Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: adjuvants

13 Improvement of Spray Retention on Barley

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mohamed Belhamra


Adjuvants contribute to change the types of impact and thus the amount of spray retained by the leaves of the treated plant. We have performed tests of retention on barley plants on BBCH 12 stage and small pieces of barley leaves at the same stage of growth. Spraying was done in three ways: water without adjuvant, water with Break-Thru® S240 and water with Li700®. The three slurries of fluorescein contained in an amount of 0.2 g/l. Fluorescein retained by the leaves in both cases is then measured by a spectrofluoremeter. The retention tests on whole plants show that it is tripled by the first adjuvant and doubled by the second. By cons on small pieces of barley leaves, the amount was increased by the use of surfactants but not to the same scale. This study concluded that the use of adjuvants in spray pesticides may increase the amount of retention as a function of leaf area and the type of adjuvant.

Keywords: Barley, adjuvant, spray retention, fluorometry

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12 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal


Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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11 Nanocomplexes on the Base of Triterpene Saponins Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis Plants as an Efficient Adjuvants for Influenza Vaccine Use

Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Pavel Alexyuk, Madina Alexyuk, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Irina Zaitseva, Nadezhda Sokolova, Elmira Omirtaeva


Introduction: Triterpene saponins of plant origin are one of the most promising candidates for elaboration of novel adjuvants. Due to the combination of immunostimulating activity and the capacity interact with amphipathic molecules with formation of highly immunogenic nanocomplexes, triterpene saponins could serve as a good adjuvant/delivery system for vaccine use. In the research presented adjuvants on the base of nanocomplexes contained triterpene saponins isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis plants indigenous to Kazakhstan were elaborated for influenza vaccine use. Methods: Purified triterpene saponins 'Glabilox' and 'SO1' with low toxicity and high immunostimulatory activity were isolated from plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Saponaria officinalis L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Influenza virus A/St-Petersburg/5/09 (H1N1) propagated in 9-days old chicken embryos was concentrated and purified by centrifugation in sucrose gradient. Nanocomplexes contained lipids, and triterpene saponins Glabilox or SO1 were prepared by dialysis technique. Immunostimulating activity of experimental vaccine preparations was studied in vaccination/challenge experiments in mice. Results: Humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against influenza virus infection were examined after single subcutaneous and intranasal immunization. Mice were immunized subunit influenza vaccine (HA+NA) or whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine in doses 3.0/5.0/10.0 µg antigen/animal mixed with adjuvant in dose 15.0 µg/animal. Sera were taken 14-21 days following single immunization and mice challenged by A/St-Petersburg/5/09 influenza virus in dose 100 EID₅₀. Study of experimental influenza vaccine preparations in animal immunization experiments has shown that subcutaneous and intranasal immunization with subunit influenza vaccine mixed with nanocomplexes contained Glabilox or SO1 saponins stimulated high levels of humoral immune response (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody) and cellular immune response (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokines) and resulted 80-90% protection against lethal influenza infection. Also, single intranasal and single subcutaneous immunization with whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine mixed with nanoparticulated adjuvants stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and provided 100% protection against lethal influenza infection. Conclusion: The results of study have shown that nanocomplexes contained purified triterpene saponins Glabilox and SO1 isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan can stimulate a broad spectrum of humoral and cellular immune responses and induce protection against lethal influenza infection. Both elaborated adjuvants are promising for incorporation to influenza vaccine intended for subcutaneous and intranasal routes of immunization.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, adjuvants, triterpene saponins, immunostimulating activity

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10 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz


Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: adjuvants, vaccine development, zebrafish, innate immunity

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9 The Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizomes Alone and with Two Pepper Adjuvants in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: J. O. Ezekwesili-Ofili, L. I. Okorafor, S. C. Nsofor


