Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 142

Search results for: textbooks

142 Discourse Analysis of the Concept of Citizenship in Textbooks in Iran

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi


This research has been done as a discourse analysis of the concept of citizenship in textbooks in Iran. The purpose of this study is to identify the dominant citizenship discourse in textbooks in the content of textbooks. The research method in this research is qualitative and qualitative content analysis. The statistical sample was selected in a purposeful manner and according to the research topic of books related to Persian literature, religious education and social education. The selected theoretical framework of this research is the three theories of citizenship (pre-modern, modern and postmodern). For each of these discourses, components and indicators have been extracted that are the basis of data analysis. The research findings show that the dominant citizenship discourse on the content of Iranian textbooks is pre-modern discourse and is the basis of this type of religious citizenship discourse. Finally, the findings show that the government uses the institution of education to reproduce its power.

Keywords: citizenship, textbooks, discourse analysis, religious citizenship, representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
141 Nature of Science in Physics Textbooks – Example of Quebec Province

Authors: Brahim El Fadil


The nature of science as a solution (NOS) to life problems is well established in school activities the world over. However, this study reveals the lack of representation of the NOS in science textbooks used in Quebec Province. A content analysis method was adopted to analyze the NOS in relation to optics knowledge and teaching-learning activities in Grade 9 science and technology textbooks and Grade 11 physics textbooks. The selected textbooks were approved and authorized by the Provincial Ministry of Education. Our analysis points out that most of these editions provided a poor representation of NOS. None of them indicates that scientific knowledge is subject to change, even though the history of optics reveals evolutionary and revolutionary changes. Moreover, the analysis shows that textbooks place little emphasis on the discussion of scientific laws and theories. Few of them argue that scientific inquiries are required to gain a deep understanding of scientific concepts. Moreover, they rarely present empirical evidence to support their arguments.

Keywords: nature of science, history of optics, geometrical theory of optics, wave theory of optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
140 Teachers' Perceptions on Teaching Saudi English Special Edition Textbooks in Respect of Culture

Authors: Sumayyah Qaed J. Alsulami


English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia is still new and evolving. Recently, many of the university language centres that provide intensive and mandatory English courses for the preparatory-year students have been working to develop English teaching. These centres emphasise teaching using 'special editions' textbooks for Saudi students. While the government has been working to provide social and economic policies that intend to open up and communicate widely with the world, there is a need to educate Saudi citizens to be aware and understand others in order to promote tolerance and accept others, especially in a conservative culture like Saudi Arabia. In this study, the data will be English teachers’ views on teaching culture using the special edition textbooks that will be conducted by semi-structured interviews. Teachers’ views will manifest to what extent these textbooks are used interculturally to teach the students.

Keywords: EFL, intercultural teaching, teachers' views, textbooks

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
139 A Critical Discourse Analysis on Ableist Ideologies in Primary Education English Language Textbooks in the Philippines

Authors: Brittany Joi B. Kirsch


Textbooks carry a crucial role in imparting ideologies that stimulate inclusivity and social diversity. In the Philippines, a law on inclusive education (IE) for differently-abled learners has recently been signed in order to ensure their rights to quality and IE are protected and upheld (Republic Act No. 11650, 2022). With the presence of ableism in textbooks, the promotion of IE may be challenged. A considerable amount of research has been done on disability representation and ableism in foreign countries; however, none, to the extent of the researcher’s knowledge, has been conducted on ableist ideologies in primary education English language textbooks in the Philippines. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the negotiation of ableist ideologies in primary education English language textbooks in the Philippines. Utilizing Fairclough’s (1995) three-dimensional model of critical discourse analysis (CDA) as the framework, six prescribed primary education English language textbooks from different grade levels were analyzed to examine instances of ableism in the texts. To further support the analysis of the study, supplemental data were gathered from the accounts of six public elementary school English language teachers. Findings reveal that the textbooks contain ableist ideologies with a limited representation of differently-abled people; by disclosing them as (1) invisible, (2) equipped with negative abilities, and (3) plagued with delicate health. By identifying ableist ideologies in textbooks, educational institutions and publishers may benefit in assessing and reforming instructional materials to resolve the presence of such ideologies, thereby abiding by the country’s law on IE and strengthening its overall implementation.

Keywords: textbooks, ideologies, inclusive education, critical discourse analysis, ableism

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
138 Contesting Discourses in Physical Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of 20 Textbooks Used in Physical Education Teacher Education in Denmark

Authors: Annemari Munk Svendsen, Jesper Tinggaard Svendsen


The purpose of this study was to investigate different discourses about the body, movement and the main progression in and aim of Physical Education (PE) that are immersed within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) textbooks. The study was based on an examination of Danish PETE course documents listing 296 educational texts prescribed by PETE teachers for PETE programs in Denmark. It presents a more specific analysis of the 20 most used textbooks in Danish PETE. The study found three different discourses termed: (1) Developing the potential for sport, (2) Basis for creative sensing and (3) Being part of a cultural ballast. These discourses represent different ways of conceptualising and appraising PE as a school subject. The results also suggest that PETE textbooks are deeply involved in the (re)construction, struggling and ‘working’ of classical discourses in PE. Furthermore, that PETE textbooks comprise powerful documents that through their recurrent use of high modality are tending to be unequivocal in their suggestions for PE practices. On the basis of these findings, the presentation suggests that PETE teachers may use textbook analysis in the educational program as a tool for enhancing critical reflections upon central ideological dilemmas in PE.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical reflection, physical education teacher education, textbooks

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
137 A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks

Authors: Fitria Ningsih


This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.

