Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Suneet Kathuria

11 Intrathecal Fentanyl with 0.5% Bupivacaine Heavy in Chronic Opium Abusers

Authors: Suneet Kathuria, Shikha Gupta, Kapil Dev, Sunil Katyal

Abstract:

Chronic use of opioids in opium abusers can cause poor pain control and increased analgaesic requirement. We compared the duration of spinal anaesthesia in chronic opium abusers and non-abusers. This prospective randomised study included 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Grade I or II adults undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg bupivacaine, and 25 μg fentanyl in non-opium abusers (Group A); and chronic opium abusers (Group B), and 40 μg fentanyl in chronic opium abusers (Group C). Patients were assessed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of effective analgesia. Mean time to onset of adequate analgesia in opium abusers was significantly longer in chronic opium abusers than in opium-naive patients. The duration of sensory block and motor block was significantly less in chronic opium abusers than in non-opium abusers. Duration of effective analgesia in groups A, B and C was 255.55 ± 26.84, 217.85 ± 15.15, and 268.20 ± 18.25 minutes, respectively; this difference was statistically significant. In chronic opium abusers, the duration of spinal anaesthesia is significantly shorter than that in opium nonabusers. The duration of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl in chronic opium abusers can be improved by increasing the intrathecal fentanyl dose from 25 μg to 40 μg.

Keywords: bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers, fentanyl, intrathecal

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10 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal

Abstract:

Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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9 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh

Abstract:

Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

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8 Design and Development of the Force Plate for the Study of Driving-Point Biodynamic Responses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, V. H. Saran, Arpit Mathur, Avik Kathuria

Abstract:

The evaluation of biodynamic responses of the human body to whole body vibration exposure is necessary to quantify the exposure effects. A force plate model has been designed with the help of CAD software, which was investigated by performing the modal, stress and strain analysis using finite element approach in the software. The results of the modal, stress and strain analysis were under the limits for measurements of biodynamic responses to whole body vibration. The physical model of the force plate was manufactured and fixed to the vibration simulator and further used in the experimentation for the evaluation of apparent mass responses of the ten recruited subjects standing in an erect posture exposed to vertical whole body vibration. The platform was excited with sinusoidal vibration at vibration magnitude: 1.0 and 1.5 m/s2 rms at different frequency of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12.5, 16 and 20 Hz. The results of magnitude of normalised apparent mass have shown the trend observed in the many past studies. The peak in the normalised apparent mass has been observed at 4 & 5 Hz frequency of vertical whole body vibration. The nonlinearity with respect to vibration magnitude has been also observed in the normalised apparent mass responses.

Keywords: whole body vibration, apparent mass, modeling, force plate

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7 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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6 Transit-Oriented Development as a Tool for Building Social Capital

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization has resulted in informal settlements on the periphery of nearly all big cities in the developing world due to lack of affordable housing options in the city. Residents of these communities have to travel long distances to get to work or search for jobs in these cities, and women, children and elderly people are excluded from urban opportunities. Affordable and safe public transport facilities can help them expand their possibilities. The aim of this research is to identify social capital as another important element of livable cities that can be protected and nurtured through transit-oriented development, as a tool to provide real resources that can help these transit-oriented communities become self-sustainable. Social capital has been referred to the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other. It is one of the key component responsible to build and maintain democracy. Public spaces, pedestrian amenities and social equity are the other essential part of Transit Oriented Development models that will be analyzed in this research. The data has been collected through the analysis of several case studies, the urban design strategies implemented and their impact on the perception and on the community´s experience, and, finally, how these focused on the social capital. Case studies have been evaluated on several metrics, namely ecological, financial, energy consumption, etc. A questionnaire and other tools were designed to collect data to analyze the research objective and reflect the dimension of social capital. The results of the questionnaire indicated that almost all the participants have a positive attitude towards this dimensions of building a social capital with the aid of transit-oriented development. Statistical data of the identified key motivators against against demographic characteristics have been generated based on the case studies used for the paper. The findings suggested that there is a direct relation between urbanization, transit-oriented developments, and social capital.

