Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Mekkades Moulay Idriss

28 Effect of Angles Collision, Absorption, Dash and Their Relationship with the Finale Results Case the Algerian Elite Team Triple Jump

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Zerf Mohammed, Mekkades Moulay Idriss, BenGoua Ali, Atouti Nouredinne, Habchi Nawel


The paper aims to show the influence of angles in the results of triple jump. Whereas our background confirms that a series of motions are characterized by complex angles in the properties phase (hop, step, and jump) as a combination of the pushed phase on ultimate phases in the result. For the purpose, our results are obtained from the National Athletics Championship 2013, which was filmed and analysis by the software kinovea. Based on the statistical analysis we confirm: there is a positive relationship between angle of the leg, hip angle, angle of the trunk in the collision during (hop, step, and jump), and there is a negative correlation to the angle of the knee relationship in a collision during.

Keywords: kinematics variables, the triple jump, the finale results, digital achievement

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27 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady


We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

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26 Turing Pattern in the Oregonator Revisited

Authors: Elragig Aiman, Dreiwi Hanan, Townley Stuart, Elmabrook Idriss


In this paper, we reconsider the analysis of the Oregonator model. We highlight an error in this analysis which leads to an incorrect depiction of the parameter region in which diffusion driven instability is possible. We believe that the cause of the oversight is the complexity of stability analyses based on eigenvalues and the dependence on parameters of matrix minors appearing in stability calculations. We regenerate the parameter space where Turing patterns can be seen, and we use the common Lyapunov function (CLF) approach, which is numerically reliable, to further confirm the dependence of the results on diffusion coefficients intensities.

Keywords: diffusion driven instability, common Lyapunov function (CLF), turing pattern, positive-definite matrix

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25 SOI-Multi-FinFET: Impact of Fins Number Multiplicity on Corner Effect

Authors: A.N. Moulay Khatir, A. Guen-Bouazza, B. Bouazza


SOI-Multifin-FET shows excellent transistor characteristics, ideal sub-threshold swing, low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) without pocket implantation and negligible body bias dependency. In this work, we analyzed this combination by a three-dimensional numerical device simulator to investigate the influence of fins number on corner effect by analyzing its electrical characteristics and potential distribution in the oxide and the silicon in the section perpendicular to the flow of the current for SOI-single-fin FET, three-fin and five-fin, and we provide a comparison with a Trigate SOI Multi-FinFET structure.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, corner effect, dual-gate, tri-gate, Multi-Fin FET

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24 Evaluation of Iranian Standard for Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Cohesionless Soils Based on SPT

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayad, Azam Kouhpeyma


In-situ testing is preferred to evaluate the liquefaction potential in cohesionless soils due to high disturbance during sampling. Although new in-situ methods with high accuracy have been developed, standard penetration test, the simplest and the oldest in-situ test, is still used due to the profusion of the recorded data. This paper reviews the Iranian standard of evaluating liquefaction potential in soils (codes 525) and compares the liquefaction assessment methods based on SPT results on cohesionless soil in this standard with the international standards. To this, methods for assessing liquefaction potential which are presented by Cetin et al. (2004), Boulanger and Idriss (2014) are compared with what is presented in standard 525. It is found that although the procedure used in Iranian standard of evaluating the potential of liquefaction has not been updated according to the new findings, it is a conservative procedure.

Keywords: cohesionless soil, liquefaction, SPT, standard 525

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23 Its about Cortana, Microsoft’s Virtual Assistant

Authors: Aya Idriss, Esraa Othman, Lujain Malak


Artificial intelligence is the emulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems that act logically. Some of the specific applications of AI include natural language processing, speech recognition, and machine vision. Cortana is a virtual assistant and she’s an example of an AI Application. Microsoft made it possible for this app to be accessed not only on laptops and PCs but can be downloaded on mobile phones and used as a virtual assistant which was a huge success. Cortana can offer a lot apart from the basic orders such as setting alarms and marking the calendar. Its capabilities spread past that, for example, it provides us with listening to music and podcasts on the go, managing my to-do list and emails, connecting with my contacts hands-free by simply just telling the virtual assistant to call somebody, gives me instant answers and so on. A questionnaire was sent online to numerous friends and family members to perform the study, which is critical in evaluating Cortana's recognition capacity and the majority of the answers were in favor of Cortana’s capabilities. The results of the questionnaire assisted us in determining the level of Cortana's skills.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Cortana, AI, abstract

