Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Sambit Supriya Dash

52 Increasing Efficiency, Performance and Safety of Aircraft during Takeoff and Landing by Interpreting Electromagnetism

Authors: Sambit Supriya Dash

Abstract:

Aerospace Industry has evolved over the last century and is growing by approaching towards, more fuel efficient, cheaper, simpler, convenient and safer ways of flight stages. In this paper, the accident records of aircrafts are studied and found about 71% of accidents caused on runways during Takeoff and Landing. By introducing the concept of interpreting electromagnetism, the cause of bounced touchdown and flare failure such as landing impact loads and instability could be eliminated. During Takeoff, the rate of fuel consumption is observed to be maximum. By applying concept of interpreting electromagnetism, a remarkable rate of fuel consumption is reduced, which can be used in case of emergency due to lack of fuel or in case of extended flight. A complete setup of the concept, its effects and characteristics are studied and provided with references of few popular aircrafts. By embedding series of strong and controlled electromagnets below the runway along and aside the centre line and fixed in the line of acting force through wing-fuselage aerodynamic centre. By the essence of its strength controllable nature, it can contribute to performance and fuel efficiency for aircraft. This ensures a perfect Takeoff with less fuel consumption followed by safe cruise stage, which in turn ensures a short and safe landing, eliminating the till known failures, due to bounced touchdowns and flare failure.

Keywords: efficiency, elctromagnetism, performance, reduced fuel consumption, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
51 Experimental Investigation on the Role of Thermoacoustics on Soot Formation

Authors: Sambit Supriya Dash, Rahul Ravi R, Vikram Ramanan, Vinayak Malhotra

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Combustion in itself is a complex phenomenon that involves the interaction and interplay of multiple phenomena, the combined effect of which gives rise to the common flame that we see and use in our daily life applications from cooking to propelling our vehicles to space. The most important thing that goes unnoticed about these flames is the effect of the various phenomena from its surrounding environment that affects its behavior and properties. These phenomena cause a variety of energy interactions that lead to various types of energy transformations which in turn affect the flame behavior. This paper focuses on experimentally investigating the effect of one such phenomenon, which is the acoustics or sound energy on diffusion flames. The subject in itself is extensively studied upon as thermo-acoustics globally, whereas the current work focuses on studying its effect on soot formation on diffusion flames. The said effect is studied in this research work by the use of a butane as fuel, fitted with a nozzle that houses 3 arrays consisting of 4 holes each that are placed equidistant to each other and the resulting flame impinged with sound from two independent and similar sound sources that are placed equidistant from the centre of the flame. The entire process is systematically video graphed using a 60 fps regular CCD and analysed for variation in flame heights and flickering frequencies where the fuel mass flow rate is maintained constant and the configuration of entrainment holes and frequency of sound are varied, whilst maintaining constant ambient atmospheric conditions. The current work establishes significant outcomes on the effect of acoustics on soot formation; it is noteworthy that soot formation is the main cause of pollution and a major cause of inefficiency of current propulsion systems. This work is one of its kinds, and its outcomes are widely applicable to commercial and domestic appliances that utilize combustion for energy generation or propulsion and help us understand them better, so that we can increase their efficiency and decrease pollution.

Keywords: thermoacoustics, entrainment, propulsion system, efficiency, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
50 Impinging Acoustics Induced Combustion: An Alternative Technique to Prevent Thermoacoustic Instabilities

Authors: Sayantan Saha, Sambit Supriya Dash, Vinayak Malhotra

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Efficient propulsive systems development is an area of major interest and concern in aerospace industry. Combustion forms the most reliable and basic form of propulsion for ground and space applications. The generation of large amount of energy from a small volume relates mostly to the flaming combustion. This study deals with instabilities associated with flaming combustion. Combustion is always accompanied by acoustics be it external or internal. Chemical propulsion oriented rockets and space systems are well known to encounter acoustic instabilities. Acoustic brings in changes in inter-energy conversion and alter the reaction rates. The modified heat fluxes, owing to wall temperature, reaction rates, and non-linear heat transfer are observed. The thermoacoustic instabilities significantly result in reduced combustion efficiency leading to uncontrolled liquid rocket engine performance, serious hazards to systems, assisted testing facilities, enormous loss of resources and every year a substantial amount of money is spent to prevent them. Present work attempts to fundamentally understand the mechanisms governing the thermoacoustic combustion in liquid rocket engine using a simplified experimental setup comprising a butane cylinder and an impinging acoustic source. Rocket engine produces sound pressure level in excess of 153 Db. The RL-10 engine generates noise of 180 Db at its base. Systematic studies are carried out for varying fuel flow rates, acoustic levels and observations are made on the flames. The work is expected to yield a good physical insight into the development of acoustic devices that when coupled with the present propulsive devices could effectively enhance combustion efficiency leading to better and safer missions. The results would be utilized to develop impinging acoustic devices that impinge sound on the combustion chambers leading to stable combustion thus, improving specific fuel consumption, specific impulse, reducing emissions, enhanced performance and fire safety. The results can be effectively applied to terrestrial and space application.

