Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3805

Search results for: cold stress

3805 Crops Cold Stress Alleviation by Silicon: Application on Turfgrass

Authors: Taoufik Bettaieb, Sihem Soufi

Abstract:

As a bioactive metalloid, silicon (Si) is an essential element for plant growth and development. It also plays a crucial role in enhancing plants’ resilience to different abiotic and biotic stresses. The morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular background of Si-mediated stress tolerance in plants were unraveled. Cold stress is a severe abiotic stress response to the decrease of plant growth and yield by affecting various physiological activities in plants. Several approaches have been used to alleviate the adverse effects generated from cold stress exposure, but the cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and defensible approach is the supply of silicon. Silicon has the ability to neutralize the harmful impacts of cold stress. Therefore, based on these hypotheses, this study was designed in order to investigate the morphological and physiological background of silicon effects applied at different concentrations on cold stress mitigation during early growth of a turfgrass, namely Paspalum vaginatum Sw. Results show that silicon applied at different concentrations improved the morphological development of Paspalum subjected to cold stress. It is also effective on the photosynthetic apparatus by maintaining stability the photochemical efficiency. As the primary component of cellular membranes, lipids play a critical function in maintaining the structural integrity of plant cells. Silicon application decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and kept on membrane frontline barrier relatively stable under cold stress.

Keywords: crops, cold stress, silicon, abiotic stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
3804 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, cold room, cooling rate, dDates, numerical simulation, k-ω (SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
3803 Modeling of Cold Tube Drawing with a Fixed Plug by Finite Element Method and Determination of Optimum Drawing Parameters

Authors: E. Yarar, E. A. Guven, S. Karabay

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive simulation was made for the cold tube drawing with fixed plug. The cold tube drawing process is preferred due to its high surface quality and the high mechanical properties. In drawing processes applied to materials with low plastic deformability, cracks can occur on the surfaces and the process efficiency decreases. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of different drawing parameters on drawing forces and stresses. In the simulations, optimum conditions were investigated for four different materials, Ti64Al4V, AA5052, AISI4140, and C365. One of the most important parameters for the cold drawing process is the die angle. Three dies were designed for the analysis with semi die angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°. Three different parameters were used for the friction coefficient between die and the material. In the simulations, reduction of area and the drawing speed is kept constant. Drawing is done in one pass. According to the simulation results, the highest drawing forces were obtained in Ti64Al4V. As the semi die angle increases, the drawing forces decrease. The change in semi die angle was most effective on Ti64Al4V. Increasing the coefficient of friction is another effect that increases the drawing forces. The increase in the friction coefficient has also increased in drawing stresses. The increase in die angle also increased the drawing stress distribution for the other three materials outside C365. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the designed drawing die is suitable for drawing. The lowest drawing stress distribution and drawing forces were obtained for AA5052. Drawing die parameters have a direct effect on the results. In addition, lubricants used for drawing have a significant effect on drawing forces.

Keywords: cold tube drawing, drawing force, drawing stress, semi die angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
3802 Flange/Web Distortional Buckling of Cold-Formed Steel Beams with Web Holes under Pure Bending

Authors: Nan-Ting Yu, Boksun Kim, Long-Yuan Li

Abstract:

The cold-formed steel beams with web holes are widely used as the load-carrying members in structural engineering. The perforations can release the space of the building and let the pipes go through. However, the perforated cold-formed steel (PCFS) beams may fail by distortional buckling more easily than beams with plain web; this is because the rotational stiffness from the web decreases. It is well known that the distortional buckling can be described as the buckling of the compressed flange-lip system. In fact, near the ultimate failure, the flange/web corner would move laterally, which indicates the bending of the web should be taken account. The purpose of this study is to give a specific solution for the critical stress of flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams. The new model is deduced based on classical energy method, and the deflection of the web is represented by the shape function of the plane beam element. The finite element analyses have been performed to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The comparison of the critical stress calculated from Hancock's model, FEA, and present model, shows that the present model can provide a splendid prediction for the flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, beams, perforations, flange-web distortional buckling, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3801 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

Abstract:

Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3800 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu

Abstract:

Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3799 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren

Abstract:

Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
3798 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
3797 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, physics, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
3796 Multi-Particle Finite Element Modelling Simulation Based on Cohesive Zone Method of Cold Compaction Behavior of Laminar Al and NaCl Composite Powders

Authors: Yanbing Feng, Deqing Mei, Yancheng Wang, Zichen Chen

Abstract:

With the advantage of low volume density, high specific surface area, light weight and good permeability, porous aluminum material has the potential to be used in automotive, railway, chemistry and construction industries, etc. A layered powder sintering and dissolution method were developed to fabricate the porous surface Al structure with high efficiency. However, the densification mechanism during the cold compaction of laminar composite powders is still unclear. In this study, multi particle finite element modelling (MPFEM) based on the cohesive zone method (CZM) is used to simulate the cold compaction behavior of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders. To obtain its densification mechanism, the macro and micro properties of final compacts are characterized and analyzed. The robustness and accuracy of the numerical model is firstly verified by experimental results and data fitting. The results indicate that the CZM-based multi particle FEM is an effective way to simulate the compaction of the laminar powders and the fracture process of the NaCl powders. In the compaction of the laminar powders, the void is mainly filled by the particle rearrangement, plastic deformation of Al powders and brittle fracture of NaCl powders. Large stress is mainly concentrated within the NaCl powers and the contact force network is formed. The Al powder near the NaCl powder or the mold has larger stress distribution on its contact surface. Therefore, the densification process of cold compaction of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders is successfully analyzed by the CZM-based multi particle FEM.

Keywords: cold compaction, cohesive zone, multi-particle FEM, numerical modeling, powder forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3795 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
3794 Effects of Cold Treatments on Methylation Profiles and Reproduction Mode of Diploid and Tetraploid Plants of Ranunculus kuepferi (Ranunculaceae)

Authors: E. Syngelaki, C. C. F. Schinkel, S. Klatt, E. Hörandl

Abstract:

Environmental influence can alter the conditions for plant development and can trigger changes in epigenetic variation. Thus, the exposure to abiotic environmental stress can lead to different DNA methylation profiles and may have evolutionary consequences for adaptation. Epigenetic control mechanisms may further influence mode of reproduction. The alpine species R. kuepferi has diploid and tetraploid cytotypes, that are mostly sexual and facultative apomicts, respectively. Hence, it is a suitable model system for studying the correlations of mode of reproduction, ploidy, and environmental stress. Diploid and tetraploid individuals were placed in two climate chambers and treated with low (+7°C day/+2°C night, -1°C cold shocks for three nights per week) and warm (control) temperatures (+15°C day/+10°C night). Subsequently, methylation sensitive-Amplified Fragment-Length Polymorphism (AFPL) markers were used to screen genome-wide methylation alterations triggered by stress treatments. The dataset was analyzed for four groups regarding treatment (cold/warm) and ploidy level (diploid/tetraploid), and also separately for full methylated, hemi-methylated and unmethylated sites. Patterns of epigenetic variation suggested that diploids differed significantly in their profiles from tetraploids independent from treatment, while treatments did not differ significantly within cytotypes. Furthermore, diploids are more differentiated than the tetraploids in overall methylation profiles of both treatments. This observation is in accordance with the increased frequency of apomictic seed formation in diploids and maintenance of facultative apomixis in tetraploids during the experiment. Global analysis of molecular variance showed higher epigenetic variation within groups than among them, while locus-by-locus analysis of molecular variance showed a high number (54.7%) of significantly differentiated un-methylated loci. To summarise, epigenetic variation seems to depend on ploidy level, and in diploids may be correlated to changes in mode of reproduction. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism and possible functional significance of these correlations.

Keywords: apomixis, cold stress, DNA methylation, Ranunculus kuepferi

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3793 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
3792 RFID Logistic Management with Cold Chain Monitoring: Cold Store Case Study

Authors: Mira Trebar

Abstract:

Logistics processes of perishable food in the supply chain include the distribution activities and the real time temperature monitoring to fulfil the cold chain requirements. The paper presents the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology as an identification tool of receiving and shipping activities in the cold store. At the same time, the use of RFID data loggers with temperature sensors is presented to observe and store the temperatures for the purpose of analyzing the processes and having the history data available for traceability purposes and efficient recall management.

Keywords: logistics, warehouse, RFID device, cold chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
3791 Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System

Authors: Qian Zhao, Shi-Qi Liu, Bo Guo, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Xiao-Yue Wu

Abstract:

Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: cold standby system, k-out-of-n, residual life, simulation sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3790 Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod

Authors: Mohammed Mohsin Ali H., Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Keywords: connecting rod, ASTM a514 cold quenched material, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3789 Characterization of Filled HNBR Elastomers for Sealing Application in Cold Climate Areas

Authors: Anton G. Akulichev, Avinash Tiwari, Ben Alcock, Andreas Echtermeyer

Abstract:

Low temperatures are known to pose a major threat for polymers; many are prone to excessive stiffness or even brittleness. There is a technology gap between the properties of existing elastomeric sealing materials and the properties needed for service in extremely cold regions. Moreover, some aspects of low temperature behaviour of rubber are not thoroughly studied and understood. The paper presents results of laboratory testing of a conventional oilfield HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber) elastomer at low climatic temperatures above and below its glass transition point, as well as the performance of some filled HNBR formulations. Particular emphasis in the experiments is put on rubber viscoelastic characteristics studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and quasi-static mechanical testing results at low temperatures. As demonstrated by the stress relaxation and DMA experiments the transition region near Tg of the studied compound has the most striking features, like rapid stress relaxation, as compared to the glassy and rubbery plateau. In addition the quasi-static experiments show that molecular movement below Tg is not completely frozen, but rather evident and manifested in a certain stress decay as well. The effect of temperature and filler additions on typical mechanical and other properties of the materials is also discussed.