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22 Forecasting Direct Normal Irradiation at Djibouti Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmed Kayad Abdourazak, Abderafi Souad, Zejli Driss, Idriss Abdoulkader Ibrahim


In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the solar irradiation in Djibouti for the first Time that is useful to the integration of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and sites selections for new or future solar plants as part of solar energy development. An ANN algorithm was developed to establish a forward/reverse correspondence between the latitude, longitude, altitude and monthly solar irradiation. For this purpose the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) data of eight Djibouti sites were used as training and testing in a standard three layers network with the back propagation algorithm of Lavenber-Marquardt. Results have shown a very good agreement for the solar irradiation prediction in Djibouti and proves that the proposed approach can be well used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar irradiation by providing so helpful information concerning sites selection, design and planning of solar plants.

Keywords: artificial neural network, solar irradiation, concentrated solar power, Lavenberg-Marquardt

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21 Numerical Modeling for Water Engineering and Obstacle Theory

Authors: Mounir Adal, Baalal Azeddine, Afifi Moulay Larbi


Numerical analysis is a branch of mathematics devoted to the development of iterative matrix calculation techniques. We are searching for operations optimization as objective to calculate and solve systems of equations of order n with time and energy saving for computers that are conducted to calculate and analyze big data by solving matrix equations. Furthermore, this scientific discipline is producing results with a margin of error of approximation called rates. Thus, the results obtained from the numerical analysis techniques that are held on computer software such as MATLAB or Simulink offers a preliminary diagnosis of the situation of the environment or space targets. By this we can offer technical procedures needed for engineering or scientific studies exploitable by engineers for water.

Keywords: numerical analysis methods, obstacles solving, engineering, simulation, numerical modeling, iteration, computer, MATLAB, water, underground, velocity

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20 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

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19 Capability of Available Seismic Soil Liquefaction Potential Assessment Models Based on Shear-Wave Velocity Using Banchu Case History

Authors: Nima Pirhadi, Yong Bo Shao, Xusheng Wa, Jianguo Lu


Several models based on the simplified method introduced by Seed and Idriss (1971) have been developed to assess the liquefaction potential of saturated sandy soils. The procedure includes determining the cyclic resistance of the soil as the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) and comparing it with earthquake loads as cyclic stress ratio (CSR). Of all methods to determine CRR, the methods using shear-wave velocity (Vs) are common because of their low sensitivity to the penetration resistance reduction caused by fine content (FC). To evaluate the capability of the models, based on the Vs., the new data from Bachu-Jianshi earthquake case history collected, then the prediction results of the models are compared to the measured results; consequently, the accuracy of the models are discussed via three criteria and graphs. The evaluation demonstrates reasonable accuracy of the models in the Banchu region.

Keywords: seismic liquefaction, banchu-jiashi earthquake, shear-wave velocity, liquefaction potential evaluation

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18 Surface Roughness Modeling in Dry Face Milling of Annealed and Hardened AISI 52100 Steel

Authors: Mohieddine Benghersallah, Mohamed Zakaria Zahaf, Ali Medjber, Idriss Tibakh


The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of cutting parameters on surface roughness in dry face milling using statistical techniques. We studied the effect of the microstructure of AISI 52100 steel on machinability before and after hardening. The machining tests were carried out on a high rigidity vertical milling machine with a 25 mm diameter face milling cutter equipped with micro-grain bicarbide inserts with PVD (Ti, AlN) coating in GC1030 grade. A Taguchi L9 experiment plan is adopted. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of cutting parameters (Vc, fz, ap) on the roughness (Ra) of the machined surface. Regression analysis to assess the machinability of steel presented mathematical models of roughness and the combination of parameters to minimize it. The recorded results show that feed per tooth has the most significant effect on the surface condition for both steel treatment conditions. The best roughnesses were obtained for the hardened AISI 52100 steel.