Keywords: corpus, frequency, English, Indonesian, linguistics, textbooks, vocabulary, wordlists, writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
136 The Use of Corpora in Improving Modal Verb Treatment in English as Foreign Language Textbooks

Authors: Lexi Li, Vanessa H. K. Pang


This study aims to demonstrate how native and learner corpora can be used to enhance modal verb treatment in EFL textbooks in mainland China. It contributes to a corpus-informed and learner-centered design of grammar presentation in EFL textbooks that enhances the authenticity and appropriateness of textbook language for target learners. The linguistic focus is will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must. The native corpus is the spoken component of BNC2014 (hereafter BNCS2014). The spoken part is chosen because pedagogical purpose of the textbooks is communication-oriented. Using the standard query option of CQPweb, 5% of each of the nine modals was sampled from BNCS2014. The learner corpus is the POS-tagged Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (TECCL). All the essays under the 'secondary school' section were selected. A series of five secondary coursebooks comprise the textbook corpus. All the data in both the learner and the textbook corpora are retrieved through the concordance functions of WordSmith Tools (version, 5.0). Data analysis was divided into two parts. The first part compared the patterns of modal verbs in the textbook corpus and BNC2014 with respect to distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions to examine whether the textbooks reflect the authentic use of English. Secondly, the learner corpus was analyzed in terms of the use (distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions) and the misuse (syntactic errors, e.g., she can sings*.) of the nine modal verbs to uncover potential difficulties that confront learners. The analysis of distribution indicates several discrepancies between the textbook corpus and BNCS2014. The first four most frequent modal verbs in BNCS2014 are can, would, will, could, while can, will, should, could are the top four in the textbooks. Most strikingly, there is an unusually high proportion of can (41.1%) in the textbooks. The results on different meanings shows that will, would and must are the most problematic. For example, for will, the textbooks contain 20% more occurrences of 'volition' and 20% less of 'prediction' than those in BNCS2014. Regarding co-occurring structures, the textbooks over-represented the structure 'modal +do' across the nine modal verbs. Another major finding is that the structure of 'modal +have done' that frequently co-occur with could, would, should, and must is underused in textbooks. Besides, these four modal verbs are the most difficult for learners, as the error analysis shows. This study demonstrates how the synergy of native and learner corpora can be harnessed to improve EFL textbook presentation of modal verbs in a way that textbooks can provide not only authentic language used in natural discourse but also appropriate design tailed for the needs of target learners.

Keywords: English as Foreign Language, EFL textbooks, learner corpus, modal verbs, native corpus

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135 Use and Appreciation of a Type of Mathematics Textbook for Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Díaz Quezada


Despite the wide variety of educational resources on the market and the advances produced in the technological field, the practice of teaching continues to be supported mainly by textbooks. This article reports on descriptive research with qualitative methodology carried out on secondary school mathematics teachers in a region of Chile, in order to describe the use and the indicators of appreciation that teachers have on the textbooks distributed by the official body to public educational establishments. Data were collected through an open response opinion questionnaire. According to the results, among the texts available for the annual performance of their teaching work, the expository and technological books predominate, to the detriment of comprehensive books. The exhibition structure favors master expositions and repetitive exercises, while, with the technological structure, a productive exercise is attempted, proposing numerous applications with the intention of giving meaning to the different mathematical rules and procedures. In relation to the indicators of appreciation that teachers have regarding the use of mathematics textbooks, the suitability and quality of the teaching resources are verified as the most satisfying characteristic.

Keywords: mathematics, secondary school, teachers, textbooks

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
134 Analysis of Atomic Models in High School Physics Textbooks

Authors: Meng-Fei Cheng, Wei Fneg


New Taiwan high school standards emphasize employing scientific models and modeling practices in physics learning. However, to our knowledge. Few studies address how scientific models and modeling are approached in current science teaching, and they do not examine the views of scientific models portrayed in the textbooks. To explore the views of scientific models and modeling in textbooks, this study investigated the atomic unit in different textbook versions as an example and provided suggestions for modeling curriculum. This study adopted a quantitative analysis of qualitative data in the atomic units of four mainstream version of Taiwan high school physics textbooks. The models were further analyzed using five dimensions of the views of scientific models (nature of models, multiple models, purpose of the models, testing models, and changing models); each dimension had three levels (low, medium, high). Descriptive statistics were employed to compare the frequency of describing the five dimensions of the views of scientific models in the atomic unit to understand the emphasis of the views and to compare the frequency of the eight scientific models’ use to investigate the atomic model that was used most often in the textbooks. Descriptive statistics were further utilized to investigate the average levels of the five dimensions of the views of scientific models to examine whether the textbooks views were close to the scientific view. The average level of the five dimensions of the eight atomic models were also compared to examine whether the views of the eight atomic models were close to the scientific views. The results revealed the following three major findings from the atomic unit. (1) Among the five dimensions of the views of scientific models, the most portrayed dimension was the 'purpose of models,' and the least portrayed dimension was 'multiple models.' The most diverse view was the 'purpose of models,' and the most sophisticated scientific view was the 'nature of models.' The least sophisticated scientific view was 'multiple models.' (2) Among the eight atomic models, the most mentioned model was the atomic nucleus model, and the least mentioned model was the three states of matter. (3) Among the correlations between the five dimensions, the dimension of 'testing models' was highly related to the dimension of 'changing models.' In short, this study examined the views of scientific models based on the atomic units of physics textbooks to identify the emphasized and disregarded views in the textbooks. The findings suggest how future textbooks and curriculum can provide a thorough view of scientific models to enhance students' model-based learning.