Keywords: characterization, filled elastomers, HNBR, low temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3788 Influence of Copper-Methionine on Hematological and Biochemical Changes and Ascites Incidence in Cold-Stressed Broilers

Authors: M. Bagheri Varzaneh, H. R. Rahmani, R. Jahanian

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of copper-methionine on ascites incidence and hematological, morphological and enzymatic responses in broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including two ambient temperatures (thermoneutral and cold stress) and three copper levels (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg as copper-methionine) with 4 replicates (20 birds in each replicate). Broilers were kept in an environmentally-controlled room from 1 to 28 days; then, half of them exposed to cold temperature from 28 to 45 days of age. The birds were sacrificed at days 38 and 45 of age. Heparinized blood samples were collected to measure hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Heart, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected and weighed separately on a sensitive digital scale. At d 38 of age, none of hematological variables, enzymatic parameters, and relative weights of organs were affected by treatments. Ascitic broilers were observed in group subjected to cold temperature and control diet (without supplemental copper) at d 45 of age. Relative weight of lungs and relative weight of heart in broilers fed on copper-methionine supplemented diets in cold temperature were lower compared with other groups. Relative liver weight, ALT, AST activities, and hematological parameters such as hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count in ascitic broilers were significantly increased. In contrast, a significant decrease of the relative weight of spleen was shown in these chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation with copper–methionine can decrease probability of ascites incidence in broilers chicks, especially under cold condition.

Keywords: ascites, cold temperature, copper-methionine, cold-stressed broiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 559
3787 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang

Abstract:

Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
3786 Effect of Heat Stress on the Physiology of the Cork Oak

Authors: J. Zekri, N. Souilah, W. Abdelaziz, D. Alatou

Abstract:

Our study shall focus on the ability of trees cork oak that showed vis-à-vis sensitivity to climate change, including late spring frosts. The combination of these factors resulted in damage alarmed, therefore forest ecosystems weakened trees that can affect their ability to support other abiotic and biotic stresses, For this we tested its tolerance to thermal variations and cold weather conditions by estimating some stress markers (quantification of proteins, RNA, soluble sugars) that are quantified to evaluate the cold tolerance of seedlings. Sowing of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is grown in controlled conditions at 25° C ± 2° C in long days 16h. These seedlings are transferred at low temperatures between 5° C and -6° C for a period of 3 hours. Biochemical analyzes were performed in the various organs of the cork oak seedlings. Cool temperatures induced a significant accumulation of proline in different organs of seedlings and the optimum concentrations were observed in the roots with very high concentrations (4 times larger than those of the control). The accumulation of soluble sugars is significantly in stems and roots at 0° C. Protein concentrations are very high in leaves of both growth and high waves in rod at -4° C to -2° C. Tolerance cork oak seems to be at the thermal limit of -2°C. The concentration of these metabolites in the various organs showed the ability oak cork hardening during the winter.

Keywords: climate change, thermal change, semi-aride, biochemical markers, heat stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
3785 The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Miaolei Jia, Bingjie Li

Abstract:

While researchers have begun to investigate how ambient elements affect consumers’ choices between healthy and unhealthy food, the role of ambient temperature is relatively unknown. In this study, we find that ambient coldness increases consumers’ preference for unhealthy food. This effect is driven by the increased need for energy automatically activated in a cold ambiance. Consequently, consumers are more inclined to choose calorie-rich unhealthy food. This effect is diminished when the unhealthy food is cold because cold dish cannot provide the energy consumers need in the cold ambiance. We conclude with a discussion of our theoretical contributions to the literature of temperature effects and food consumption. We also offer practical takeaways for restaurant managers.

Keywords: ambient temperature, cold ambiance, food choice, need for energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
3784 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
3783 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Abstract:

In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3782 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
3781 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3780 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker

Abstract:

Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3779 The Role and Impact of Cold Spray Technology on Surface Engineering

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of novel processing technologies and materials to improve performance and reduce costs and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold spray process, has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace, electronics, or medical applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of cold spraying on surface engineering.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, ageing aircrafts, corrosion, microchannels, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
3778 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
3777 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath

Abstract:

There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

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3776 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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