Keywords: machinability, heat treatment, microstructure, surface roughness, Taguchi method

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17 Magnetic Simulation of the Underground Electric Cable in the Presence of a Short Circuit and Harmonics

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Wafa Krika, Abdelghani Ayad, Moulay Larab, Houari Boudjella, Farid Benhamida


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the magnetic emission of underground electric cable of high voltage, because these power lines generate electromagnetic interaction with other objects near to it. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the magnetic field of buried 400 kV line in three cases: permanent and transient states of short circuit and the last case with the presence of the harmonics at different positions as a function of time variation, with finite element resolution using Comsol Multiphysics software. The results obtained showed that the amplitude and distribution of the magnetic flux density change in the transient state and the presence of harmonics. The results of this work calculate the magnetic field generated by the underground lines in order to evaluate and know their impact on ecology and health.

Keywords: underground, electric power cables, cables crossing, harmonic, emission

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16 Study of Physico-Chimical Properties of a Silty Soil

Authors: Moulay Smaïne Ghembaza, Mokhtar Dadouch, Nour-Said Ikhlef


Soil treatment is to make use soil that does not have the characteristics required in a given context. We limit ourselves in this work to the field of road earthworks where we have chosen to develop a local material in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria). This material has poor characteristics not meeting the standards used in road geo technics. To remedy this, firstly, we were trying to improve the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material by mechanical treatment increasing the compaction energy. Then, by a chemical treatment, adding some cement dosages, our results show that this material classified A1h a increase maximum dry density and a reduction in the water content of compaction. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class composed CL-ML (Silt of low plasticity). This observation allows this material to be used as backfill or sub grade.

Keywords: treatment of soil, cement, subgrade, Atteberg limits, classification, optimum proctor properties

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15 Performance Evaluation of Different Technologies of PV Modules in Algeria

Authors: Amira Balaska, Ali Tahri, Amine Boudghene Stambouli, Takashi Oozeki


This paper is dealing with the evaluation of photovoltaic modules as part of the Sahara Solar Breeder project (SSB), five different photovoltaic module technologies which are: m-si, CIS, HIT, Back Contact, a-si_μc -si and a weather station recently installed at the University of Saida (Tahar Moulay) in Saida city located at the gate of the great southern Algeria’s Sahara. The objective of the present work is the study of solar photovoltaic capacity and performance parameters of each PV module technology. The goal of the study is to compare the five different PV technologies in order to find which technologies are suitable for the climate conditions of Algeria’s desert. Measurements of various parameters as irradiance, temperature, humidity and so on by the weather station and I-V curves were performed outdoors at the location without shadow. Finally performance parameters as performance ratio, energy yield and temperature losses are given and analyzed.

Keywords: photovoltaic modules, performance ratio, energy yield, sahara solar breeder, outdoor conditions

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14 Numerical Evaluation of Shear Strength for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel

Authors: Rouaz Idriss, Bourahla Nour-Eddine, Kahlouche Farah, Rafa Sid Ali


The stability of structures made of light-gauge steel depends highly on the contribution of Shear Wall Panel (SWP) systems under horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake loads. Steel plate sheathing is often used with these panels made of cold formed steel (CFS) to improve its shear strength. In order to predict the shear strength resistance, two methods are presented in this paper. In the first method, the steel plate sheathing is modeled with plats strip taking into account only the tension and compression force due to the horizontal load, where both track and stud are modeled according to the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the specimen used in the experiments. The theoretical background and empirical formulations of this method are presented in this paper. However, the second method is based on a micro modeling of the cold formed steel Shear Wall Panel “CFS-SWP” using Abaqus software. A nonlinear analysis was carried out with an in-plan monotonic load. Finally, the comparison between these two methods shows that the micro modeling with Abaqus gives better prediction of shear resistance of SWP than strips method. However, the latter is easier and less time consuming than the micro modeling method.

Keywords: cold formed steel 'CFS', shear wall panel, strip method, finite elements

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13 Principle Components Updates via Matrix Perturbations

Authors: Aiman Elragig, Hanan Dreiwi, Dung Ly, Idriss Elmabrook


This paper highlights a new approach to look at online principle components analysis (OPCA). Given a data matrix X R,^m x n we characterise the online updates of its covariance as a matrix perturbation problem. Up to the principle components, it turns out that online updates of the batch PCA can be captured by symmetric matrix perturbation of the batch covariance matrix. We have shown that as n→ n0 >> 1, the batch covariance and its update become almost similar. Finally, utilize our new setup of online updates to find a bound on the angle distance of the principle components of X and its update.