Diabetes mellitus is a carbohydrate metabolism disorder due to an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, action or both. Many known hypoglycaemic drugs are known to produce serious side effects. However, the search for safer and more effective agents has shifted to plant products, including foods and spices. One of such is the rhizome of Curcuma longa or turmeric, which is a spice with high medicinal value. A drawback in the use of C. longa is the poor bioavailability of curcumin, the active ingredient. It has been reported that piperine, an alkaloid present in peppers increases the bioavailability of curcumin. This work therefore investigated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of C. longa rhizomes, alone and with two pepper adjuvants in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A total of 48 rats were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. Groups A–E were induced with diabetes using 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate, while group F was normoglycaemic: Group A: Diabetic; fed with 400 mg/g body weight of turmeric extract; group B: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200mg/kg b. w of ethanolic extract of seeds of Piper guinensee; group C: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200 mg /kg b. w. of ethanolic extract of seeds of Capsicum annum var cameroun, group D: Diabetic, treated with standard drug, glibenclamide (0.3mg/kg body weight), group E: Diabetic; no treatment i.e. Positive control and group F: non diabetic, no treatment i.e. Negative control. Blood glucose levels were monitored for 14 days using a glucometer. The levels of the antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were also assayed in serum. The ethanolic extracts of C. longa rhizomes at the dose given (400 mg/kg b. w) significantly reduced the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats (p<0.05) comparable to the standard drug. Co administration of extract of the peppers did not significantly increase the efficiency of the extract, although C. annum var cameroun showed greater effect, though not significantly. The antioxidant effect of the extract was significant in diabetic rats. The use of piperine-containing peppers enhanced the antioxidant effect. Phytochemical analyses of the ethanolic extract of C. longa showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. longa had antidiabetic with antioxidant effects and could thus be of benefit in the treatment and management of diabetes as well as ameliorate pro-oxidant effects that may lead to diabetic complications. However, while the addition of piperine did not affect the antidiabetic effect of C. longa, the antioxidant effect was greatly enhanced.

Keywords: antioxidant, Curcuma longa rhizome, hypoglycaemic, pepper adjuvants, piperine

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8 Probiotics as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment of Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Authors: K. B. Chathyushya, M. Shiva Prakash, R. Hemalatha


Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a number of microorganisms (microbiota) that influences the host’s health. The imbalance in the gut microbiota, which is also called as gut dysbiosis, affects human health which causes various metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Probiotics play an important role in reinstating the gut balance. Probiotics are involved in the maintenance of healthier gut microbiota and have also been identified as effective adjuvants in insulin resistance therapies. Methods: This paper systematically reviews different randomized, controlled, blinded trials of probiotics for the treatment of various diseases along with the therapeutic or prophylactic properties of probiotic bacteria in different metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and anxiety-related disorders. Conclusion: The present review summarises that probiotics have some considerable effect in the management of various diseases, however, the benefits are strain specific, although more clinical trials are need to be carried out with different probiotic and symbiotic combinations as some probiotics have broad spectrum of benefits and few with specific activity

Keywords: life style diseases, cognition, health, gut dysbiosis, probiotics

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7 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi


Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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6 The Addition of Opioids to Bupivacaine in Bilateral Infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Relief in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair-Comparative Effects of Pethidine and Fentanyl: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study

Authors: Mrudula Kudtarkar, Rajesh Mane


Introduction: Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post-operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. Aim: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve block on post-operative pain relief using bupivacaine alone or in combination with fentanyl or pethidine in paediatric cleft lip repair. Methodology: 45 children between the age group 5 – 60 months undergoing cleft lip surgery randomly allocated into 3 groups of 15 each received bilateral intraoral infraorbital nerve block with 0.75ml of solution. Group B received 0.25% bupivacaine; group P received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25mg/kg pethidine, group F received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25microgm/kg fentanyl. Sedation after recovery, post-operative pain intensity and duration of post-operative analgesia were assessed using Modified Hannallah Pain Score. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 17.8 hrs in Group B, 23.53 hrs in Group F and 35.13 hrs in Group P. There was statistically significant difference between the means of the three groups- ANOVA (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Thus we conclude that addition of fentanyl or pethidine to bupivacaine for Bilateral Intraoral Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

Keywords: cleft lip, infraorbital block, NSAIDS, Opiods

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5 Results of the Safety Evaluation of Cancer Vaccines Dealing with Novel Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: Axel Mancebo, Ana M. Bada, Angel Casacó, Bárbara González, Avelina León, María E. Arteaga, Consuelo González, Belinda Sánchez, Adriana Carr, Nuris Ledón, Arianna Iglesias


