Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3464

Search results for: kinematics variables

3464 Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics

Authors: S. Gómez, G. Sánchez, J. Zarama, M. Castañeda Ramos, J. Escoto Alcántar, J. Torres, A. Núñez, S. Santana, F. Nájera, J. A. Lopez


This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.

Keywords: kinematics, degree of freedom, optimization, robot manipulator

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3463 Analysis of Barbell Kinematics of Snatch Technique among Women Weightlifters in India

Authors: Manish Kumar Pillai, Madhavi Pathak Pillai, Rajender Lal, Dinesh P. Sharma


India has not yet been able to produce many weightlifters in the past years. Karnam Malleshwari is the only woman to win a medal for India in Olympics. When we try to introspect, there seem to be different reasons. One of the probable cause could be the lack of biomechanical analysis for technique improvements. The analysis of motion in sports has gained prime importance for technical improvement. It helps an athlete to develop a better understanding of his own skills and increasing the rate of technical learning process. Kinematics is concerned with describing and quantifying both the linear and angular position of bodies and their time derivatives. The techniques analysis of barbell movement is very important in weightlifting. But women weightlifting has a shorter history than men’s. Research on women weightlifting based on video analysis is less; there is a lack of scientific evidence based on kinematic analysis of especially on Indian weightlifters at national level are limited. Hence, the present investigation was aimed to analyze the barbell kinematics of women weightlifters in India. The study was delimited to the medal winners of 69-kilogram weight category in the All India Inter-University Competition, age ranging between 18 and 28 years. The variables selected for the mechanical analysis of Barbell kinematics included barbell trajectory, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, and average power output. The performance was captured during the competition by two DV PC-60 Digital cameras (Panasonic Company, Ltd). Two cameras were placed 6-meters perpendicular to the plane of the motion, 130 cm. above the ground to record/capture the frontal and lateral view of the lifters simultaneously. Video recordings were analyzed by using Dartfish software, and barbell kinematics were analyzed with the information derived with the help of software. The result documented on the basis of the finding of the study clearly states that there are differences in the selected kinematic variables in all three lifters in respect to their technique in five phases during snatch technique using by them.

Keywords: dartfish, digital camera, kinematic, snatch, weightlifting

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3462 Scorbot-ER 4U Using Forward Kinematics Modelling and Analysis

Authors: D. Maneetham, L. Sivhour


Robotic arm manipulators are widely used to accomplish many kinds of tasks. SCORBOT-ER 4u is a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) vertical articulated educational robotic arm, and all joints are revolute. It is specifically designed to perform pick and place task with its gripper. The pick and place task consists of consideration of the end effector coordinate of the robotic arm and the desired position coordinate in its workspace. This paper describes about forward kinematics modeling and analysis of the robotic end effector motion through joint space. The kinematics problems are defined by the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model is used in order to model the robotic links and joints with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. The forward kinematics model is also developed and simulated in MATLAB. The mathematical model is validated by using robotic toolbox in MATLAB. By using this method, it may be applicable to get the end effector coordinate of this robotic arm and other similar types to this arm. The software development of SCORBOT-ER 4u is also described here. PC-and EtherCAT based control technology from BECKHOFF is used to control the arm to express the pick and place task.

Keywords: forward kinematics, D-H model, robotic toolbox, PC- and EtherCAT-based control

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3461 The Effects of Seat Heights and Obesity on Lower-Limb Joint Kinematics during Sit-To-Stand Movement

Authors: Seungwon Baek, Haeseok Jeong, Haehyun Lee, Woojin Park


The main purpose of this study was to compare obese people to the non-obese in terms of joint kinematics in lower-limb body. The height of chairs was also considered as a design factor. Obese people had a difficulty in sit-to-stand (STS) tasks compared to the non-obese people. High chair heights can make STS task easy and it helps the obese to be more comfortable with STS task in particular. Subjects were instructed to wear inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. They perform STS task using chairs of different heights. Joint kinematics and subjective ratings of discomfort were measured. Knee angles of the obese group were greater than that of the non-obese group in normal type. No significant difference in joint kinematics was found in high chair. Interaction effect was found between obesity and height of chair. The results verified the previous research that had suggested a biomechanical model of STS movement. The results can be applied to occupational design for the obese.