Keywords: online data updates, covariance matrix, online principle component analysis, matrix perturbation

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12 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen


The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean

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11 Groundwater Quality in the Rhiss-Nekor Plain, Morocco: Impacts of Human Activities

Authors: Ali Ait Boughrous, Said Benyoussef, Hossain El Ouarghi, Moulay Abdelazize Aboulhassan, Samah Aitbnichou, Said Benguamra


The Rhiss-Nekor aquifer represents a primary water source for the central Rif region. Many operating structures were built for irrigation and drinking water supply. Because of the vulnerability of this aquifer, a thorough knowledge of the environment is needed to evaluate and protect resources. This work aims at the quality assessment of the water table of the plain Ghiss-Nekor and determination of pollution sources in order to establish a map of the web. The plain-Rhiss Nekor, with an area of 100 km2, is located on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. It has a particular geological structure resulting from the opening of a graben at the end of the Tertiary, which is filled by the accumulation of hundreds of meters of sediment, generating considerable heterogeneity in deposits. This heterogeneity gives various hydrodynamic properties within the aquifer of the plain. The analysis of the water quality of twenty water points, well distributed over the plain, showed high natural salinity linked to the geological nature of the area. This salinity increases in the littoral area by the seawater intrusion phenomenon. This is accentuated by overexploitation of the ground water due to the growing demand. Some wells, located inland, are characterized by organic pollution caused by wastewater seepage from septic tanks and lost wells widespread in the region.

Keywords: anthropogenic factors, groundwater quality, marine intrusion, Rhiss-Nekor aquifer

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10 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry


This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: permeability, lateral spreading, liquefaction, centrifuge modeling, shear wave velocity charts

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9 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois


Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

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8 Demographic Characteristics of the Atlas Barbary Sheep in Amassine Nature Reserve, Atlas Range, Morocco: Implications For Conservation and Management

Authors: Hakim Bachiri, Mohammed Znari, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait Baamranne


Population characteristics of Atlas Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia lervia) were investigated 20 years following the 1999 introduction of 10 individuals into the fenced nature reserve of Amassine, High Atlas range, Morocco, for promoting wildlife watching and tourism. Population age-sex structure and density were determined in late winter-early spring during four consecutive years (2016-2019) by direct observation before the dispersal of the herd. In this latter case, the line transect distance sampling was successfully applied. Population size increased from 37 to 62 animals during the four-year study period; the maximal population size being 82 individuals recorded in 2006. An estimated population density ranged from 0.25 to 0.41 Barbary sheep/ha during the study period. The adult sex ratio varied from 91 to 67 per 100 females. The apparent birth rate was 14 to 73/100 females. Juveniles and subadults comprised 27-43% of the population, adult males 26-31% and adult females 29-45%. The survival rate from birth to 1 year of age approximated 35%, for adult males was estimated to average 69%/year. The obtained results would be helpful for developing sustainable population management and habitat restoration plan and assessing the feasibility of potential reintroduction/restocking in other areas of the Atlas range.

Keywords: atlas mountains, barbary sheep, demography, management

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7 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production, Effect of Metal Particle Size and Their Electronic/Optical Properties on the Reaction

Authors: Hicham Idriss


Hydrogen production from water is one of the most promising methods to secure renewable sources or vectors of energy for societies in general and for chemical industries in particular. At present over 90% of the total amount of hydrogen produced in the world is made from non-renewable fossil fuels (via methane reforming). There are many methods for producing hydrogen from water and these include reducible oxide materials (solar thermal production), combined PV/electrolysis, artificial photosynthesis and photocatalysis. The most promising of these processes is the one relying on photocatalysis; yet serious challenges are hindering its success so far. In order to make this process viable considerable improvement of the photon conversion is needed. Among the key studies that our group has been conducting in the last few years are those focusing on synergism between the semiconductor phases, photonic band gap materials, pn junctions, plasmonic resonance responses, charge transfer to metal cations, in addition to metal dispersion and band gap engineering. In this work results related to phase transformation of the anatase to rutile in the case of TiO2 (synergism), of Au and Ag dispersion (electron trapping and hydrogen-hydrogen recombination centers) as well as their plasmon resonance response (visible light conversion) are presented and discussed. It is found for example that synergism between the two common phases of TiO2 (anatase and rutile) is sensitive to the initial particle size. It is also found, in agreement with previous results, that the rate is very sensitive to the amount of metals (with similar particle size) on the surface unlike the case of thermal heterogeneous catalysis.