Keywords: combustion instability, fire safety, improved performance, liquid rocket engines, thermoacoustics

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
49 Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Style Diet and Risk of Mortality from Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

Authors: Roohallah Fallah-Moshkani, Mohammad Ali Mohsenpour, Reza Ghiasvand, Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Paula Brauer, Amin Salehi-Abargouei

Abstract:

Purpose: Several investigations have proposed the protective association between dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) style diet and risk of cancers; however, they have led to inconsistent results. The present study aimed to systematically review the prospective cohort studies conducted in this regard and, if possible, to quantify the overall effect of using meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for cohort studies published up to December 2017. Relative risks (RRs) which were reported for fully adjusted models and their confidence intervals were extracted for meta-analysis. Random effects model was incorporated to combine the RRs. Results: Sixteen studies were eligible to be included in the systematic review from which 8 reports were conducted on the effect of DASH on the risk of mortality from all cancer types, four on the risk of colorectal cancer, and three on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Four studies examined the association with other cancers (breast, hepatic, endometrial, and lung cancer). Meta-analysis showed that high concordance with DASH significantly decreases the risk of all cancer types (RR=0.83, 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.80-0.85); furthermore participants who highly adhered to the DASH had lower risk of developing colorectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.75-0.83), colon (RR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.74-0.87) and rectal (RR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98) cancer compared to those with the lowest adherence. Conclusions: DASH-style diet should be suggested as a healthy approach to protect from cancer in the community. Prospective studies exploring the effect on other cancer types and from regions other than the United States are highly recommended.

Keywords: cancer, DASH-style diet, dietary patterns, meta-analysis, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
48 Analysis of the Operating Load of Gas Bearings in the Gas Generator of the Turbine Engine during a Deceleration to Dash Maneuver

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Pawel Magryta, Mateusz Paszko

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The paper discusses the status of loads acting on the drive unit of the unmanned helicopter during deceleration to dash maneuver. Special attention was given for the loads of bearings in the gas generator turbine engine, in which will be equipped a helicopter. The analysis was based on the speed changes as a function of time for manned flight of helicopter PZL W3-Falcon. The dependence of speed change during the flight was approximated by the least squares method and then determined for its changes in acceleration. This enabled us to specify the forces acting on the bearing of the gas generator in static and dynamic conditions. Deceleration to dash maneuvers occurs in steady flight at a speed of 222 km/h by horizontal braking and acceleration. When the speed reaches 92 km/h, it dynamically changes an inclination of the helicopter to the maximum acceleration and power to almost maximum and holds it until it reaches its initial speed. This type of maneuvers are used due to ineffective shots at significant cruising speeds. It is, therefore, important to reduce speed to the optimum as soon as possible and after giving a shot to return to the initial speed (cruising). In deceleration to dash maneuvers, we have to deal with the force of gravity of the rotor assembly, gas aerodynamics forces and the forces caused by axial acceleration during this maneuver. While we can assume that the working components of the gas generator are designed so that axial gas forces they create could balance the aerodynamic effects, the remaining ones operate with a value that results from the motion profile of the aircraft. Based on the analysis, we can make a compilation of the results. For this maneuver, the force of gravity (referring to statistical calculations) respectively equals for bearing A = 5.638 N and bearing B = 1.631 N. As overload coefficient k in this direction is 1, this force results solely from the weight of the rotor assembly. For this maneuver, the acceleration in the longitudinal direction achieved value a_max = 4.36 m/s2. Overload coefficient k is, therefore, 0.44. When we multiply overload coefficient k by the weight of all gas generator components that act on the axial bearing, the force caused by axial acceleration during deceleration to dash maneuver equals only 3.15 N. The results of the calculations are compared with other maneuvers such as acceleration and deceleration and jump up and jump down maneuvers. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: gas bearings, helicopters, helicopter maneuvers, turbine engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
47 Specific Biomarker Level and Function Outcome Changes in Treatment of Patients with Frozen Shoulder Using Dextrose Prolotherapy Injection