Keywords: biomechanics, electromyography, joint kinematics, obesity, sitting, sit-to-stand

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3460 A Comparison of Two and Three Dimensional Motion Capture Methodologies in the Analysis of Underwater Fly Kicking Kinematics

Authors: Isobel M. Thompson, Dorian Audot, Dominic Hudson, Martin Warner, Joseph Banks


Underwater fly kick is an essential skill in swimming, which can have a considerable impact upon overall race performance in competition, especially in sprint events. Reduced wave drags acting upon the body under the surface means that the underwater fly kick will potentially be the fastest the swimmer is travelling throughout the race. It is therefore critical to understand fly kicking techniques and determining biomechanical factors involved in the performance. Most previous studies assessing fly kick kinematics have focused on two-dimensional analysis; therefore, the three-dimensional elements of the underwater fly kick techniques are not well understood. Those studies that have investigated fly kicking techniques using three-dimensional methodologies have not reported full three-dimensional kinematics for the techniques observed, choosing to focus on one or two joints. There has not been a direct comparison completed on the results obtained using two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis, and how these different approaches might affect the interpretation of subsequent results. The aim of this research is to quantify the differences in kinematics observed in underwater fly kicks obtained from both two and three-dimensional analyses of the same test conditions. In order to achieve this, a six-camera underwater Qualisys system was used to develop an experimental methodology suitable for assessing the kinematics of swimmer’s starts and turns. The cameras, capturing at a frequency of 100Hz, were arranged along the side of the pool spaced equally up to 20m creating a capture volume of 7m x 2m x 1.5m. Within the measurement volume, error levels were estimated at 0.8%. Prior to pool trials, participants completed a landside calibration in order to define joint center locations, as certain markers became occluded once the swimmer assumed the underwater fly kick position in the pool. Thirty-four reflective markers were placed on key anatomical landmarks, 9 of which were then removed for the pool-based trials. The fly-kick swimming conditions included in the analysis are as follows: maximum effort prone, 100m pace prone, 200m pace prone, 400m pace prone, and maximum pace supine. All trials were completed from a push start to 15m to ensure consistent kick cycles were captured. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics are calculated from joint locations, and the results are compared. Key variables reported include kick frequency and kick amplitude, as well as full angular kinematics of the lower body. Key differences in these variables obtained from two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis are identified. Internal rotation (up to 15º) and external rotation (up to -28º) were observed using three-dimensional methods. Abduction (5º) and adduction (15º) were also reported. These motions are not observed in the two-dimensional analysis. Results also give an indication of different techniques adopted by swimmers at various paces and orientations. The results of this research provide evidence of the strengths of both two dimensional and three dimensional motion capture methods in underwater fly kick, highlighting limitations which could affect the interpretation of results from both methods.

Keywords: swimming, underwater fly kick, performance, motion capture

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3459 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga


Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic

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3458 The Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Sprint Start in Young Elite Sprinters

Authors: Saeed Ilbeigi, Bart Van Gheluwe


The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. Moreover, the effect of anthropometrical factors such as skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth also were considered on the kinematics of the sprint start. Among all young sprinters involved in the national Belgium league, sixty sprinters (boys: 14.7 ± 1.8 years and girls: 14.8±1.5 years) were randomly selected. The kinematics data of the sprint start were collected with a Vicon® 620 motion analysis system equipped with 12 infrared cameras running at 250 Hz and running the Vicon Data Station software. For statistical analysis, T-tests and ANOVA׳s with Scheffé post hoc test were used and the significant level was set as p≤0.05. The results showed that the angular positions of the lower joints of the young sprinters in the set position were comparable with adult figures from literature, however, with a greater range of joint extension. The most significant difference between boys and girls was found in the set position, where the boys presented a more dorsiflexed ankle. No further gender effect was observed during the leaving the blocks and contact phase. The sprinters with a higher age, skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth displayed a better angular position of the lower joints (e.g. ankle, knee, hip) in the set position, a more optimal angular position for the foot and knee for absorbing impact forces at foot contact and finally a higher range of flexion/extension motion to produce force and power when leaving the blocks.