Keywords: photo-catalysis, hydrogen production, water splitting, plasmonic

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6 Towards Printed Green Time-Temperature Indicator

Authors: Mariia Zhuldybina, Ahmed Moulay, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc-Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois


To reduce the global waste of perishable goods, a solution for monitoring and traceability of their environmental conditions is needed. Temperature is the most controllable environmental parameter determining the kinetics of physical, chemical, and microbial spoilage in food products. To store the time-temperature information, time-temperature indicator (TTI) is a promising solution. Printed electronics (PE) has shown a great potential to produce customized electronic devices using flexible substrates and inks with different functionalities. We propose to fabricate a hybrid printed TTI using environmentally friendly materials. The real-time TTI profile can be stored and transmitted to the smartphone via Near Field Communication (NFC). To ensure environmental performance, Canadian Green Electronics NSERC Network is developing green materials for the ink formulation with different functionalities. In terms of substrate, paper-based electronics has gained the great interest for utilization in a wide area of electronic systems because of their low costs in setup and methodology, as well as their eco-friendly fabrication technologies. The main objective is to deliver a prototype of TTI using small-scale printed techniques under typical printing conditions. All sub-components of the smart labels, including a memristor, a battery, an antenna compatible with NFC protocol, and a circuit compatible with integration performed by an offsite supplier will be fully printed with flexography or flat-bed screen printing.

Keywords: NFC, printed electronics, time-temperature indicator, hybrid electronics

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5 Environmental Assessment of Roll-to-Roll Printed Smart Label

Authors: M. Torres, A. Moulay, M. Zhuldybina, M. Rozel, N. D. Trinh, C. Bois


Printed electronics are a fast-growing market as their applications cover a large range of industrial needs, their production cost is low, and the additive printing techniques consume less materials than subtractive manufacturing methods used in traditional electronics. With the growing demand for printed electronics, there are concerns about their harmful and irreversible contribution to the environment. Indeed, it is estimated that 80% of the environmental load of a product is determined by the choices made at the conception stage. Therefore, examination through a life cycle approach at the developing stage of a novel product is the best way to identify potential environmental issues and make proactive decisions. Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a comprehensive scientific method to assess the environmental impacts of a product in its different stages of life: extraction of raw materials, manufacture and distribution, use, and end-of-life. Impacts and major hotspots are identified and evaluated through a broad range of environmental impact categories of the ReCiPe (H) middle point method. At the conception stage, the LCA is a tool that provides an environmental point of view on the choice of materials and processes and weights-in on the balance between performance materials and eco-friendly materials. Using the life cycle approach, the current work aims to provide a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of a roll-to-roll hybrid printed smart label designed for the food cold chain. Furthermore, this presentation will present the environmental impact of metallic conductive inks, a comparison with promising conductive polymers, evaluation of energy vs. performance of industrial printing processes, a full assessment of the impact from the smart label applied on a cellulosic-based substrate during the recycling process and the possible recovery of precious metals and rare earth elements.

Keywords: Eco-design, label, life cycle assessment, printed electronics

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4 The 'Ineffectiveness' of Teaching Research Methods in Moroccan Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ahmed Chouari


