Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1178

Search results for: oral cavity

1178 Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

Authors: Sanjay Saraf

Abstract:

The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their importance in early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.

Keywords: dermatological investigations, genodermatosis, histological features, oral examination

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1177 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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1176 Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica Extracts against Oral Cavity Bacteria

Authors: Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Abd El-Latif Hesham

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Despite medical progress worldwide, dental caries are still widespread. Miswak is derived from the plant arak (Salvadora persica). It is used by Muslim people as a natural product for the cleansing of teeth, to ensure oral and dental hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol, methanol, and ethanol/methanol extracts of miswak against three bacterial pathogens of the oral cavity. The pathogens were isolated from the oral cavity of volunteers/patients and were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification data. Sequence comparisons were made with 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the GenBank database. The results of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified the three pathogens as being Staphylococcus aureus strain KKU-020, Enterococcus faecalis strain KKU-021 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KKU-022. All miswak extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activity against the three pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition (40.67±0.88 mm) was observed against E. faecalis with ethanolic extracts whilst methanolic extracts showed the minimum zone of inhibition (10.33±0.88 mm) against K. pneumonia KKU-022. Based on the significant effects of the miswak extracts against the oral cavity pathogens in our study, we recommend that miswak is to be used as a dental hygiene method to prevent tooth caries.

Keywords: antibacterial, miswak, Salvadora persica, oral cavity pathogens

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1175 Prevalence Of Periodontal Disease In Felines In The Outskirts Of The City Of Manaus, Brazil: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Pármenas Costa Macedo do Nascimento

Abstract:

Periodontal disease is the most common disease in the oral cavity of felines. It starts with the accumulation of bacteria on the tooth surface supporting the tissues of the periodontal tissue, namely gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. The main clinical symptom observed by the owner is bad breath, which may lead to local and systemic consequences depending on the stage of periodontal disease, such as bleeding and bone loss. Therefore, the study is important to educate tutors to take better care of the felines oral health in order to try to prevent the disease. For this epidemiological study, the target population has been felines, located on the outskirts of Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, with a geographic area of 155.68 km², with no defined breed, from October 1st to 10th, 2021, whose samples has been randomly selected, with a detailed profile. The variables of interest for this study have been: absence or presence of periodontal disease, gender, age (delimited by age group), and condition (domiciled or homeless). Using a sample of 40 felines from 4 districts of the east side of Manaus chosen at random, an oral exam has been made to identify the studied disease. The animal's apparent age, condition, sex, and presence or absence of periodontal disease has been noted. It has been observed that 70% (28/40) of them had periodontal disease, mostly females, aged between 0 and 5 years and domiciled, totaling 30% (12/40).

Keywords: felines, oral cavity, oral exam, periodontal disease

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1174 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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1173 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du

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The shielding ability of a shielding cavity is affected greatly by its resonances, which include resonance modes and frequencies. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of transmission line matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effect of aperture-cavity coupling on electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture can be considered as the combination of cavity and aperture inherent resonance modes with resonance frequencies shifting, and the reason of this shift is aperture-cavity coupling. Because aperture sizes are important parameters to aperture-cavity coupling, variation rules of electromagnetic resonances of a shielding cavity with its aperture sizes are given, which will be useful for the design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment

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1172 Solid Oral Leiomyoma: Clinical Case Report