Keywords: better opportunities, low-income settlements, social capital, social inclusion, transit oriented development

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5 Critical Appraisal, Smart City Initiative: China vs. India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Siddharth Singhal, Dhrubajyoti Bordoloi, Peesari Vamshidhar Reddy

Abstract:

There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes a Smart City. It means different things to different people. The definition varies from place to place depending on the level of development and the willingness of people to change and reform. It tries to improve the quality of resource management and service provisions for the people living in the cities. Smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage the assets of a city. But most of these projects are misinterpreted as being technology projects only. Due to urbanization, a lot of informal as well government funded settlements have come up during the last few decades, thus increasing the consumption of the limited resources available. The people of each city have their own definition of Smart City. In the imagination of any city dweller in India is the picture of a Smart City which contains a wish list of infrastructure and services that describe his or her level of aspiration. The research involved a comparative study of the Smart City models in India and in China. Behavioral changes experienced by the people living in the pilot/first ever smart cities have been identified and compared. This paper discussed what is the target of the quality of life for the people in India and in China and how well could that be realized with the facilities being included in these Smart City projects. Logical and comparative analyses of important data have been done, collected from government sources, government papers and research papers by various experts on the topic. Existing cities with historically grown infrastructure and administration systems will require a more moderate step-by-step approach to modernization. The models were compared using many different motivators and the data is collected from past journals, interacting with the people involved, videos and past submissions. In conclusion, we have identified how these projects could be combined with the ongoing small scale initiatives by the local people/ small group of individuals and what might be the outcome if these existing practices were implemented on a bigger scale.

Keywords: behavior change, mission monitoring, pilot smart cities, social capital

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4 Modelling Distress Sale in Agriculture: Evidence from Maharashtra, India

Authors: Disha Bhanot, Vinish Kathuria

Abstract:

This study focusses on the issue of distress sale in horticulture sector in India, which faces unique challenges, given the perishable nature of horticulture crops, seasonal production and paucity of post-harvest produce management links. Distress sale, from a farmer’s perspective may be defined as urgent sale of normal or distressed goods, at deeply discounted prices (way below the cost of production) and it is usually characterized by unfavorable conditions for the seller (farmer). The small and marginal farmers, often involved in subsistence farming, stand to lose substantially if they receive lower prices than expected prices (typically framed in relation to cost of production). Distress sale maximizes price uncertainty of produce leading to substantial income loss; and with increase in input costs of farming, the high variability in harvest price severely affects profit margin of farmers, thereby affecting their survival. The objective of this study is to model the occurrence of distress sale by tomato cultivators in the Indian state of Maharashtra, against the background of differential access to set of factors such as - capital, irrigation facilities, warehousing, storage and processing facilities, and institutional arrangements for procurement etc. Data is being collected using primary survey of over 200 farmers in key tomato growing areas of Maharashtra, asking information on the above factors in addition to seeking information on cost of cultivation, selling price, time gap between harvesting and selling, role of middleman in selling, besides other socio-economic variables. Farmers selling their produce far below the cost of production would indicate an occurrence of distress sale. Occurrence of distress sale would then be modelled as a function of farm, household and institutional characteristics. Heckman-two-stage model would be applied to find the probability/likelihood of a famer falling into distress sale as well as to ascertain how the extent of distress sale varies in presence/absence of various factors. Findings of the study would recommend suitable interventions and promotion of strategies that would help farmers better manage price uncertainties, avoid distress sale and increase profit margins, having direct implications on poverty.

Keywords: distress sale, horticulture, income loss, India, price uncertainity

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3 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.