Keywords: anthropometry, kinematics, sprint start, young elite sprinters

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
3457 Childhood Obesity: Future Direction and Education Priorities

Authors: Zahra Ranjbar


Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific variables, which define a problem or an issue. In this study most important variables that have critical role in children obesity problem were introduce by ISM questionnaire technique and their relationships were determine. Our findings suggested that sedentary activities are top level variables and school teachers and administrators, public education and scientific collaborations are bottom level variables in children obesity problem. Control of dietary, Physical education program, parents, government and motivation strategies variables are depend to other variables. They are very sensitive to external variables. Also, physical education program, parents, government, motivation, school teachers and administrators, public education and collaboration variables have strong driving power. They are linkage factors; it means that they can be effective on children obesity problem directly.

Keywords: ISM, variable, obesity, physical education, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3456 Integral Form Solutions of the Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations without Deviatoric Stress Tensor Term in the Forward Modeling for FWI

Authors: Anyeres N. Atehortua Jimenez, J. David Lambraño, Juan Carlos Muñoz


Navier-Stokes equations (NSE), which describe the dynamics of a fluid, have an important application on modeling waves used for data inversion techniques as full waveform inversion (FWI). In this work a linearized version of NSE and its variables, neglecting deviatoric terms of stress tensor, is presented. In order to get a theoretical modeling of pressure p(x,t) and wave velocity profile c(x,t), a wave equation of visco-acoustic medium (VAE) is written. A change of variables p(x,t)=q(x,t)h(ρ), is made on the equation for the VAE leading to a well known Klein-Gordon equation (KGE) describing waves propagating in variable density medium (ρ) with dispersive term α^2(x). KGE is reduced to a Poisson equation and solved by proposing a specific function for α^2(x) accounting for the energy dissipation and dispersion. Finally, an integral form solution is derived for p(x,t), c(x,t) and kinematics variables like particle velocity v(x,t), displacement u(x,t) and bulk modulus function k_b(x,t). Further, it is compared this visco-acoustic formulation with another form broadly used in the geophysics; it is argued that this formalism is more general and, given its integral form, it may offer several advantages from the modern parallel computing point of view. Applications to minimize the errors in modeling for FWI applied to oils resources in geophysics are discussed.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes equations, modeling, visco-acoustic, inversion FWI

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3455 Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for 5 DOF Robot Arm Using D-H Parameters

Authors: Apurva Patil, Maithilee Kulkarni, Ashay Aswale


This paper proposes an algorithm to develop the kinematic model of a 5 DOF robot arm. The formulation of the problem is based on finding the D-H parameters of the arm. Brute Force iterative method is employed to solve the system of non linear equations. The focus of the paper is to obtain the accurate solutions by reducing the root mean square error. The result obtained will be implemented to grip the objects. The trajectories followed by the end effector for the required workspace coordinates are plotted. The methodology used here can be used in solving the problem for any other kinematic chain of up to six DOF.

Keywords: 5 DOF robot arm, D-H parameters, inverse kinematics, iterative method, trajectories

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3454 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis


In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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3453 Measurement and Analysis of Human Hand Kinematics

Authors: Tamara Grujic, Mirjana Bonkovic


Measurements and quantitative analysis of kinematic parameters of human hand movements have an important role in different areas such as hand function rehabilitation, modeling of multi-digits robotic hands, and the development of machine-man interfaces. In this paper the assessment and evaluation of the reach-to-grasp movement by using computerized and robot-assisted method is described. Experiment involved the measurements of hand positions of seven healthy subjects during grasping three objects of different shapes and sizes. Results showed that three dominant phases of reach-to-grasp movements could be clearly identified.

Keywords: human hand, kinematics, measurement and analysis, reach-to-grasp movement

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3452 A Review of Kinematics and Joint Load Forces in Total Knee Replacements Influencing Surgical Outcomes

Authors: Samira K. Al-Nasser, Siamak Noroozi, Roya Haratian, Adrian Harvey


A total knee replacement (TKR) is a surgical procedure necessary when there is severe pain and/or loss of function in the knee. Surgeons balance the load in the knee and the surrounding soft tissue by feeling the tension at different ranges of motion. This method can be unreliable and lead to early failure of the joint. The ideal kinematics and load distribution have been debated significantly based on previous biomechanical studies surrounding both TKRs and normal knees. Intraoperative sensors like VERASENSE and eLibra have provided a method for the quantification of the load indicating a balanced knee. A review of the literature written about intraoperative sensors and tension/stability of the knee was done. Studies currently debate the quantification of the load in medial and lateral compartments specifically. However, most research reported that following a TKR the medial compartment was loaded more heavily than the lateral compartment. In several cases, these results were shown to increase the success of the surgery because they mimic the normal kinematics of the knee. In conclusion, most research agrees that an intercompartmental load differential of between 10 and 20 pounds, where the medial load was higher than the lateral, and an absolute load of less than 70 pounds was ideal. However, further intraoperative sensor development could help improve the accuracy and understanding of the load distribution on the surgical outcomes in a TKR. A reduction in early revision surgeries for TKRs would provide an improved quality of life for patients and reduce the economic burden placed on both the National Health Service (NHS) and the patient.