Authors: Nuralam Sam, Irawan Yusuf, Irfan Idris, Endi Adnan

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The most case in the shoulder in the the adult is the frozen shoulder. It make an uncomfortable sensation which disturbance daily activity. The studies of frozen shoulder are still limited. This study used a true experimental pre and post test design with a group design. The participant underwent dextrose prolotherapy injection in the rotator cuff, intraarticular glenohumeral joint, long head tendon biceps, and acromioclavicular joint injections with 15% dextrose, respectively, at week 2, week 4, and week 6. Participants were followed for 12 weeks. The specific biomarker MMP and TIMP, ROM, DASH score were measured at baseline, at week 6, and week 12. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis (repeated measurement ANOVA, Paired T-Test, and Wilcoxon) to determine the effect of the intervention. The result showed a significant decrease in The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score in prolo injection patients in each measurement week (p < 0.05). While the measurement of Range of Motion (ROM), each direction of shoulder motion showed a significant difference in average each week, from week 0 to week 6 (p <0.05).Dextrose prolotherapy injection results give a significant improvement in functional outcome of the shoulder joint, and ROMand did not show significant results in assessing the specific biomarker, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in tissue repair. This study suggestion an alternative to the use of injection prolotherapy in Frozen shoulder patients, which has fewer side effects and better effectiveness than the use of corticosteroid injections.

Keywords: frozen shoulder, ROM, DASH score, prolotherapy, MMP-1, TIMP-1

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
46 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

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Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
45 Disaster Response Training Simulator Based on Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and MPEG-DASH

Authors: Sunho Seo, Younghwan Shin, Jong-Hong Park, Sooeun Song, Junsung Kim, Jusik Yun, Yongkyun Kim, Jong-Moon Chung

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In order to effectively cope with large and complex disasters, disaster response training is needed. Recently, disaster response training led by the ROK (Republic of Korea) government is being implemented through a 4 year R&D project, which has several similar functions as the HSEEP (Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program) of the United States, but also has several different features as well. Due to the unpredictiveness and diversity of disasters, existing training methods have many limitations in providing experience in the efficient use of disaster incident response and recovery resources. Always, the challenge is to be as efficient and effective as possible using the limited human and material/physical resources available based on the given time and environmental circumstances. To enable repeated training under diverse scenarios, an AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) combined simulator is under development. Unlike existing disaster response training, simulator based training (that allows remote login simultaneous multi-user training) enables freedom from limitations in time and space constraints, and can be repeatedly trained with different combinations of functions and disaster situations. There are related systems such as ADMS (Advanced Disaster Management Simulator) developed by ETC simulation and HLS2 (Homeland Security Simulation System) developed by ELBIT system. However, the ROK government needs a simulator custom made to the country's environment and disaster types, and also combines the latest information and communication technologies, which include AR, VR, and MPEG-DASH (Moving Picture Experts Group - Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) technology. In this paper, a new disaster response training simulator is proposed to overcome the limitation of existing training systems, and adapted to actual disaster situations in the ROK, where several technical features are described.

Keywords: augmented reality, emergency response training simulator, MPEG-DASH, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
44 Association of Maternal Diet Quality Indices and Dietary Patterns during Lactation and the Growth of Exclusive Breastfed Infant

Authors: Leila Azadbakht, Maedeh Moradi, Mohammad Reza Merasi, Farzaneh Jahangir

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Maternal dietary intake during lactation might affect the growth rate of an exclusive breastfed infant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary patterns and quality during lactation on the growth of the exclusive breastfed infant. Methods: 484 healthy lactating mothers with their infant were enrolled in this study. Only exclusive breastfed infants were included in this study which was conducted in Iran. Dietary intake of lactating mothers was assessed using a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality indices such as alternative Healthy eating index (HEI), Dietary energy density (DED), and adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern score, Nordic and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating pattern were created. Anthropometric features of infant (weight, height, and head circumference) were recorded at birth, two and four months. Results: Weight, length, weight for height and head circumference of infants at two months and four months age were mostly in the normal range among those that mothers adhered more to the HEI in lactation period (normal weight: 61%; normal height: 59%). The prevalence of stunting at four months of age among those whose mothers adhered more to the HEI was 31% lower than those with the least adherence to HEI. Mothers in the top tertiles of HEI score had the lowest frequency of having underweight infants (18% vs. 33%; P=0.03). Odds ratio of being overweight or obese at four months age was the lowest among those infants whose mothers adhered more to the HEI (OR: 0.67 vs 0.91; Ptrend=0.03). However, there was not any significant association between adherence of mothers to Mediterranean diet as well as DASH diet and Nordic eating pattern and the growth of infants (none of weight, height or head circumference). Infant weight, length, weight for height and head circumference at two months and four months did not show significant differences among different tertile categories of mothers’ DED. Conclusions: Higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI (as an indicator of diet quality) may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. However, it seems that DED of the lactating mother does not affect the growth of the breastfed infant. Adherence to the different dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, DASH or Nordic among mothers had no different effect on the growth indices of the infants. However, higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. Breastfeeding is a complete way that is not affected much by the dietary patterns of the mother. However, better diet quality might be associated with better growth.