Although research methods has been an integral part of the curriculum in Moroccan higher education for decades, it seems that the research methods teaching pedagogy that teachers use suffers from a serious absence of a body of literature in the field. Also, the various challenges that both teachers and students of research methods face have received little interest by researchers in comparison to other fields such as applied linguistics. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to remedy to this situation by exploring one of the major issues in teaching research methods – that is, the phenomenon of students’ dissatisfaction with the research methods course in higher education in Morocco. The aim is also to understand students’ attitudes and perceptions on how to make the research methods course more effective in the future. Three qualitative research questions were used: (1) To what extent are graduate students satisfied with the pedagogies used by the teachers of the research methods course in Moroccan higher education? (2) To what extent are graduate students satisfied with the approach used in assessing research methods in Moroccan higher education? (3) What are students’ perceptions on how to make the research methods course more effective in Moroccan higher education? In this study, a qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyze students’ views and perspectives about the major factors behind their dissatisfaction with the course at the School of Arts and Humanities – University of Moulay Ismail. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data from 14 respondents from two different Master programs. The results show that there is a general consensus among the respondents about the major factors behind the ineffectiveness of the course. These factors include theory-practice gap, heavy reliance on theoretical knowledge at the expense of procedural knowledge, and ineffectiveness of some teachers. The findings also reveal that teaching research methods in Morocco requires more time, better equipment, and more competent teachers. Above all, the findings indicate that today there is an urgent need in Morocco to shift from teacher-centered approaches to learner-centered approaches in teaching the research methods course. These findings, thus, contribute to the existing literature by unraveling the factors that impede the learning process, and by suggesting a set of strategies that can make course more effective.

Keywords: competencies, learner-centered teaching, research methods, student autonomy, pedagogy

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3 Comparative Study of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Ground Response Analysis for Rapar District of Kutch, India

Authors: Kulin Dave, Kapil Mohan


Earthquakes are considered to be the most destructive rapid-onset disasters human beings are exposed to. The amount of loss it brings in is sufficient to take careful considerations for designing of structures and facilities. Seismic Hazard Analysis is one such tool which can be used for earthquake resistant design. Ground Response Analysis is one of the most crucial and decisive steps for seismic hazard analysis. Rapar district of Kutch, Gujarat falls in Zone 5 of earthquake zone map of India and thus has high seismicity because of which it is selected for analysis. In total 8 bore-log data were studied at different locations in and around Rapar district. Different soil engineering properties were analyzed and relevant empirical correlations were used to calculate maximum shear modulus (Gmax) and shear wave velocity (Vs) for the soil layers. The soil was modeled using Pressure-Dependent Modified Kodner Zelasko (MKZ) model and the reference curve used for fitting was Seed and Idriss (1970) for sand and Darendeli (2001) for clay. Both Equivalent linear (EL), as well as Non-linear (NL) ground response analysis, has been carried out with Masing Hysteretic Re/Unloading formulation for comparison. Commercially available DEEPSOIL v. 7.0 software is used for this analysis. In this study an attempt is made to quantify ground response regarding generated acceleration time-history at top of the soil column, Response spectra calculation at 5 % damping and Fourier amplitude spectrum calculation. Moreover, the variation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Maximum Displacement, Maximum Strain (in %), Maximum Stress Ratio, Mobilized Shear Stress with depth is also calculated. From the study, PGA values estimated in rocky strata are nearly same as bedrock motion and marginal amplification is observed in sandy silt and silty clays by both analyses. The NL analysis gives conservative results of maximum displacement as compared to EL analysis. Maximum strain predicted by both studies is very close to each other. And overall NL analysis is more efficient and realistic because it follows the actual hyperbolic stress-strain relationship, considers stiffness degradation and mobilizes stresses generated due to pore water pressure.

Keywords: DEEPSOIL v 7.0, ground response analysis, pressure-dependent modified Kodner Zelasko model, MKZ model, response spectra, shear wave velocity

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2 Modeling Sorption and Permeation in the Separation of Benzene/ Cyclohexane Mixtures through Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Crosslinked Membranes