Authors: Hurtado Zuñiga Yonel Marcos, Ferreira Joao Tiago

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Introduction: Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor. It is predominantly found between 40-49 years with a small prevalence in men. It is commonly found in the uterus, stomach, and in areas with smooth muscle. It presents as nodular, solitary, variable size, slow growing, and asymptomatic. It is classified into solid, vascular, and epithelioid leiomyoma. Vascular leiomyoma is the most common in the oral cavity. Oral leiomyomas are very rare because a smooth muscle in the oral cavity isn’t common. The most frequent areas of this pathologyaretongue, lip, buccal mucosa, and palate. It may be derived from the vascular walls or excretory ducts of the salivary glands. The diagnosis is made by histologically analysis. The treatment of choice is complete excision. Recurrence is rare. Objective: To report the case of a solid leiomyoma on the dorsum of the tongue and review the literature. Case description: A 78-year-old female patient presented a nodular (ovoid) elevation of 8x6mm, brownish color, with irregular limits and firm consistency located in the dorsal part of the tongue with slight symptoms. An excisional biopsy was performed, photographic record, and 3 weeks post-surgical follow-up. Result: The surgical specimen was submitted to an anatomopathological analysis, resulting in a benign nodule with defined limits compatible with solid leiomyoma of the tongue. Discussion: It is a pathology that presents in a solitary, nodular, well-defined, asymptomatic form; in the oral cavity, leiomyomas are found in the tongue, lip, buccal mucosa, and palate; as in our patient, it was nodular and, in the tongue, with a difference only in the symptomatology. The most prevalent age is 40-49 years and with small predominance in men, unlike our female patient with 78 years. Conclusions: Oral leiomyoma is a rare benign lesion that presents as a solitary nodular nodule; for its diagnosis, an anatomopathological analysis should be performed, and the treatment of choice is total excision with little recurrence.

Keywords: tongue, bening tumor, oral leiomyoma, leiomyoma

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1171 Numerical Study on the Cavity-Induced Piping Failure of Embankment

Authors: H. J. Kim, G. C. Park, K. C. Kim, J. H. Shin

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Cavities are frequently found beneath conduits on pile foundations in old embankments. Cavity reduces seepage length significantly and consequently causes piping failure of embankments. Case studies of embankment failures indicate that the relative settlement between ground and pile supported-concrete conduit was the main reason of the cavity. In this paper, an attempt to simulate the cavity-induced piping failure mechanism was made using finite element numerical method. Piping potential is examined by carrying out parametric study for influencing factors such as cavity length, water level, and flow conditions. The concentration of hydraulic gradient adjacent to cavity was found. It is found that the hydraulic gradient close to the cavity exceeds considerably the critical hydraulic gradient causing piping. Piping failure potential due to the existence of cavity is evaluated and contour map for the potential risk of an embankment for piping failure is proposed.

Keywords: cavity, hydraulic gradient, levee, piping

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1170 Association between Caries Status of First Permanent Molar with Oral Health Care Practice in Children Aged 9-12 Years in Lubuk Kilangan, Padang City

Authors: Cytha Nilam Chairani, Ditha Noviantika, Hidayati Amir, Nurul Khairiyah, Siti Rahmadita, Fadila Khairani

Abstract:

Background: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases with high prevalence in children. The first permanent molar (FPM) has an essential role in establishing the occlusion. Nevertheless, FPM is very prone to caries because of various factors, such as their anatomical structure and early emergence in oral cavity. It is due to the little knowledge from parents and children regarding the timing of emergence of FPM in oral cavity which is still considered as primary teeth. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge from parents and children may affect their oral hygiene practice resulting to carious process. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice in 9-12-year-old school children in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 50 school children (9-12 years old) using random sampling technique from two randomly selected schools in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. A questionnaire was developed from other studies consisting of four closed ended questions regarding oral health practice. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney Test to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice. Results: The results showed that 32% of children had FPMs sound and the remaining 68% had FPMs carious which were grouped into 1-2 FPMs carious (60%) and 3-4 FPMs carious (8%). The caries status of mandibular FPM (64%) was higher compared to maxillary FPM (10%). Conclusion: There was significant association in subject who did not visit dentist in the last 6 months which had more carious FPMs compared to subject who visited dentist (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the status of FPM caries and knowledge of the timing eruption of FPM, oral hygiene instruction from parents and tooth brushing (p > 0.05).