Keywords: intraoperative sensors, joint load forces, kinematics, load balancing, and total knee replacement

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3451 Spectral Analysis Applied to Variables of Oil Wells Profiling

Authors: Suzana Leitão Russo, Mayara Laysa de Oliveira Silva, José Augusto Andrade Filho, Vitor Hugo Simon


Currently, seismic methods and prospecting methods are commonly applied in the oil industry and, according to the information reported every day; oil is a source of non-renewable energy. It is easier to understand why the ownership of areas of oil extraction is coveted by many nations. It is necessary to think about ways that will enable the maximization of oil production. The technique of spectral analysis can be used to analyze the behavior of the variables already defined in oil well the profile. The main objective is to verify the series dependence of variables, and to model the variables using the frequency domain to observe the model residuals.

Keywords: oil, well, spectral analysis, oil extraction

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3450 Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Gait in Patients with Stroke

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Fouad


Background: Stroke is the most leading cause to functional disability and gait problems. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation combined with treadmill training on selected gait kinematics in stroke patients. Methods: Thirty male stroke patients participated in this study. The patients were assigned randomly into two equal groups, (study and control). Patients in the study group received treadmill training combined with rhythmic auditory stimulation in addition to selected physical therapy program for hemiparetic patients. Patients in the control group received treadmill training in addition to the same selected physical therapy program including strengthening, stretching, weight bearing, balance exercises and gait training. Biodex gait trainer 2 TM was used to assess selected gait kinematics (step length, step cycle, walking speed, time on each foot and ambulation index) before and after six weeks training period (end of treatment) for both groups. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in walking speed, step cycle, step length, percent of the time on each foot and ambulation index in both groups post-treatment. The improvement in gait parameters post-treatment was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control. Conclusion: Rhythmic auditory stimulation combined with treadmill training is effective in improving selected gait kinematics in stroke patients when added to the selected physical therapy program.

Keywords: stroke, rhythmic auditory stimulation, treadmill training, gait kinematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
3449 Automata-Based String Analysis for Detecting Malware in Android Programs

Authors: Assad Maalouf, Lunjin Lu, James Lynott


We design and implement a precise model of string operations using finite state machine transformers and state transformers to approximate the values string variables can take throughout the execution of the program.We use our model to analyze Android program string variables. Our experimental results show that our string analysis is very efficient at detecting the contextual effect of string operations on the string variables. Our model proved to be very useful when it came to verifying statements about the string variables of the program.

Keywords: abstract interpretation, android, static analysis, string analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
3448 First-Year Undergraduate Students' Dilemma with Kinematics Graphs

Authors: Itumeleng Phage


Students’ comprehension of graphs may be affected by the characteristics of the discipline in which the graph is used, the type of the task as well as the background of the students who are the readers or interpreters of the graph. This research study investigated these aspects of the graph comprehension of 152 first-year undergraduate physics students by comparing their responses to corresponding tasks in the mathematics and physics disciplines. The discipline characteristics were analysed for four task-related constructs namely coordinates, representations, area and slope. Students’ responses to corresponding visual decoding and judgement tasks set in mathematics and kinematics contexts were statistically compared. The effects of the participants’ gender, year of school completion and study course were determined as reader characteristics. The results of the empirical study indicated that participants generally transferred their mathematics knowledge on coordinates and representation of straight line graphs to the physics contexts, but not in the cases of parabolic and hyperbolic functions or area under graphs. Insufficient understanding of the slope concept contributed to weak performances on this construct in both mathematics and physics contexts. Discipline characteristics seem to play a vital role in students’ understanding, while reader characteristics had insignificant to medium effects on their responses.