Keywords: atomic models, textbooks, science education, scientific model

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
133 Dominican Representation in Introductory Level Spanish Textbooks in the United States

Authors: Sheridan Wigginton


This research project investigates the representation of Dominicans and Dominican culture in nine widely-used Spanish textbooks in universities and colleges in the United States. The project uses the “culture” standard established by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages to examine the texts. The organization, commonly referred to by its acronym ACTFL, describes products as books, tools, foods, laws, music, and games; practices as patterns of social interactions; and perspectives as meanings, attitudes, values, and ideas. The content analysis of the texts will also specifically include visual analysis of the physical representation of the people depicted in Dominican-themed culture activities to more clearly integrate issues of color and national identity into the discussion.

Keywords: blackness, culture, Dominican republic, foreign language education, national identity, Spanish, textbooks

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132 Discipline-Specific Culture: A Purpose-Based Investigation

Authors: Sihem Benaouda


English is gaining an international identity as it affects every academic and professional field in the world. Without increasing their cultural understanding, it would obviously be difficult to completely educate learners for communication in a globalised environment. The concept of culture is intricate and needs to be elucidated, especially in an English language teaching (ELT) context. The study focuses on the investigation of the cultural studies integrated into the different types of English for specific purposes (ESP) materials, as opposed to English for general purposes (EGP) textbooks. A qualitative methodology based on a triangulation of techniques was conducted through materials analysis of five textbooks in both advanced EGP and three types of ESP. In addition to a semi-structured interview conducted with Algerian ESP practitioners, data analysis results revealed that culture in ESP textbooks is not overtly isolated into chapters and that cultural studies are predominantly present in business and economics materials, namely English for hotel and catering staff, tourism, and flight attendants. However, implicit cultural instruction is signalled in the social sciences and is negligible in science and technology sources. In terms of content, cultural studies in EGP are more related to generic topics, whereas, in some ESP materials, the topics are rather oriented to the specific field they belong to. Furthermore, the respondents’ answers showed an unawareness of the importance of culture in ESP teaching, besides some disregard for culture teaching per se in ESP contexts.

Keywords: ESP, EGP, cultural studies, textbooks, teaching, materials

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131 Teacher Agency in Localizing Textbooks for International Chinese Language Teaching: A Case of Minsk State Linguistic University

Authors: Min Bao


The teacher is at the core of the three fundamental factors in international Chinese language teaching, the other two being the textbook and the method. Professional development of the teacher comprises a self-renewing process that is characterized by knowledge impartment and self-reflection, in which individual agency plays a significant role. Agency makes a positive contribution to teachers’ teaching practice and their life-long learning. This study, taking Chinese teaching and learning in Minsk State Linguistic University of Belarus as an example, attempts to understand agency by investigating the teacher’s strategic adaptation of textbooks to meet local needs. Firstly, through in-depth interviews, teachers’ comments on textbooks are collected and analyzed to disclose their strategies of adapting and localizing textbooks. Then, drawing on the theory of 'The chordal triad of agency', the paper reveals the process in which teacher agency is exercised as well as its rationale. The results verify the theory, that is, given its temporal relationality, teacher agency is constructed through a combination of experiences, purposes and aims, and context, i.e., projectivity, iteration and practice-evaluation as mentioned in the theory. Evidence also suggests that the three dimensions effect differently; It is usually one or two dimensions that are of greater effects on the construction of teacher agency. Finally, the paper provides four specific insights to teacher development in international Chinese language teaching: 1) when recruiting teachers, priority be given on candidates majoring in Chinese language or international Chinese language teaching; 2) measures be taken to assure educational quality of the two said majors at various levels; 3) pre-service teacher training program be tailored for improved quality, and 4) management of overseas Confucius Institutions be enhanced.

Keywords: international Chinese language teaching, teacher agency, textbooks, localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
130 Nationalism and Culturalism: Unification Education in South Korea Curriculum

Authors: Eun-Young Yoon


The purpose of this research is to examine how unification with North Korea is being taught in South Korea classrooms. To analysis of the curriculum and textbooks about unification in South Korean classroom, this study uses nationalism and multiculturalism as major theoretical frameworks. Major findings show that curriculum and textbooks should describe unification with North Korea more detailed and complicated. And the balancing between ‘global citizenship’ and ‘national identity’ is needed.