Keywords: breastfeeding, growth, infant, maternal diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
43 Positive Effect of Manipulated Virtual Kinematic Intervention in Individuals with Traumatic Stiff Shoulder: Pilot Study

Authors: Isabella Schwartz, Ori Safran, Naama Karniel, Michal Abel, Adina Berko, Martin Seyres, Tamir Tsoar, Sigal Portnoy

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Virtual Reality allows to manipulate the patient’s perception, thereby providing a motivational addition to real-time biofeedback exercises. We aimed to test the effect of manipulated virtual kinematic intervention on measures of active and passive Range of Motion (ROM), pain, and disability level in individuals with traumatic stiff shoulder. In a double-blinded study, patients with stiff shoulder following proximal humerus fracture and non-operative treatment were randomly divided into a non-manipulated feedback group (NM-group; N=6) and a manipulated feedback group (M-group; N=7). The shoulder ROM, pain, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were tested at baseline and after the 6 sessions, during which the subjects performed shoulder flexion and abduction in front of a graphic visualization of the shoulder angle. The biofeedback provided to the NM-group was the actual shoulder angle and the feedback provided to the M-group was manipulated so that 10° were constantly subtracted from the actual angle detected by the motion capture system. The M-group showed greater improvement in the active flexion ROM, with median and interquartile range of 197.1 (140.5-425.0) compared to 142.5 (139.1-151.3) for the NM-group (p=.046). Also, the M-group showed greater improvement in the DASH scores, with median and interquartile range of 67.7 (52.8-86.2) compared to 89.7 (83.8-98.3) for the NM-group (p=.022). Manipulated intervention is beneficial in individuals with traumatic stiff shoulder and should be further tested for other populations with orthopedic injuries.

Keywords: virtual reality, biofeedback, shoulder pain, range of motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
42 A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Work after Surgical vs. Non-surgical Midshaft Humerus Fracture

Authors: Jamal Alasiri, Naif Hakeem, Saoud Almaslmani

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Background: Patients with humeral shaft fractures have two different treatment options. Surgical therapy has lesser risks of non-union, mal-union, and re-intervention than non-surgical therapy. These positive clinical outcomes of the surgical approach make it a preferable treatment option despite the risks of radial nerve palsy and additional surgery-related risk. We aimed to evaluate patients’ outcomes and return to work after surgical vs. non-surgical management of shaft humeral fracture. Methods: We used databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, from 2010 to January 2022 to search for potential randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the patients’ related outcome measures and return to work between surgical and non-surgical management of humerus fracture. Results: After carefully evaluating 1352 articles, we included three RCTs (232 patients) and one cohort study (39 patients). The surgical intervention used plate/nail fixation, while the non-surgical intervention used a splint or brace procedure to manage shaft humeral fracture. The pooled DASH effects of all three RCTs at six (M.D: -7.5 [-13.20, -1.89], P: 0.009) I2:44%) and 12 months (M.D: -1.32 [-3.82, 1.17], p:0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients treated surgically than in non-surgical procedures. The pooled constant Murley score at six (M.D: 7.945[2.77,13.10], P: 0.003) I2: 0%) and 12 months (M.D: 1.78 [-1.52, 5.09], P: 0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients who received non-surgical than surgical therapy. However, pooled analysis for patients returning to work for both groups remained inconclusive. Conclusion: Altogether, we found no significant evidence supporting the clinical benefits of surgical over non-surgical therapy. Thus, the non-surgical approach remains the preferred therapeutic choice for managing shaft humeral fractures due to its lesser side effects.

Keywords: shaft humeral fracture, surgical treatment, Patient-related outcomes, return to work, DASH

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41 Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time

Authors: Yu-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chun Wang, Wen-Tzu Tang, Huei-Ming Chai

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A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.