Keywords: dental caries, children, first permanent molar, oral hygiene practice

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1169 Smokeless Tobacco Oral Manifestation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Saliva

Authors: Sintija Miļuna, Ričards Melderis, Loreta Briuka, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča

Abstract:

Objectives: Smokeless tobacco products in Latvia have become more available and favorable to young adults, especially students and athletes like hockey and floorball players. The aim of the research was to detect visual mucosal changes in the oral cavity in smokeless tobacco users and to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF Alpha) levels in saliva from smokeless tobacco users. Methods: A smokeless tobacco group (n=10) and a control group (non-tobacco users) (n=10) were intraorally examined for oral lesions and 5 ml of saliva were collected. Saliva was analyzed for Il-6, IL-1, Il-8, TNF Alpha using ELISA Sigma-Aldrich. Results IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were higher in the smokeless tobacco group (IL-1 115,61 pg/ml vs. 13.33 pg/ml; IL-6 389.09 pg/ml vs. 0 pg/ml; IL-8 1171.1 pg/ml vs. 224.3 pg/ml; TNF Alpha 941.87 pg/ml vs. 53.03 pg/ml). Conclusions White localized lesions were detected in places where smokeless tobacco users placed sachets. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were significantly higher in the smokeless tobacco group than in the control group. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rīga Stradiņš University No.22/28.01.2016.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, Snus, inflammatory biomarkers, oral lesions, oral pathology

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1168 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

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Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

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1167 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia

Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo

Abstract:

Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.

Keywords: dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer

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1166 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

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As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: evidence-based practice, oral care, nursing, children

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1165 Combined Surface Tension and Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Open Cavity

Authors: Habibis Saleh, Ishak Hashim

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Combined surface tension and natural convection heat transfer in an open cavity is studied numerically in this article. The cavity is filled with water-{Cu} nanofluids. The left wall is kept at low temperature, the right wall at high temperature and the bottom and top walls are adiabatic. The top free surface is assumed to be flat and non--deformable. Finite difference method is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. It is found that the insignificant effect of adding the nanoparticles were obtained about $Ma_{bf}=250$.

Keywords: natural convection, marangoni convection, nanofluids, square open cavity

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1164 Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Thymus Fallax Essential Oil Against Oral Pathogens

Authors: Maryam Moshaverinia, Sarina Sahmeddini, Fatemeh Lavee, Zahra Zareshahrabadi, Kamiar Zomorodian

Abstract:

Oral infections associated with a wide diversity of microorganisms, including bacteria and yeasts, frequently occur in humans, affecting the whole oral cavity and well-being. During the past decades, drug resistance to common antibiotics used in the treatment of oral infections has been raised to high levels worldwide. To overcome such resistance, there is a growing tendency to use herbal medicine as an alternative. This study was conducted to find out the chemical constitution of Thymus fallax (T.fallax) essential oil and to determine its anti-microbial and anti- biofilm efficacy against common oral pathogens. The chemical compositions of the essential oil distilled from T.fallax plants were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against common Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Candida strains was assessed by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Biofilm growth and development were assessed using XTT reduction assay. Based on the GC/MS test results, Thymol (67.75%) followed by Caryophyllene (E-) (7.27%), were the main components of this essential oil. T.fallax inhibited the growth of examined microbial pathogens at concentrations of 0.031-16 μL/mL. Also, the essential oil showed biofilm inhibition of greater than 95% in the concentration of 8 μl/ml against all tested bacterial strains as well as Candida albicans. Considering the significant antimicrobial activities of T.fallax, this essential oil has the potential to be used as further antimicrobial and anti-biofilm pharmaceutical products in the control and treatment of oral infections.

Keywords: essential oils, antibacterial agents, infections, GC/MS

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1163 Material Detection by Phase Shift Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

Authors: Rana Muhammad Armaghan Ayaz, Yigit Uysallı, Nima Bavili, Berna Morova, Alper Kiraz

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Traditional optical methods for example resonance wavelength shift and cavity ring-down spectroscopy used for material detection and sensing have disadvantages, for example, less resistance to laser noise, temperature fluctuations and extraction of the required information can be a difficult task like ring downtime in case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy is not only easy to use but is also capable of overcoming the said problems. This technique compares the phase difference between the signal coming out of the cavity with the reference signal. Detection of any material is made by the phase difference between them. By using this technique, air, water, and isopropyl alcohol can be recognized easily. This Methodology has far-reaching applications and can be used in air pollution detection, human breath analysis and many more.