Keywords: global citizenship, multiculturalism, nationalism, unification education

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129 Critical Thinking in the Moroccan Textbooks of English: Ticket to English as a Case Study

Authors: Mohsine Jebbour


The ultimate aim of this study was to analyze a second-year baccalaureate textbook of English to see to what extent it includes elements of critical thinking. A further purpose was to assess the extent to which the teachers’ teaching practices help students develop some degree of critical thinking. The literature on critical thinking indicated that all the writers agree that critical thinking is skilled and dispositional oriented, and most of the definitions highlight the skill and disposition to select, collect, analyze and evaluate information effectively. In this study, two instruments were used, namely content analysis and questionnaire to ensure validity and reliability. The sample of this study, on the one hand, was a second year textbook of English, namely Ticket to English. The process of collecting data was carried out through designing a checklist to analyze the textbook of English. On the other hand, high school students (second baccalaureate grade) and teachers of English constituted the second sample. Two questionnaires were administered—One was completed by 28 high school teachers (18 males and10 females), and the other was completed by 51 students (26 males and 25 females) from Fez, Morocco. The items of the questionnaire tended to elicit both qualitative and quantitative data. An attempt was made to answer two research questions. One pertained to the extent to which the textbooks of English contain critical thinking elements (Critical thinking skills and dispositions, types of questions, language learning strategies, classroom activities); the second was concerned with whether the teaching practices of teachers of English help improve students’ critical thinking. The results demonstrated that the textbooks of English include elements of critical thinking, and the teachers’ teaching practices help the students develop some degree of critical thinking. Yet, the textbooks do not include problem-solving activities and media analysis and 86% of the teacher-respondents tended to skip activities in the textbooks, mainly the units dealing with Project Work and Study Skills which are necessary for enhancing critical thinking among the students. Therefore, the textbooks need to be designed around additional activities and the teachers are required to cover the units skipped so as to make the teaching of critical thinking effective.

Keywords: critical thinking, language learning strategies, language proficiency, teaching practices

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128 A Board of Comparative Study of Central Secondary Education (CBSE) and Board of Secondry Education Madhya Pradesh BHOPAL (BSEMPB) Hindi Text Books of Class-VI

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav


Proficient persons should be involved in formulation of the structure of the textbooks so that the topics selected in the Hindi textbooks for Class VII should contribute towards linguistic and literary development of the child and the language of the textbook matches the comprehension level of the student.The topics of tile textbooks should provide good illustrations and suitable exercises. Topics of variety of taste can be included in the textbook to satisfy the inquisitive children. There could be abstracts/hints at the beginning of each lesson. Meanings for difficult words must be given at the end of each topic for convenience of the parents and children as most of them find it difficult and time consuming to use Hindi dictionary. Exercises should be relevant covering the whole topic and the difficulty level should match the maturity level of the students in respect of CBSE Board. The stitching and binding of CBSE prescribed books may be improved to increase durability.

Keywords: comparative study of CBSE and BSEMPB, Central Secondary Education, Board of Secondry Education, BHOPAL

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127 National Branding through Education: South Korean Image in Romania through the Language Textbooks for Foreigners

Authors: Raluca-Ioana Antonescu


The paper treats about the Korean public diplomacy and national branding strategies, and how the Korean language textbooks were used in order to construct the Korean national image. The field research of the paper stands at the intersection between Linguistics and Political Science, while the problem of the research is the role of language and culture in national branding process. The research goal is to contribute to the literature situated at the intersection between International Relations and Applied Linguistics, while the objective is to conceptualize the idea of national branding by emphasizing a dimension which is not much discussed, and that would be the education as an instrument of the national branding and public diplomacy strategies. In order to examine the importance of language upon the national branding strategies, the paper will answer one main question, How is the Korean language used in the construction of national branding?, and two secondary questions, How are explored in literature the relations between language and national branding construction? and What kind of image of South Korea the language textbooks for foreigners transmit? In order to answer the research questions, the paper starts from one main hypothesis, that the language is an essential component of the culture, which is used in the construction of the national branding influenced by traditional elements (like Confucianism) but also by modern elements (like Western influence), and from two secondary hypothesis, the first one is that in the International Relations literature there are little explored the connections between language and national branding, while the second hypothesis is that the South Korean image is constructed through the promotion of a traditional society, but also a modern one. In terms of methodology, the paper will analyze the textbooks used in Romania at the universities which provide Korean Language classes during the three years program B.A., following the dialogs, the descriptive texts and the additional text about the Korean culture. The analysis will focus on the rank status difference, the individual in relation to the collectivity, the respect for the harmony, and the image of the foreigner. The results of the research show that the South Korean image projected in the textbooks convey the Confucian values and it does not emphasize the changes suffered by the society due to the modernity and globalization. The Westernized aspect of the Korean society is conveyed more in an informative way about the Korean international companies, Korean internal development (like the transport or other services), but it does not show the cultural changed the society underwent. Even if the paper is using the textbooks which are used in Romania as a teaching material, it could be used and applied at least to other European countries, since the textbooks are the ones issued by the South Korean language schools, which other European countries are using also.

Keywords: confucianism, modernism, national branding, public diplomacy, traditionalism

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126 The Use of Authentic Materials in the Chinese Language Classroom

Authors: Yiwen Jin, Jing Xiao, Pinfang Su


The idea of adapting authentic materials in language teaching is from the communicative method in the 1970s. Different from the language in language textbooks, authentic materials is not deliberately written, it is from the native speaker’s real life and contains real information, which can meet social needs. It could improve learners ' interest, create authentic context and improve learners ' communicative competence. Authentic materials play an important role in CFL(Chinese as a foreign language) classroom. Different types of authentic materials can be used in different ways during learning and teaching. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic,a lot of Chinese learners are learning Chinese without the real language environment. Although there are some well-written textbooks, there is a certain distance between textbook language materials and daily life. Learners cannot automatically fill this gap. That is why it is necessary to apply authentic materials as a supplement to the language textbook to create the real context. Chinese teachers around the world are working together, trying to integrate the resources and apply authentic materials through different approach. They apply authentic materials in the form of new textbooks, manuals, apps and short videos they collect and create to help Chinese learning and teaching. A review of previous research on authentic materials and the Chinese teachers’ attempt to adapt it in the classroom are offered in this manuscript.