Despite the many preventive and therapeutic modalities aimed at curing cancer, it remains as a serious world health problem. Promising recent developments suggest that cancer immunotherapy may be the next great hope for cancer treatment. EGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases and it is considered an important therapeutic target related with tumor progression, and several types of molecular therapies, including monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and vaccines, have been developed to target the HER family of receptors. On the other hand, gangliosides are membrane glycosphingolipids that contain two variants of sialic acid, the N-acetylated (NeuAc) and the N-glycolylated (NeuGc) variant. The high expression of this antigen-specific molecule has been associated with malignant tumor progression and immunosuppressive mechanisms, so ganglioside could be considered as the target for cancer immunotherapy. We have been working for several years in the safety evaluation of cancer vaccines targeting these two systems, the EGF receptor and ganglioside. We presented in this work results of repeated dose toxicity studies performed in Sprague Dawley rats and Cynomolgus monkeys, including clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature measuring, clinical pathology analysis, gross necropsy and histological examination in rodent studies, and immunological evaluation. Immunizations were capable of inducing mainly inflammatory effects at the injection site, with findings largely attributable to the adjuvants used and probably enhanced by the immunological properties of the antigens. In general, these vaccines were shown to be well tolerated, and these studies in relevant species allow treating cancer patients with tumors during long periods with relative weight safety margin.

Keywords: cancer vaccines, safety, toxicology, rats, non human primates

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4 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha


Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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3 Hepatoprotective and Immunostimulative Properties of Medicinal Plants against Tuberculosis

Authors: Anna-Mari Kok, Carel B. Oosthuizen, Namrita Lall


Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is associated with high mortality rates in both developing and developed countries. Many higher plants are found that are medicinally associated with tuberculosis infection. Plants belonging to thirteen families were selected, based on their traditional usage for tuberculosis and its associated symptoms. Eight plants showed the best antimycobacterial activities (MIC-value ≤ 500.0 µg/ml) against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. LS was found to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/ml whereas, Tulbaghia violacea, Heteromorpha arborescens, Sutherlandia frutescens, Eucalyptus deglupta, and Plectranthus neochilus were found to have a MIC value of 250 µg/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity values on U937 and HepG2 cells were obtained and the IC50 values ranged between 40 ±4.30 and > 400 µg/ml for the U937 cell line and 72.4 ±1.50 and > 400 µg/ml for the HepG2 cell line. Heteromorpha arborescens had the lowest IC50 value in both cell lines and therefore showed moderate levels of toxicity. Of the 19 samples that underwent the 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, Eucalyptus deglupta and Melianthus major showed significant free radical scavenging activities with concentrations of 1.33 and 1.32 µg/ml respectively for the inhibition of DPPH. Hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen identified Searsia lancea with hepatoprotective activity of 59.37% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Out of the 7 samples that were investigated for their immunomodulatory capabilities, Eucalyptus deglupta produced the most IL-12 with Sutherlandia frutescens also showing positive results for IL-12 production. In the present study, Eucalyptus deglupta showed the most promising results with good activity against M. tuberculosis with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also has potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 1.33 µg/ml. This sample also stimulated high production of the cytokine, IL-12. Searsia lancea showed moderate antimycobacterial acticvity with an MIC-value of 500 µg/ml. The antioxidant potential also showed promising results with an IC50 value of 4.50 µg/ml. The hepatoprotective capability of Searsia lancea was 59.34% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Another sample Sutherlandia frutescens showed effective antimycobacterial activity with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also stimulated production of IL-12 with 13.43 pg/ml produced. These three samples can be considered for further studies for the consideration as adjuvants for current tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: adjuvant, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, tuberculosis

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2 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento


Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: emulsion, polymer, polysaccharide, stability, chemical modification

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1 Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis

Authors: Chandragouda R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, S. D. Kalolgi


Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.

Keywords: Rhizobium, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, liquid formulation, benefit-cost ratio

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