The results showed that geno types respond differently to water stress. Dry matter accumulation and growth rate varied among geno types and were significantly reduced. At severe water stress biomass accumulated by Boussalam was the least affected.

Keywords: water stress, triticum durum, biomass, cell membrane integrity, relative water content

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2 Control of an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in a Tunisian Teaching Hospital

Authors: Hela Ghali, Sihem Ben Fredj, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Sawssen Layouni, Salwa Khefacha, Lamine Dhidah, Houyem Said Laatiri

Abstract:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health and motivates to improve prevention and control programs both at international (WHO) and national levels. Despite their low pathogenicity, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens in several countries. The high potential for transmission of VRE between patients and the threat to send its resistance genes to other bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus already resistant to meticilin, justify strict control measures. Indeed, in Europe, the proportion of Enterococcus faecium responsible for invasive infections, varies from 1% to 35% in 2011 and less than 5% were resistant to vancomycin. In addition, it represents the second cause of urinary tract and wound infections and the third cause of nosocomial bacteremia in the United States. The nosocomial outbreaks of VRE have been mainly described in intensive care services, hematology-oncology and haemodialysis. An epidemic of VRE has affected our hospital and the objective of this work is to describe the measures put in place. Materials/Methods: Following the alert given by the service of plastic surgery concerning a patient carrier of VRE, a team of the prevention and healthcare security service (doctor + technician) made an investigation. A review of files was conducted to draw the synoptic table and the table of cases. Results: By contacting the microbiology laboratory, we have identified four other cases of VRE and who were hospitalized in Medical resuscitation department (2 cases, one of them was transferred to the Physical rehabilitation department), and Nephrology department (2 cases). The visit has allowed to detect several malfunctions in professional practice. A crisis cell has allowed to validate, coordinate and implement control measures following the recommendations of the Technical Center of nosocomial infections. In fact, the process was to technically isolate cases in their sector of hospitalization, to restrict the use of antibiotics, to strength measures of basic hygiene, and to make a screening by rectal swab for both cases and contacts (other patients and health staff). These measures have helped to control the situation and no other case has been reported for a month. 2 new cases have been detected in the intensive care unit after a month. However, these are short-term strategies, and other measures in the medium and long term should be taken into account in order to face similar outbreaks. Conclusion: The efforts to control the outbreak were not efficient since 2 new cases have been reported after a month. Therefore, a continuous monitoring in order to detect new cases earlier is crucial to minimize the dissemination of VRE.

Keywords: hospitals, nosocomial infection, outbreak, vancomycin-resistant enterococci

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1 Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field

Authors: Sihem Bazid, Meriem El Kolli, Aicha Medjahed

Abstract:

Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, interaction gelatin-NaCMC, the rate of helicity, polarimetry

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