Keywords: authentic materials, Chinese as a second language, developmental use of digital resources, materials development for language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
125 Discovering the Relationship between Teaching Creativity and Creative Writing in Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Irfan Khan


The paper explores teaching of creative writing in Pakistani classroom. The data collected from the questionnaire and focus group interview with a large public sector university’s Master of Arts in English students, who are also in-service school teachers, discovers that English teachers in Pakistan do not teach to develop the creative writing of pupils. The findings show that English teachers can define creative writing but are confused about strategies needed in rousing learners’ interest in creative writing. The teachers make their students memorise compositions from the textbooks to be reproduced in class. English teachers must be encouraged and trained to engage in activities that are essential for enhancing creative writing in schools.

Keywords: creative writing, teaching creative writing, textbooks, Pakistan

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124 Augmenting Classroom Reality

Authors: Kerrin Burnell


In a world of increasingly technology-dependent students, the English language classroom should ideally keep up with developments to keep students engaged as much as possible. Unfortunately, as is the case in Oman, funding is not always adequate to ensure students have the most up to date technology, and most institutions are still reliant on paper-based textbooks. In order to try and bridge the gap between the technology available (smartphones) and textbooks, augmented reality (AR) technology can be utilized to enhance classroom, homework, and extracurricular activities. AR involves overlaying media (videos, images etc) over the top of physical objects (posters, book pages etc) and then sharing the media. This case study involved introducing students to a freely available entry level AR app called Aurasma. Students were asked to augment their English textbooks, word walls, research project posters, and extracurricular posters. Through surveys, interviews and an analysis of time spent accessing the different media, a determination of the appropriateness of the technology for the classroom was determined. Results indicate that the use of AR has positive effects on many aspects of the English classroom. Increased student engagement, total time spent on task, interaction, and motivation were evident, along with a decrease in technology-related anxiety. As it is proving very difficult to get tablets or even laptops in classrooms in Oman, these preliminary results indicate that many positive outcomes will come from introducing students to this innovative technology.

Keywords: augmented reality, classroom technology, classroom innovation, engagement

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123 An Approach for Estimating Open Education Resources Textbook Savings: A Case Study

Authors: Anna Ching-Yu Wong


Introduction: Textbooks play a sizable portion of the overall cost of higher education students. It is a board consent that open education resources (OER) reduce the te4xtbook costs and provide students a way to receive high-quality learning materials at little or no cost to them. However, there is less agreement over exactly how much. This study presents an approach for calculating OER savings by using SUNY Canton NON-OER courses (N=233) to estimate the potentially textbook savings for one semester – Fall 2022. The purpose in collecting data is to understand how much potentially saved from using OER materials and to have a record for future further studies. Literature Reviews: In the past years, researchers identified the rising cost of textbooks disproportionately harm students in higher education institutions and how much an average cost of a textbook. For example, Nyamweya (2018) found that on average students save $116.94 per course when OER adopted in place of traditional commercial textbooks by using a simple formula. Student PIRGs (2015) used reports of per-course savings when transforming a course from using a commercial textbook to OER to reach an estimate of $100 average cost savings per course. Allen and Wiley (2016) presented at the 2016 Open Education Conference on multiple cost-savings studies and concluded $100 was reasonable per-course savings estimates. Ruth (2018) calculated an average cost of a textbook was $79.37 per-course. Hilton, et al (2014) conducted a study with seven community colleges across the nation and found the average textbook cost to be $90.61. There is less agreement over exactly how much would be saved by adopting an OER course. This study used SUNY Canton as a case study to create an approach for estimating OER savings. Methodology: Step one: Identify NON-OER courses from UcanWeb Class Schedule. Step two: View textbook lists for the classes (Campus bookstore prices). Step three: Calculate the average textbook prices by averaging the new book and used book prices. Step four: Multiply the average textbook prices with the number of students in the course. Findings: The result of this calculation was straightforward. The average of a traditional textbooks is $132.45. Students potentially saved $1,091,879.94. Conclusion: (1) The result confirms what we have known: Adopting OER in place of traditional textbooks and materials achieves significant savings for students, as well as the parents and taxpayers who support them through grants and loans. (2) The average textbook savings for adopting an OER course is variable depending on the size of the college and as well as the number of enrollment students.