Keywords: kinematics graph, discipline characteristics, constructs, coordinates, representations, area and slope

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3447 Trajectory Tracking of a Redundant Hybrid Manipulator Using a Switching Control Method

Authors: Atilla Bayram


This paper presents the trajectory tracking control of a spatial redundant hybrid manipulator. This manipulator consists of two parallel manipulators which are a variable geometry truss (VGT) module. In fact, each VGT module with 3-degress of freedom (DOF) is a planar parallel manipulator and their operational planes of these VGT modules are arranged to be orthogonal to each other. Also, the manipulator contains a twist motion part attached to the top of the second VGT module to supply the missing orientation of the endeffector. These three modules constitute totally 7-DOF hybrid (parallel-parallel) redundant spatial manipulator. The forward kinematics equations of this manipulator are obtained, then, according to these equations, the inverse kinematics is solved based on an optimization with the joint limit avoidance. The dynamic equations are formed by using virtual work method. In order to test the performance of the redundant manipulator and the controllers presented, two different desired trajectories are followed by using the computed force control method and a switching control method. The switching control method is combined with the computed force control method and genetic algorithm. In the switching control method, the genetic algorithm is only used for fine tuning in the compensation of the trajectory tracking errors.

Keywords: computed force method, genetic algorithm, hybrid manipulator, inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators, variable geometry truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3446 A Study on Inference from Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression

Authors: Yan Wang, Yasushi Asami, Yukio Sadahiro


In urban area, several landmarks may affect housing price and rents, hedonic analysis should employ distance variables corresponding to each landmarks. Unfortunately, the effects of distances to landmarks on housing prices are generally not consistent with the true price. These distance variables may cause magnitude error in regression, pointing a problem of spatial multicollinearity. In this paper, we provided some approaches for getting the samples with less bias and method on locating the specific sampling area to avoid the multicollinerity problem in two specific landmarks case.

Keywords: landmarks, hedonic regression, distance variables, collinearity, multicollinerity

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3445 A Research on Inference from Multiple Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression Focus on Three Variables

Authors: Yan Wang, Yasushi Asami, Yukio Sadahiro


In urban context, urban nodes such as amenity or hazard will certainly affect house price, while classic hedonic analysis will employ distance variables measured from each urban nodes. However, effects from distances to facilities on house prices generally do not represent the true price of the property. Distance variables measured on the same surface are suffering a problem called multicollinearity, which is usually presented as magnitude variance and mean value in regression, errors caused by instability. In this paper, we provided a theoretical framework to identify and gather the data with less bias, and also provided specific sampling method on locating the sample region to avoid the spatial multicollinerity problem in three distance variable’s case.

Keywords: hedonic regression, urban node, distance variables, multicollinerity, collinearity

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3444 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek El-Derini, Ahmed El-Shenawy


This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T). The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: kinematics, modeling, robot, MATLAB

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3443 Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang


This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, breaking behavior, early adolescence, externalizing problem

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3442 Effect of Passive Pectoralis Minor Stretching on Scapular Kinematics in Scapular Dyskinesia

Authors: Seema Saini, Nidhi Chandra, Tushar Palekar


Objective: To determine the effect of Passive pectoralis minor muscle stretching on scapular kinematics in individuals with scapular dyskinesia. Design: A randomized controlled study was conducted in Pune. The sample size was 30 subjects, which were randomly allocated to either Group A, the experimental group in which passive pectoralis minor stretch was given, or Group B, the control group, in which conventional exercises were given for 3 days a week over 4 weeks. Pre and Post treatment readings of the outcome measures, pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and lateral scapular slide test were recorded. Results: The results obtained prove a significant difference between pre and post mean values of pectoralis minor length in group A (pre 21.91, post 22.87) and in group B (pre 23.55 post 23.99); scapular upward rotation in group A (pre 49.95, post 50.61) and group B (pre 52.64, post 53.51); lateral scapular slide test at 0° abduction in group A (pre 6.613, post 6.14) and group B (pre 6.84, post 6.22); lateral scapular slide test at 45° abduction in group A (pre 7.14 and post 7.12) and group B (pre 8.18, post 7.53). With an inter-group analysis, it was found that mean of pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and LSST at 0° abduction in group A was significant than group B (p<0.05). Conclusion: Passive pectoralis minor stretching along with conventional strengthening exercises was shown to be more effective in improving scapular kinematics among patients with scapular dyskinesia.