Keywords: first ray mobility, kinesio taping, pronated foot, sprint time

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
40 Short Term Effects of Mobilization with Movement in a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Case Report

Authors: S. F. Kanaan, Fatima Al-Kadi, H. Khrais

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Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that is characterized by chronic pain that limits physical and functional activities. To our best knowledge, there is currently no key physiotherapy approach recommended to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, there are scarce studies that investigated the effect of manual therapy in the management of Fibromyalgia, and no study investigated the efficacy of Mulligan´s mobilization with movement (MWM) in particular. Methods: A 51-year-old female diagnosed with Fibromyalgia for more than a year. The patient was complaining of generalized pain including neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. In addition, the patient reported severe limitation in activities and inability to complete her work as a lawyer. The Intervention provided for the patient consisted of 4 sessions (in two weeks) of MWM for neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, sacroiliac joint, hips, and knees. The Visual Analogue Scale of pain (VAS), Range of Motion (ROM), 10-minute walk test, Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH) were collected at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Average improvement of ROM in the neck, lower back, shoulder, elbows, hips, and knees was 45%. VAS scale changed from pre-treatment to post-treatment as the following: neck pain (9 to 0), lower back pain (8 to 1), shoulders pain (8 to 2), elbows pain (7 to 1), and knees pain (9 to 0). The patient demonstrated improvement in all functional scale from pre-intervention to post-intervention: 10-meter walk test (9.8 to 4.5 seconds), RMQ (21 to 11/24), and DASH (88.7% to 40.5%). The patient did not report any side effect of using this approach. Conclusion: Fibromyalgia can cause joint 'faulty position' leading to pain and dysfunction, which can be reversed by using MWM. MWM showed to have clinically significant improvement in ROM, pain, and ability to walk and a clinically significant reduction in disability in only 4 sessions. This work can be expanded in a larger sample.

Keywords: mobilization, fibromyalgia, dysfunction, manual therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
39 The Efficacy of Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint for Treating DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis: A feasible Study

Authors: Alduqsi Badr, Sheil Agnes, Haynes Sinead

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The aim of this feasibility study is to determine the prospect of conducting a randomised controlled trial to study the efficacy of Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint for treating DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis. This study's objectives are to investigate the recruitment procedures and process, the implementation of interventions and treatment protocols and the applicability and appropriateness of outcome measures. Nine subjects, aged between 18 to 65 years old and who have a positive Finkelstien's test, were divided into two groups, Kinesio Tape and Long Thumb Spica Splint. The subjects participated in six weeks intervention. Due to the small sample size of subjects, descriptive analysis was employed using Excel (version 2009). The results were reported by comparing individuals’ scores and graphs based on the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) scores. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI), Pinch and Hand Strength, Numerical Rating Scale for Pain (NRSP), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were used to measure upper extremity functional status, pain, pinch and grip strength and performance and satisfaction in the most five important activities from the client’s perspective, respectively, before and after the intervention. The findings of this feasibility study indicated that there were components that need to be modified to conduct a successful main trial. In addition, the results of this feasibility study indicated that the Kinesio group demonstrated better functional status (DASH and ULFI), grip strength, pinch strength and less pain intensity (NRSP) in comparison to the Splint group. Further, both groups showed similar improvement in activities performance and satisfaction and pain severity and its interference with activities. In conclusion, this feasibility study suggested that Kinesio taping can be a feasible treatment approach in the treatment of DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis.

Keywords: DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis, DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, kinesio taping, thumb spica splint

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
38 Posterior Thigh Compartment Syndrome Associated with Hamstring Avulsion and Antiplatelet Therapy

Authors: Andrea Gatti, Federica Coppotelli, Ma Primavera, Laura Palmieri, Umberto Tarantino