Keywords: textbook savings, open textbooks, textbook costs assessment, open access

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122 Challenges for Competency-Based Learning Design in Primary School Mathematics in Mozambique

Authors: Satoshi Kusaka


The term ‘competency’ is attracting considerable scholarly attention worldwide with the advance of globalization in the 21st century and with the arrival of a knowledge-based society. In the current world environment, familiarity with varied disciplines is regarded to be vital for personal success. The idea of a competency-based educational system was mooted by the ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies (DeSeCo)’ project that was conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Further, attention to this topic is not limited to developed countries; it can also be observed in developing countries. For instance, the importance of a competency-based curriculum was mentioned in the ‘2013 Harmonized Curriculum Framework for the East African Community’, which recommends key competencies that should be developed in primary schools. The introduction of such curricula and the reviews of programs are actively being executed, primarily in the East African Community but also in neighboring nations. Taking Mozambique as a case in point, the present paper examines the conception of ‘competency’ as a target of frontline education in developing countries. It also aims to discover the manner in which the syllabus, textbooks and lessons, among other things, in primary-level math education are developed and to determine the challenges faced in the process. This study employs the perspective of competency-based education design to analyze how the term ‘competency’ is defined in the primary-level math syllabus, how it is reflected in the textbooks, and how the lessons are actually developed. ‘Practical competency’ is mentioned in the syllabus, and the description of the term lays emphasis on learners' ability to interactively apply socio-cultural and technical tools, which is one of the key competencies that are advocated in OECD's ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies’ project. However, most of the content of the textbooks pertains to ‘basic academic ability’, and in actual classroom practice, teachers often impart lessons straight from the textbooks. It is clear that the aptitude of teachers and their classroom routines are greatly dependent on the cultivation of their own ‘practical competency’ as it is defined in the syllabus. In other words, there is great divergence between the ‘syllabus’, which is the intended curriculum, and the content of the ‘textbooks’. In fact, the material in the textbooks should serve as the bridge between the syllabus, which forms the guideline, and the lessons, which represent the ‘implemented curriculum’. Moreover, the results obtained from this investigation reveal that the problem can only be resolved through the cultivation of ‘practical competency’ in teachers, which is currently not sufficient.

Keywords: competency, curriculum, mathematics education, Mozambique

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
121 The Didactic Transposition in Brazilian High School Physics Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Didactic Materials

Authors: Leandro Marcos Alves Vaz


In this article, we analyze the different approaches to the topic Magnetism of Matter in physics textbooks of Brazilian schools. For this, we compared the approach to the concepts of the magnetic characteristics of materials (diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism) in different sources of information and in different levels of education, from Higher Education to High School. In this sense, we used as reference the theory of the Didactic Transposition of Yves Chevallard, a French educational theorist, who conceived in his theory three types of knowledge – Scholarly Knowledge, Knowledge to be taught and Taught Knowledge – related to teaching practice. As a research methodology, from the reading of the works used in teacher training and those destined to basic education students, we compared the treatment of a higher education physics book, a scientific article published in a Brazilian journal of the educational area, and four high school textbooks, in order to establish in which there is a greater or lesser degree of approximation with the knowledge produced by the scholars – scholarly knowledge – or even with the knowledge to be taught (to that found in books intended for teaching). Thus, we evaluated the level of proximity of the subjects conveyed in high school and higher education, as well as the relevance that some textbook authors give to the theme.

Keywords: Brazilian physics books, didactic transposition, magnetism of matter, teaching of physics

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120 A CDA-Driven Study of World English Series Published by Cengage Heinle

Authors: Mohammad Amin Mozaheb, Jalal Farzaneh Dehkordi, Khojasteh Hosseinzadehpilehvar


English Language Teaching (ELT) is widely promoted across the world. ELT textbooks play pivotal roles in the mentioned process. Since biases of authors have been an issue of continuing interest to analysts over the past few years, the present study seeks to analyze an ELT textbook using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). To obtain the goal of the study, the listening section of a book called World English 3 (new edition) has been analyzed in terms of the cultures and countries mentioned in the listening section of the book using content-based analysis. The analysis indicates biases towards certain cultures. Moreover, some countries are shown as rich and powerful countries, while some others have been shown as poor ones without considering the history behind them.

Keywords: ELT, textbooks, critical discourse analysis, World English

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119 Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis

Authors: Yun-Ju Chiu, Feng-Yi Chen


Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.

Keywords: acceleration, textbooks, mechanics, misconception, history of science

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118 Examining the Usefulness of an ESP Textbook for Information Technology: Learner Perspectives