Keywords: materials, noise, phase shift, resonance wavelength, sensitivity, time domain approach

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1162 Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity

Authors: Mohammadreza Sedighi, Mohammad Said Saidi, Hesamoddin Salarian

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A numerical study has been performed to investigate the effect of using different turbulent models on natural convection flow field and temperature distributions in partially heated square cavity compare to benchmark. The temperature of the right vertical wall is lower than that of heater while other walls are insulated. The commercial CFD codes are used to model. Standard k-w model provided good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Buoyancy, Cavity, CFD, Heat Transfer, Natural Convection, Turbulence

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1161 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

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The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering-gallery modes

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1160 Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Study

Authors: Renjith George Pallivathukal, Preethy Mary Donald

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Asymptomatic oral lesions are often ignored by the patients and usually will be identified only in advanced stages. Early detection of precancerous lesions is important for better prognosis. It is also important for the oral health care person to be aware of the regional prevalence of oral lesions in order to provide early care for the same. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of oral lesions based on the information available from patient records in a teaching dental school. Dental records of patients who attended the department of Oral medicine and diagnosis between September 2014 and September 2016 were retrieved and verified for oral lesions. Results: The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The lesions were classified as white (40.5%), red (23%), ulcerated (10.5%), pigmented (15.2%) and soft tissue enlargements (10.8%). 52% of the patients were unaware of the oral lesions before the dental visit. Overall, the prevalence of lesions in dental patients lower to national estimates, but the prevalence of some lesions showed variations.

Keywords: oral mucosal lesion, pre-cancer, prevalence, soft tissue lesion

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1159 Preoperative 3D Planning and Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects for Patients with Oral Cavity Tumors

Authors: Janis Zarins, Kristaps Blums, Oskars Radzins, Renars Deksnis, Atis Svare, Santa Salaka

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Wide tumor resection remains the first choice method for tumors of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, remained tissue defect impacts patients functional and aesthetical outcome, which could be improved using microvascular tissue transfers. Mandibular reconstruction is challenging due to the complexity of composite tissue defects and occlusal relationships for normal eating, chewing, and pain free jaw motions. Individual 3-D virtual planning would provide better symmetry and functional outcome. The main goal of preoperative planning is to develop a customized surgical approach with patient specific cutting guides of the mandible, osteotomy guides of the fibula, pre-bended osteosynthesis plates to perform more precise reconstruction, to decrease the surgery time and reach the best outcome. Our study is based on the analysis of 32 patients operated on between 2019 to 2021. All patients underwent mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula flaps. Patients characteristics, surgery profile, survival, functional outcome, and quality of life was evaluated. Preoperative planning provided a significant decrease of surgery time and the best arrangement of bone closely similar as before the surgery. In cases of bone asymmetry, deformity and malposition, a new mandible was created using 3D planning to restore the appearance of lower jaw anatomy and functionality.

Keywords: mandibular, 3D planning, cutting guides, fibula flap, reconstruction

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1158 Survey of the Effect of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT/PTEN, and MAPK Signaling Pathways at Co-Culture with KB Oral Cancer Cell Line and HUVEC Cells

Authors: Negar Zaheddoust, Negin Zaheddoust, Abbas Asoudeh-Fard

Abstract:

Probiotic bacteria have been employed as a novel and less side-effect strategy for anticancer therapy. Since the oral cavity is a host for probiotic and pathogen bacteria to colonize, more investigation is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this novel adjunctive treatment for oral cancer. We considered Lactobacillus plantarum as a probiotic and Streptococcus mutans as a pathogen bacterium in our study. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT / PTEN, and MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in apoptosis or survival of oral cancer KB cells. On the other hand, to study the effects of these bacteria on normal cells, we used HUVEC cells. The KB and HUVEC cell lines were co-cultured with Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans isolated from traditional Iranian dairy and dental plaque, respectively. The growth-inhibitory effects of these two bacteria on KB and HUVEC cells were determined by (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. MTT results demonstrated that the proliferation of KB cells was affected in a time, dose, and strain-dependent manner. In the following, the examination of induced apoptosis or necrosis in co-cultured KB cells with the best IC50 concentration of the Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans will be analyzed by FACS flow cytometry, and the changes in gene expression of Casp3, AKT / PTEN, MAPK genes will be evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Keywords: cancer therapy, induced apoptosis, oral cancer, probiotics