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Aim of study: Scientific literature is scarce of studies and reviews valuing the pros and cons of the paratricipital approach for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures; the lateral paratricipital approach is a valid alternative to the classical posterior approach to the humeral shaft as it preserves both the triceps muscle and the elbow extensor mechanisms; based on our experience, this retrospective analysis aims at analyzing outcome, risks and benefits of the lateral paratricipital approach for humeral shaft fractures. Methods: Our study includes 14 patients treated between 2018 and 2019 for unilateral humeral shaft fractures: 13 with a B1 or B2 and a patient with a C fracture type (according to the AO/ATO Classification); 6 of our patients identified as male while 8 as female; age average was 57.8 years old (range 21-73 years old). A lateral paratricipital approach was performed on all 14 patients, sparing the triceps muscle by avoiding the olecranon osteotomy and by assessing the integrity and the preservation of the radial nerve; the humeral shaft fracture osteosynthesis was performed by means of plates and screws. After surgery all patients have started elbow functional rehabilitation with acceptable pain management. Post-operative follow-up has been carried out by assessing radiographs, MEPS (Mayo Elbow Performance Score) and DASH (Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand) functional assessment and ROM of the affected joint. Results: All 14 patients had an optimal post-operative follow-up with an adequate osteosynthesis and functional rehabilitations by entirely preserving the operated elbow joint; the mean elbow ROM was 0-118.6 degree (range of 0-130) while the average MEPS score was 86 (range75-100) and 79.9 for the DASH (range 21.7-86.1). Just 2 patients suffered of temporary radial nerve apraxia, healed in the subsequent follow-ups. CONCLUSION: The lateral paratricipital approach preserve both the integrity of the triceps muscle and the elbow biomechanism but we do strongly recommend additional studies to be carried out to highlight differences between it and the classical posterior approach in treating humeral shaft fractures.

Keywords: paratricepital approach, humerus shaft fracture, posterior approach humeral shaft, paratricipital postero-lateral approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
37 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash

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In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: exergy analysis, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
36 Development of Non-Intrusive Speech Evaluation Measure Using S-Transform and Light-Gbm

Authors: Tusar Kanti Dash, Ganapati Panda

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The evaluation of speech quality and intelligence is critical to the overall effectiveness of the Speech Enhancement Algorithms. Several intrusive and non-intrusive measures are employed to calculate these parameters. Non-Intrusive Evaluation is most challenging as, very often, the reference clean speech data is not available. In this paper, a novel non-intrusive speech evaluation measure is proposed using audio features derived from the Stockwell transform. These features are used with the Light Gradient Boosting Machine for the effective prediction of speech quality and intelligibility. The proposed model is analyzed using noisy and reverberant speech from four databases, and the results are compared with the standard Intrusive Evaluation Measures. It is observed from the comparative analysis that the proposed model is performing better than the standard Non-Intrusive models.

Keywords: non-Intrusive speech evaluation, S-transform, light GBM, speech quality, and intelligibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
35 Effect of Angles Collision, Absorption, Dash and Their Relationship with the Finale Results Case the Algerian Elite Team Triple Jump

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Zerf Mohammed, Mekkades Moulay Idriss, BenGoua Ali, Atouti Nouredinne, Habchi Nawel

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The paper aims to show the influence of angles in the results of triple jump. Whereas our background confirms that a series of motions are characterized by complex angles in the properties phase (hop, step, and jump) as a combination of the pushed phase on ultimate phases in the result. For the purpose, our results are obtained from the National Athletics Championship 2013, which was filmed and analysis by the software kinovea. Based on the statistical analysis we confirm: there is a positive relationship between angle of the leg, hip angle, angle of the trunk in the collision during (hop, step, and jump), and there is a negative correlation to the angle of the knee relationship in a collision during.

Keywords: kinematics variables, the triple jump, the finale results, digital achievement

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34 Gender and Older People: Reframing Gender Analysis through Lifecycle Lens

Authors: Supriya Akerkar

Abstract:

The UN Decade on Healthy Ageing (2021-2030) provides a new opportunity to address ageing and gender issues in different societies. The concept of gender has been used to unpack and analyse the power and constructions of gender relations in different societies. Such analysis has been employed and used to inform policy and practices of governments and non-governmental organisations to further gender equalities in their work. Yet, experiences of older women and men are often left out of such mainstream gender analysis, marginalising their existence and issues. This paper argues that new critical analytical tools are needed to capture the realities and issues of interest to older women and men. In particular, it argues that gender analysis needs to integrate analytical concepts of ageing and lifecycle approach in its framework. The paper develops such a framework by critical interrogation of the gender analysis tools that are currently applied for framing gender issues in international development and humanitarian work. Informed by the realities and experiences of older women and men, developed through a synthesis of available literature, the paper will develop a new framework for gender analysis that can be used by governments and non-government organisations in their work to further gender justice across the life cycle.