Authors: Hassiba Benguergoura, Kamal Chanane, Sâad Moulay


Pervaporation (PV), a membrane-based separation technology, has gained much attention because of its energy saving capability and low-cost, especially for separation of azeotropic or close-boiling liquid mixtures. There are two crucial issues for industrial application of pervaporation process. The first is developing membrane material and tailoring membrane structure to obtain high pervaporation performances. The second is modeling pervaporation transport to better understand of the above-mentioned structure–pervaporation relationship. Many models were proposed to predict the mass transfer process, among them, solution-diffusion model is most widely used in describing pervaporation transport including preferential sorption, diffusion and evaporation steps. For modeling pervaporation transport, the permeation flux, which depends on the solubility and diffusivity of components in the membrane, should be obtained first. Traditionally, the solubility was calculated according to the Flory–Huggins theory. Separation of the benzene (Bz)/cyclohexane (Cx) mixture is industrially significant. Numerous papers have been focused on the Bz/Cx system to assess the PV properties of membrane materials. Membranes with both high permeability and selectivity are desirable for practical application. Several new polymers have been prepared to get both high permeability and selectivity. Styrene-butadiene rubbers (SBR), dense membranes cross-linked by chloromethylation were used in the separation of benzene/cyclohexane mixtures. The impact of chloromethylation reaction as a new method of cross-linking SBR on the pervaporation performance have been reported. In contrast to the vulcanization with sulfur, the cross-linking takes places on styrene units of polymeric chains via a methylene bridge. The partial pervaporative (PV) fluxes of benzene/cyclohexane mixtures in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were predicted using Fick's first law. The predicted partial fluxes and the PV separation factor agreed well with the experimental data by integrating Fick's law over the benzene concentration. The effects of feed concentration and operating temperature on the predicted permeation flux by this proposed model are investigated. The predicted permeation fluxes are in good agreement with experimental data at lower benzene concentration in feed, but at higher benzene concentration, the model overestimated permeation flux. The predicted and experimental permeation fluxes all increase with operating temperature increasing. Solvent sorption levels for benzene/ cyclohexane mixtures in a SBR membrane were determined experimentally. The results showed that the solvent sorption levels were strongly affected by the feed composition. The Flory- Huggins equation generates higher R-square coefficient for the sorption selectivity.

Keywords: benzene, cyclohexane, pervaporation, permeation, sorption modeling, SBR

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1 Improved Anatomy Teaching by the 3D Slicer Platform

Authors: Ahmedou Moulaye Idriss, Yahya Tfeil


Medical imaging technology has become an indispensable tool in many branches of the biomedical, health area, and research and is vitally important for the training of professionals in these fields. It is not only about the tools, technologies, and knowledge provided but also about the community that this training project proposes. In order to be able to raise the level of anatomy teaching in the medical school of Nouakchott in Mauritania, it is necessary and even urgent to facilitate access to modern technology for African countries. The role of technology as a key driver of justifiable development has long been recognized. Anatomy is an essential discipline for the training of medical students; it is a key element for the training of medical specialists. The quality and results of the work of a young surgeon depend on his better knowledge of anatomical structures. The teaching of anatomy is difficult as the discipline is being neglected by medical students in many academic institutions. However, anatomy remains a vital part of any medical education program. When anatomy is presented in various planes medical students approve of difficulties in understanding. They do not increase their ability to visualize and mentally manipulate 3D structures. They are sometimes not able to correctly identify neighbouring or associated structures. This is the case when they have to make the identification of structures related to the caudate lobe when the liver is moved to different positions. In recent decades, some modern educational tools using digital sources tend to replace old methods. One of the main reasons for this change is the lack of cadavers in laboratories with poorly qualified staff. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models, image processing, and visualization tools in biomedical imaging research have enabled sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) representations of anatomical structures. In this paper, we report our current experience in the Faculty of Medicine in Nouakchott Mauritania. One of our main aims is to create a local learning community in the fields of anatomy. The main technological platform used in this project is called 3D Slicer. 3D Slicer platform is an open-source application available for free for viewing, analysis, and interaction with biomedical imaging data. Using the 3D Slicer platform, we created from real medical images anatomical atlases of parts of the human body, including head, thorax, abdomen, liver, and pelvis, upper and lower limbs. Data were collected from several local hospitals and also from the website. We used MRI and CT-Scan imaging data from children and adults. Many different anatomy atlases exist, both in print and digital forms. Anatomy Atlas displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labelled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. Open and free online anatomical atlases developed by our anatomy laboratory team will be available to our students. This will allow pedagogical autonomy and remedy the shortcomings by responding more fully to the objectives of sustainable local development of quality education and good health at the national level. To make this work a reality, our team produced several atlases available in our faculty in the form of research projects.

Keywords: anatomy, education, medical imaging, three dimensional

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