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1157 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah

Abstract:

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

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1156 Numerical Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer Performance in an Inclined Cavity: Nanofluid and Random Temperature

Authors: Hicham Salhi, Mohamed Si-Ameur, Nadjib Chafai

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Natural convection of a nanofluid consisting of water and nanoparticles (Ag or TiO2) in an inclined enclosure cavity, has been studied numerically, heated by a (random temperature, based on the random function). The governing equations are solved numerically using the finite-volume. Results are presented in the form of streamlines, isotherms, and average Nusselt number. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to examine explicitly the volume fraction effects of nanoparticles (Ψ= 0.1, 0.2), the Rayleigh number (Ra=103, 104, 105, 106),the inclination angle of the cavity( égale à 0°, 30°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°), types of temperature (constant ,random), types of (NF) (Ag andTiO2). The results reveal that (NPs) addition remarkably enhances heat transfer in the cavity especially for (Ψ= 0.2). Besides, the effect of inclination angle and type of temperature is more pronounced at higher Rayleigh number.

Keywords: nanofluid, natural convection, inclined cavity, random temperature, finite-volume

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1155 Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

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Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), oral cavity lesion, plasmablastic lymphoma, subcutaneous swelling

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1154 Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Closed Cavity Ventilated Inside

Authors: Benseghir Omar, Bahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

In this work, we presented a numerical study of the phenomenon of heat transfer through the laminar, incompressible and steady mixed convection in a closed square cavity with the left vertical wall of the cavity is subjected to a warm temperature, while the right wall is considered to be cold. The horizontal walls are assumed adiabatic. The governing equations were discretized by finite volume method on a staggered mesh and the SIMPLER algorithm was used for the treatment of velocity-pressure coupling. The numerical simulations were performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers 1, 10, 100, and 1000 numbers are equal to 0.01,0.1 Richardson, 0.5,1 and 10.The analysis of the results shows a flow bicellular (two cells), one is created by the speed of the fan placed in the inner cavity, one on the left is due to the difference between the temperatures right wall and the left wall. Knowledge of the intensity of each of these cells allowed us to get an original result. And the values obtained from each of Nuselt convection which allow to know the rate of heat transfer in the cavity.Finally we find that there is a significant influence on the position of the fan on the heat transfer (Nusselt evolution) for values of Reynolds studied and for low values of Richardson handed this influence is negligible for high values of the latter.

Keywords: thermal transfer, mixed convection, square cavity, finite volume method

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1153 Evaluation of Gingival Hyperplasia Caused by Medications

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Greta Plaka, Vera Ostreni

Abstract:

Purpose: Drug gingival hyperplasia is an uncommon pathology encountered during routine work in dental units. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical appearance of gingival hyperplasia caused by medications. There are already three classes of medications that cause hyperplasia and based on data from the literature, the clinical cases encountered and included in this study have been compared. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 311 patients, out of which 182 patients were included in our study, meeting the inclusion criteria. After each patient's history was recorded and it was found that patients were in their knowledge of chronic illness, undergoing treatment of gingivitis hypertrophic drugs was performed with a clinical examination of oral cavity and assessment by vertical and horizontal evaluation according to the periodontal indexes. Results: Of the data collected during the study, it was observed that 97% of patients with gingival hyperplasia are treated with nifedipine. 84% of patients treated with selected medicines and gingival hyperplasia in the oral cavity has been exposed at time period for more than 1 year and 1 month. According to the GOI, in the first rank of this index are about 21% of patients, in the second rank are 52%, in the third rank are 24% and in the fourth grade are 3%. According to the horizontal growth index of gingival hyperplasia, grade 1 included about 61% of patients and grade 2 included about 39% of patients with gingival hyperplasia. Bacterial index divides patients by degrees: grading 0 - 8.2%, grading 1 - 32.4%, grading 2 - 14% and grading 3 - 45.1%. Conclusions: The highest percentage of gingival hyperplasia caused by drugs is due to dosing of nifedipine for a duration of dosing and application for systemic healing for more than 1 year.