Keywords: ageing, gender, older people, social inclusion

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33 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: Supriya, J. K. Basu, S. Sengupta

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: biopolymer, microwave irradiation, silver nanoparticles, water pollutant

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32 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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31 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

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Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

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30 Characterization of Waste Thermocol Modified Bitumen by Spectroscopy, Microscopic Technique, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer

Authors: Supriya Mahida, Sangita, Yogesh U. Shah, Shanta Kumar

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The global production of thermocol increasing day by day, due to vast applications of the use of thermocole in many sectors. Thermocol being non-biodegradable and more toxic than plastic leads towards a number of problems like its management into value-added products, environmental damage and landfill problems due to weight to volume ratio. Utilization of waste thermocol for modification of bitumen binders resulted in waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) used in road construction and maintenance technology. Modification of bituminous mixes through incorporating thermocol into bituminous mixes through a dry process is one of the new options besides recycling process which consumes lots of waste thermocol. This process leads towards waste management and remedies against thermocol waste disposal. The present challenge is to dispose the thermocol waste under different forms in road infrastructure, either through the dry process or wet process to be developed in future. This paper focuses on the use of thermocol wastes which is mixed with VG 10 bitumen in proportions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by weight of bitumen. The physical properties of neat bitumen are evaluated and compared with modified VG 10 bitumen having thermocol. Empirical characterization like penetration, softening, and viscosity of bitumen has been carried out. Thermocol and waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) were further analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

Keywords: DSR, FESEM, FT-IR, thermocol wastes

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29 Development of an Artificial Neural Network to Measure Science Literacy Leveraging Neuroscience

Authors: Amanda Kavner, Richard Lamb

Abstract:

Faster growth in science and technology of other nations may make staying globally competitive more difficult without shifting focus on how science is taught in US classes. An integral part of learning science involves visual and spatial thinking since complex, and real-world phenomena are often expressed in visual, symbolic, and concrete modes. The primary barrier to spatial thinking and visual literacy in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields is representational competence, which includes the ability to generate, transform, analyze and explain representations, as opposed to generic spatial ability. Although the relationship is known between the foundational visual literacy and the domain-specific science literacy, science literacy as a function of science learning is still not well understood. Moreover, the need for a more reliable measure is necessary to design resources which enhance the fundamental visuospatial cognitive processes behind scientific literacy. To support the improvement of students’ representational competence, first visualization skills necessary to process these science representations needed to be identified, which necessitates the development of an instrument to quantitatively measure visual literacy. With such a measure, schools, teachers, and curriculum designers can target the individual skills necessary to improve students’ visual literacy, thereby increasing science achievement. This project details the development of an artificial neural network capable of measuring science literacy using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIR) data. This data was previously collected by Project LENS standing for Leveraging Expertise in Neurotechnologies, a Science of Learning Collaborative Network (SL-CN) of scholars of STEM Education from three US universities (NSF award 1540888), utilizing mental rotation tasks, to assess student visual literacy. Hemodynamic response data from fNIRsoft was exported as an Excel file, with 80 of both 2D Wedge and Dash models (dash) and 3D Stick and Ball models (BL). Complexity data were in an Excel workbook separated by the participant (ID), containing information for both types of tasks. After changing strings to numbers for analysis, spreadsheets with measurement data and complexity data were uploaded to RapidMiner’s TurboPrep and merged. Using RapidMiner Studio, a Gradient Boosted Trees artificial neural network (ANN) consisting of 140 trees with a maximum depth of 7 branches was developed, and 99.7% of the ANN predictions are accurate. The ANN determined the biggest predictors to a successful mental rotation are the individual problem number, the response time and fNIR optode #16, located along the right prefrontal cortex important in processing visuospatial working memory and episodic memory retrieval; both vital for science literacy. With an unbiased measurement of science literacy provided by psychophysiological measurements with an ANN for analysis, educators and curriculum designers will be able to create targeted classroom resources to help improve student visuospatial literacy, therefore improving science literacy.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial neural network, machine learning, science literacy, neuroscience

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28 Gig-Work in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Audie Daniel Wood

Abstract:

In the spring of 2020, the country and the economy came to a halt due to an outbreak of the novel coronavirus, SARS-2, virus known as COVID-19. One of the hardest hit sectors of the economy was the gig-sector, which includes Lyft, Uber, Door-Dash, and other services. In this study, we examined the effects of the independent contractor status of laborers in this field to see how a near-complete economic shut-down affected the lives of laborers who are denied access to health-care and unemployment benefits due to their status as independent contractors. What the study found was there was no 'life-altering' change to the lives of the workers who used gig-work as supplementary income during the economic shut-down, but those who relied on Lyft and Uber, etc. as their sole source of income were more heavily impacted by the economic shut-down than part-time workers. The second significant finding of the study was that across all genders and races, the idea of having to seek unemployment or help was something that none of the workers wanted. They all felt as if unemployment and social-insurance were for those who could not work. While the findings are not generalizable due to this being a small qualitative study consisting of 27 participants, the findings suggest that the economic and social impact of COVID-19 on those that work in the gig-industry warrants further discussion and research.