Authors: Yun-Husan Huang


Many English for Specific Purposes (ESP) textbooks are distributed globally as the content development is often obliged to compromises between commercial and pedagogical demands. Therefore, the issue of regional application and usefulness of globally published ESP textbooks has received much debate. For ESP instructors, textbook selection is definitely a priority consideration for curriculum design. An appropriate ESP textbook can facilitate teaching and learning, while an inappropriate one may cause a disaster for both teachers and students. This study aims to investigate the regional application and usefulness of an ESP textbook for information technology (IT). Participants were 51 sophomores majoring in Applied Informatics and Multimedia at a university in Taiwan. As they were non-English majors, their English proficiency was mostly at elementary and elementary-to-intermediate levels. This course was offered for two semesters. The textbook selected was Oxford English for Information Technology. At class end, the students were required to complete a survey comprising five choices of Very Easy, Easy, Neutral, Difficult, and Very Difficult for each item. Based on the content design of the textbook, the survey investigated how the students viewed the difficulty of grammar, listening, speaking, reading, and writing materials of the textbook. In terms of difficulty, results reveal that only 22% of them found the grammar section difficult and very difficult. For listening, 71% responded difficult and very difficult. For general reading, 55% responded difficult and very difficult. For speaking, 56% responded difficult and very difficult. For writing, 78% responded difficult and very difficult. For advanced reading, 90% reported difficult and very difficult. These results indicate that, except the grammar section, more than half of the students found the textbook contents difficult in terms of listening, speaking, reading, and writing materials. Such contradictory results between the easy grammar section and the difficult four language skills sections imply that the textbook designers do not well understand the English learning background of regional ESP learners. For the participants, the learning contents of the grammar section were the general grammar level of junior high school, while the learning contents of the four language skills sections were more of the levels of college English majors. Implications from the findings are obtained for instructors and textbook designers. First of all, existing ESP textbooks for IT are few and thus textbook selections for instructors are insufficient. Second, existing globally published textbooks for IT cannot be applied to learners of all English proficiency levels, especially the low level. With limited textbook selections, third, instructors should modify the selected textbook contents or supplement extra ESP materials to meet the proficiency level of target learners. Fourth, local ESP publishers should collaborate with local ESP instructors who understand best the learning background of their students in order to develop appropriate ESP textbooks for local learners. Even though the instructor reduced learning contents and simplified tests in curriculum design, in conclusion, the students still found difficult. This implies that in addition to the instructor’s professional experience, there is a need to understand the usefulness of the textbook from learner perspectives.

Keywords: ESP textbooks, ESP materials, ESP textbook design, learner perspectives on ESP textbooks

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117 Expressing Locality in Learning English: A Study of English Textbooks for Junior High School Year VII-IX in Indonesia Context

Authors: Agnes Siwi Purwaning Tyas, Dewi Cahya Ambarwati


This paper concerns the language learning that develops as a habit formation and a constructive process while exercising an oppressive power to construct the learners. As a locus of discussion, the investigation problematizes the transfer of English language to Indonesian students of junior high school through the use of English textbooks ‘Real Time: An Interactive English Course for Junior High School Students Year VII-IX’. English language has long performed as a global language and it is a demand upon the non-English native speakers to master the language if they desire to become internationally recognized individuals. Generally, English teachers teach the language in accordance with the nature of language learning in which they are trained and expected to teach the language within the culture of the target language. This provides a potential soft cultural penetration of a foreign ideology through language transmission. In the context of Indonesia, learning English as international language is considered dilemmatic. Most English textbooks in Indonesia incorporate cultural elements of the target language which in some extent may challenge the sensitivity towards local cultural values. On the other hand, local teachers demand more English textbooks for junior high school students which can facilitate cultural dissemination of both local and global values and promote learners’ cultural traits of both cultures to avoid misunderstanding and confusion. It also aims to support language learning as bidirectional process instead of instrument of oppression. However, sensitizing and localizing this foreign language is not sufficient to restrain its soft infiltration. In due course, domination persists making the English language as an authoritative language and positioning the locality as ‘the other’. Such critical premise has led to a discursive analysis referring to how the cultural elements of the target language are presented in the textbooks and whether the local characteristics of Indonesia are able to gradually reduce the degree of the foreign oppressive ideology. The three textbooks researched were written by non-Indonesian author edited by two Indonesia editors published by a local commercial publishing company, PT Erlangga. The analytical elaboration examines the cultural characteristics in the forms of names, terminologies, places, objects and imageries –not the linguistic aspect– of both cultural domains; English and Indonesia. Comparisons as well as categorizations were made to identify the cultural traits of each language and scrutinize the contextual analysis. In the analysis, 128 foreign elements and 27 local elements were found in textbook for grade VII, 132 foreign elements and 23 local elements were found in textbook for grade VIII, while 144 foreign elements and 35 local elements were found in grade IX textbook, demonstrating the unequal distribution of both cultures. Even though the ideal pedagogical approach of English learning moves to a different direction by the means of inserting local elements, the learners are continuously imposed to the culture of the target language and forced to internalize the concept of values under the influence of the target language which tend to marginalize their native culture.

Keywords: bidirectional process, English, local culture, oppression

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116 The Value of Computerized Corpora in EFL Textbook Design: The Case of Modal Verbs

Authors: Lexi Li


This study aims to contribute to the field of how computer technology can be exploited to enhance EFL textbook design. Specifically, the study demonstrates how computerized native and learner corpora can be used to enhance modal verb treatment in EFL textbooks. The linguistic focus is will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must. The native corpus is the spoken component of BNC2014 (hereafter BNCS2014). The spoken part is chosen because the pedagogical purpose of the textbooks is communication-oriented. Using the standard query option of CQPweb, 5% of each of the nine modals was sampled from BNCS2014. The learner corpus is the POS-tagged Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (TECCL). All the essays under the “secondary school” section were selected. A series of five secondary coursebooks comprise the textbook corpus. All the data in both the learner and the textbook corpora are retrieved through the concordance functions of WordSmith Tools (version, 5.0). Data analysis was divided into two parts. The first part compared the patterns of modal verbs in the textbook corpus and BNC2014 with respect to distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions to examine whether the textbooks reflect the authentic use of English. Secondly, the learner corpus was compared with the textbook corpus in terms of the use (distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions) in order to examine the degree of influence of the textbook on learners’ use of modal verbs. Moreover, the learner corpus was analyzed for the misuse (syntactic errors, e.g., she can sings*.) of the nine modal verbs to uncover potential difficulties that confront learners. The results indicate discrepancies between the textbook presentation of modal verbs and authentic modal use in natural discourse in terms of distributions of frequencies, semantic functions, and co-occurring structures. Furthermore, there are consistent patterns of use between the learner corpus and the textbook corpus with respect to the three above-mentioned aspects, except could, will and must, partially confirming the correlation between the frequency effects and L2 grammar acquisition. Further analysis reveals that the exceptions are caused by both positive and negative L1 transfer, indicating that the frequency effects can be intercepted by L1 interference. Besides, error analysis revealed that could, would, should and must are the most difficult for Chinese learners due to both inter-linguistic and intra-linguistic interference. The discrepancies between the textbook corpus and the native corpus point to a need to adjust the presentation of modal verbs in the textbooks in terms of frequencies, different meanings, and verb-phrase structures. Along with the adjustment of modal verb treatment based on authentic use, it is important for textbook writers to take into consideration the L1 interference as well as learners’ difficulties in their use of modal verbs. The present study is a methodological showcase of the combination both native and learner corpora in the enhancement of EFL textbook language authenticity and appropriateness for learners.