Keywords: drug gingival hyperplasia, horizontal growth index, vertical growth index

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1152 Chaos in a Stadium-Shaped 2-D Quantum Dot

Authors: Roger Yu

Abstract:

A numerical scheme has been developed to solve wave equations for chaotic systems such as stadium-shaped cavity. The same numerical method can also be used for finding wave properties of rectangle cavities with randomly placed obstacles. About 30k eigenvalues have been obtained accurately on a normal circumstance. For comparison, we also initiated an experimental study which determines both eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a stadium-shaped cavity using pulse and normal mode analyzing techniques. The acoustic cavity was made adjustable so that the transition from nonchaotic (circle) to chaotic (stadium) waves can be investigated.

Keywords: quantum dot, chaos, numerical method, eigenvalues

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1151 Nutritional Status of Surgical and Orthopedic Patients: 3B Ward

Authors: Jitaree Tantiyasawatdikul, Bantita Jadnok, Sarunya Tijana

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional status is an important factor before, during, and after an operation. It can help wound healing. If the patients have good nutritional status before and after an operation, wound healing can occur more easily. It can strengthen the immune system leading to decreased infection, reduced length of stay, and reducing the cost to patients and caregivers. Therefore, screening to evaluate the nutritional status of patients in 3B becomes the database for further developing the treatment and also will lead to excellent service from the interdisciplinary team. Objective: To study the nutritional status of patients in surgical ward 3B at Surgical and Orthopedics Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital. Method: A descriptive study, to evaluate the nutritional status of 86 patients admitted in 3B between October 2014 and March 2015.The instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: 1) personal data, 2) Screening nutritional status. The data were analyzed by percentage and mean. Results: A sample population of 86 patients aged 22-81 years old, mean age 52.59years, 90.69% are married, female were 55.81%, regular diet 70.93%, patients with no problem oral cavity was 87.21%.The sample population had high incidence of CA 47.67% and secondly cardiovascular disease 36.05 %. Patients with high-risk nutrition was 12.79 % including 45.45% cardiovascular disease and 36.36% CA. Screening of nutritional status of high-risk nutrition was 39.36% severe triceps skinfold (TSF), severe mid-arm muscle circumference(MAMC) 9.09% and severe total lymphocyte 39.36%. Conclusion: The result of nutritional status screening of surgical ward 3B found 12.79% patients with high-risk nutrition including 45.45% with cardiovascular disease .There was no problem with oral cavity and eating.

Keywords: nutritional status, screening, surgical patients, 3B ward, Srinagarind Hospital

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1150 The Prevalence of Intubation Induced Dental Complications among Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Dorsa Rahi, Arghavan Tonkanbonbi, Soheila Manifar, Behzad Jafvarnejad

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Intraoral manipulation is performed during endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia, which can traumatize the soft and hard tissue in the oral cavity and cause postoperative pain and discomfort. Dental trauma is the most common complication of intubation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental complications due to intubation in patients hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2018-2019. Materials and Methods: A total of 805 patients presenting to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital for preoperative anesthesia consultation were randomly enrolled. A dentist interviewed the patients and performed a comprehensive clinical oral examination preoperatively. The patients underwent clinical oral examination by another dentist postoperatively. Results: No significant correlation was found between dental trauma (tooth fracture, tooth mobility, or soft tissue injury) after intubation with the age or gender of patients. According to the Wilcoxon test and McNemar-Bowker Test, the rate of mobility before the intubation was significantly different from that after the intubation (P=0.000). Maxillary central incisors, maxillary left canine and mandibular right and left central incisors had the highest rate of fracture. Conclusion: Mobile teeth before the intubation are at higher risk of avulsion and aspiration during the procedure. Patients with primary temporomandibular joint disorders are more susceptible to post-intubation trismus.

Keywords: oral trauma, dental trauma, intubation, anesthesia

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1149 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO₃, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation

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