Keywords: gig-work, Covid-19, independent contractor, Uber

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27 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal

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Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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26 Modelling the Tensile Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Freestanding Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings

Authors: Supriya Patibanda, Xiaopeng Gong, Krishna N. Jonnalagadda, Ralph Abrahams

Abstract:

Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a top coat in thermal barrier coatings in high-temperature turbine/jet engine applications. The mechanical behaviour of YSZ depends on the microstructural features like crack density and porosity, which are a result of coating method. However, experimentally ascertaining their individual effect is difficult due to the inherent challenges involved like material synthesis and handling. The current work deals with the development of a phenomenological model to replicate the tensile behavior of air plasma sprayed YSZ obtained from experiments. Initially, uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on freestanding YSZ coatings of ~300 µm thick for different crack densities and porosities. The coatings exhibited a nonlinear behavior and also a huge variation in strength values. With the obtained experimental tensile curve as a base and crack density and porosity as prime variables, a phenomenological model was developed using ABAQUS interface with new user material defined employing VUMAT sub routine. The relation between the tensile stress and the crack density was empirically established. Further, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of the individual features on the non-linearity in these coatings. This work enables to generate new coating designs by varying the key parameters and predicting the mechanical properties with the help of a simulation, thereby minimizing experiments.

Keywords: crack density, finite element method, plasma sprayed coatings, VUMAT

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25 Preparation and Characterization of Antifouling Polysulfone Flat Sheet Membrane by Phase Inversion

Authors: Bharti Saini, Sukanta K. Dash

Abstract:

In this work polymeric Nanofiltration (NF) membranes of polysulfone (PSF) (average molecular weight of 22400 Da) were prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) (average molecular weight of 200 Da) as an organic additive and ZnCl2 as an inorganic additive. Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) was used as the solvent, and Deionised water as nonsolvent. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion (immersion precipitation) method. PEG 200 and ZnCl2 in varying concentration are directly added into the casting solution of PSF and DMAc. PEG 200 was used in concentration varying from 0 to 10 % (w/w) in the solution of PSF and DMAc, while ZnCl2 is varied from 0 to 2% (w/w). Membranes were characterized for surface morphology, water uptake, porosity and contact angle, with respect to concentration of PEG and ZnCl2. It was observed that with the increase in additive PEG 200, the porosity and hence, hydrophilicity increase. As a result, the number of pores increases as justified by the SEM analysis as well. The study revealed that the synergistic effect of PEG with ZnCl2 is more effective, and the best results were produced by the solution containing 2% PEG 200 and 1% ZnCl2. It was inferred that with the increase in concentration of additives, the pore size goes on decreasing. The membranes obtained gradually move from microfiltration range to nanofiltration range, and this change is primarily brought about by the addition of ZnCl2.

Keywords: membrane, phase inversion method, polysulfone, porous structure

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24 Microfluidic Fluid Shear Mechanotransduction Device Using Linear Optimization of Hydraulic Channels

Authors: Sanat K. Dash, Rama S. Verma, Sarit K. Das

Abstract:

A logarithmic microfluidic shear device was designed and fabricated for cellular mechanotransduction studies. The device contains four cell culture chambers in which flow was modulated to achieve a logarithmic increment. Resistance values were optimized to make the device compact. The network of resistances was developed according to a unique combination of series and parallel resistances as found via optimization. Simulation results done in Ansys 16.1 matched the analytical calculations and showed the shear stress distribution at different inlet flow rates. Fabrication of the device was carried out using conventional photolithography and PDMS soft lithography. Flow profile was validated taking DI water as working fluid and measuring the volume collected at all four outlets. Volumes collected at the outlets were in accordance with the simulation results at inlet flow rates ranging from 1 ml/min to 0.1 ml/min. The device can exert fluid shear stresses ranging four orders of magnitude on the culture chamber walls which will cover shear stress values from interstitial flow to blood flow. This will allow studying cell behavior in the long physiological range of shear stress in a single run reducing number of experiments.

Keywords: microfluidics, mechanotransduction, fluid shear stress, physiological shear

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23 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim

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This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 278