Keywords: scapulohumeral rhythm, scapular upward rotation, rounded shoulders, scapular strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
3441 The Effects of Impact Forces and Kinematics of Two Different Stance Position at Straight Punch Techniques in Boxing

Authors: Bergun Meric Bingul, Cigdem Bulgan, Ozlem Tore, Mensure Aydin, Erdal Bal


The aim of the study was to compare the effects of impact forces and some kinematic parameters with two different straight punch stance positions in boxing. 9 elite boxing athletes from the Turkish National Team (mean age± SD 19.33±2.11 years, mean height 174.22±3.79 cm, mean weight 66.0±6.62 kg) participated in this study as voluntarily. Boxing athletes performed one trial in straight punch technique for each two different stance positions (orthodox and southpaw stances) at sandbag. The trials were recorded at a frequency of 120Hz using eight synchronized high-speed cameras (Oqus 7+), which were placed, approximately at right- angles to one another. The three-dimensional motion analysis was performed with a Motion Capture System (Qualisys, Sweden). Data was transferred to Windows-based data acquisition software, which was QTM (Qualisys Track Manager). 11 segment models were used for determination of the kinematic variables (Calf, leg, punch, upperarm, lowerarm, trunk). Also, the sandbag was markered for calculation of the impact forces. Wand calibration method (with T stick) was used for field calibration. The mean velocity and acceleration of the punch; mean acceleration of the sandbag and angles of the trunk, shoulder, hip and knee were calculated. Stance differences’ data were compared with Wilcoxon test for using SPSS 20.0 program. According to the results, there were statistically significant differences found in trunk angle on the sagittal plane (yz) (p<0.05). There was a significant difference also found in sandbag acceleration and impact forces between stance positions (p < 0.05). Boxing athletes achieved more impact forces and accelerations in orthodox stance position. It is recommended that to use an orthodox stance instead of southpaw stance in straight punch technique especially for creating more impact forces.

Keywords: boxing, impact force, kinematics, straight punch, orthodox, southpaw

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3440 A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables

Authors: Mohammad Irfan


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.

Keywords: Indian Shariah Indices, macroeconomic variables, co-integration, Granger causality, vector error correction model (VECM)

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3439 Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis

Authors: Yun-Ju Chiu, Feng-Yi Chen


Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.

Keywords: acceleration, textbooks, mechanics, misconception, history of science

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3438 OmniDrive Model of a Holonomic Mobile Robot

Authors: Hussein Altartouri


In this paper the kinematic and kinetic models of an omnidirectional holonomic mobile robot is presented. The kinematic and kinetic models form the OmniDrive model. Therefore, a mathematical model for the robot equipped with three- omnidirectional wheels is derived. This model which takes into consideration the kinematics and kinetics of the robot, is developed to state space representation. Relative analysis of the velocities and displacements is used for the kinematics of the robot. Lagrange’s approach is considered in this study for deriving the equation of motion. The drive train and the mechanical assembly only of the Festo Robotino® is considered in this model. Mainly the model is developed for motion control. Furthermore, the model can be used for simulation purposes in different virtual environments not only Robotino® View. Further use of the model is in the mechatronics research fields with the aim of teaching and learning the advanced control theories.

Keywords: mobile robot, omni-direction wheel, mathematical model, holonomic mobile robot

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3437 Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index

Authors: Agnieszka Dudzik


The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.

Keywords: correlation of random variables, reliability index, sensitivity of reliability index, steel structure

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3436 Evaluating the Baseline Chatacteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed


The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: static balance, base of support, baseline data, young adults

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3435 Effect of Angles Collision, Absorption, Dash and Their Relationship with the Finale Results Case the Algerian Elite Team Triple Jump

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Zerf Mohammed, Mekkades Moulay Idriss, BenGoua Ali, Atouti Nouredinne, Habchi Nawel


The paper aims to show the influence of angles in the results of triple jump. Whereas our background confirms that a series of motions are characterized by complex angles in the properties phase (hop, step, and jump) as a combination of the pushed phase on ultimate phases in the result. For the purpose, our results are obtained from the National Athletics Championship 2013, which was filmed and analysis by the software kinovea. Based on the statistical analysis we confirm: there is a positive relationship between angle of the leg, hip angle, angle of the trunk in the collision during (hop, step, and jump), and there is a negative correlation to the angle of the knee relationship in a collision during.

Keywords: kinematics variables, the triple jump, the finale results, digital achievement

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