Keywords: EFL textbooks, learner corpus, modal verbs, native corpus

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115 Linguistic Politeness in Higher Education Teaching Chinese as an Additional Language

Authors: Leei Wong


Changes in globalized contexts precipitate changing perceptions concerning linguistic politeness practices. Within these changing contexts, misunderstanding or stereotypification of politeness norms may lead to negative consequences such as hostility or even communication breakdown. With China’s rising influence, the country is offering a vast potential market for global economic development and diplomatic relations and opportunities for intercultural interaction, and many outside China are subsequently learning Chinese. These trends bring both opportunities and pitfalls for intercultural communication, including within the important field of politeness awareness. One internationally recognized benchmark for the study and classification of languages – the updated 2018 CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Language) Companion Volume New Descriptors (CEFR/CV) – classifies politeness as a B1 (or intermediate) level descriptor on the scale of Politeness Conventions. This provides some indication of the relevance of politeness awareness within new globalized contexts for fostering better intercultural communication. This study specifically examines Bald on record politeness strategies presented in current beginner TCAL textbooks used in Australian tertiary education through content-analysis. The investigation in this study involves the purposive sampling of commercial textbooks published in America and China followed by interpretive content analysis. The philosophical position of this study is therefore located within an interpretivist ontology, with a subjectivist epistemological perspective. It sets out with the aim to illuminate the characteristics of Chinese Bald on record strategies that are deemed significant in the present-world context through Chinese textbook writers and curriculum designers. The data reveals significant findings concerning politeness strategies in beginner stage curriculum, and also opens the way for further research on politeness strategies in intermediate and advanced level textbooks for additional language learners. This study will be useful for language teachers, and language teachers-in-training, by generating awareness and providing insights and advice into the teaching and learning of Bald on record politeness strategies. Authors of textbooks may also benefit from the findings of this study, as awareness is raised of the need to include reference to understanding politeness in language, and how this might be approached.

Keywords: linguistic politeness, higher education, Chinese language, additional language

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114 Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Luluah A. Al Jabr


The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions. In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, chemistry textbooks, scientific activities

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113 Cadaveric Assessment of Kidney Dimensions Among Nigerians - A Preliminary Report

Authors: Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Omowumi Femi-Akinlosotu


Background: The usually paired human kidneys are retroperitoneal urinary organs with some endocrine functions. Standard text books of anatomy ascribe single value to each of the dimension of length, width and thickness. Research questions: These values do not give consideration to racial and genetic variability in human morphology. They may thus be erroneous to students and clinicians working on Nigerians. Objectives: The study aimed at establishing reference values of the kidney length, width and thickness for Nigerians using the cadaveric model. Methodology: The length, width, thickness and weight of sixty kidneys harvested from cadavers of thirty adult Nigerians (Male: Female; 27: 3) were measured. Respective volume was calculated using the ellipsoid formula. Results: The mean length of the kidney was 9.84±0.89 cm (9.63±0.88 {right}; 10.06±0.86 {left}), width- 5.18±0.70 cm (5.21±0.72 {right}; 5.14±0.70 {left}), thickness-3.45±0.56 cm (3.36±0.58 {right}, 3.53±0.55 {left}), weight-125.06±22.34 g (122.36±21.70 {right}; 127.76 ±24.02 {left}) and volume of 95.45± 24.40 cm3 (91.73± 26.84 {right}; 99.17± 25.75 {left}). Discussion: Though the values of the parameters measured were higher for the left kidney (except for the width), they were not statistically significant. The various parameters obtained by this study differ from those of similar studies from other continents. Conclusion: Stating single value for each of the parameter of length, width and thickness of the kidney as currently obtained in textbooks of anatomy may be incomplete information and hence misleading. Thus, there is the need to emphasize racial differences when stating the normal values of kidney dimensions in textbooks of anatomy. Implication for Research and Innovation: The results of the study showed the dimensions of the kidney (length, width and thickness) have interracial vagaries as they were different from those of similar studies and values stated in standard textbooks of human anatomy. Future direction: This is a preliminary report and the study will continue so that more data will be obtained.

Keywords: kidney dimensions, cadaveric estimation, adult nigerians, racial differences

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