Keywords: anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922, industrialization

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2 Multifunctional Janus Microbots for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Agents

Authors: Shilpee Jain, Sachin Latiyan, Kaushik Suneet

Abstract:

Unlike traditional robots, medical microbots are not only smaller in size, but they also possess various unique properties, for example, biocompatibility, stability in the biological fluids, navigation opposite to the bloodstream, wireless control over locomotion, etc. The idea behind their usage in the medical field was to build a minimally invasive method for addressing the post-operative complications, including longer recovery time, infection eruption and pain. Herein, the present study demonstrates the fabrication of dual nature magneto-conducting Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and SU8 derived carbon-based Janus microbots for the efficient intracellular delivery of biomolecules. The low aspect ratio with feature size 2-5 μm microbots were fabricated by using a photolithography technique. These microbots were pyrolyzed at 900°C, which converts SU8 into amorphous carbon. The pyrolyzed microbots have dual properties, i.e., the half part is magneto-conducting and another half is only conducting for sufficing the therapeutic payloads efficiently with the application of external electric/magnetic field stimulations. For the efficient intracellular delivery of the microbots, the size and aspect ratio plays a significant role. However, on a smaller scale, the proper control over movement is difficult to achieve. The dual nature of Janus microbots allowed to control its maneuverability in the complex fluids using external electric as well as the magnetic field. Interestingly, Janus microbots move faster with the application of an external electric field (44 µm/s) as compared to the magnetic field (18 µm/s) application. Furthermore, these Janus microbots exhibit auto-fluorescence behavior that will help to track their pathway during navigation. Typically, the use of MNPs in the microdevices enhances the tendency to agglomerate. However, the incorporation of Fe₃O₄ MNPs in the pyrolyzed carbon reduces the chances of agglomeration of the microbots. The biocompatibility of the medical microbots, which is the essential property of any biosystems, was determined in vitro using HeLa cells. The microbots were found to compatible with HeLa cells. Additionally, the intracellular uptake of microbots was higher in the presence of an external electric field as compared to without electric field stimulation. In summary, the cytocompatible Janus microbots were fabricated successfully. They are stable in the biological fluids, wireless controllable navigation with the help of a few Guess external magnetic fields, their movement can be tracked because of autofluorescence behavior, they are less susceptible to agglomeration and higher cellular uptake could be achieved with the application of the external electric field. Thus, these carriers could offer a versatile platform to suffice the therapeutic payloads under wireless actuation.

Keywords: amorphous carbon, electric/magnetic stimulations, Janus microbots, magnetic nanoparticles, minimally invasive procedures

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1 Furnishing Ancillary Alternatives for High Speed Corridors and Pedestrian Crossing: Elevated Cycle Track, an Expedient to Urban Space Prototype in New Delhi

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Hrishabh Amrodia, Siddharth Menon, Abhishek Singh, Mansi Shivhare

Abstract:

Delhi, the National Capital, has undergone a surge in development rate, consequently engendering an unprecedented increase in population. Over the years the city has transformed into a car-centric infrastructure with high-speed corridors, flyovers and fast lanes. A considerable section of the population is hankering to rehabilitate to the good old cycling days, in order to contribute towards a green environment as well as to maintain their physical well-being. Furthermore, an extant section of Delhi’s population relies on cycles as their primary means of commuting in the city. Delhi has the highest number of cyclists and second highest number of pedestrians in the country. However, the tumultuous problems of unregulated traffic, inadequate space on roads, adverse weather conditions stifle them to opt for cycling. Lately, the city has been facing a conglomeration of problems such as haphazard traffic movement, clogged roads, congestion, pollution, accidents, safety issues, etc. In 1957, Delhi’s cyclists accounted for 36 per cent of trips which dropped down to a mere 4 per cent in 2008. The declining rate is due to unsafe roads and lack of proper cycle lanes. Now as the 10 percent of the city has cycle tracks. There is also a lack of public recreational activities in the city. These conundrums incite the need of a covered elevated cycling bridge track to facilitate the safe and smooth cycle commutation in the city which would also serve the purpose of an alternate urban public space over the cycle bridge reducing the cost as well as the space requirement for the same, developing a user–friendly transportation and public interaction system for urban areas in the city. Based on the archival research methodologies, the following research draws information and extracts records from the data accounts of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. as well as the Centre for Science and Environment, India. This research will predominantly focus on developing a prototype design for high speed elevated bicycle lanes based on different road typologies, which can be replicated with minor variations in similar situations, all across the major cities of our country including the proposed smart cities. Furthermore, how these cycling lanes could be utilized for the place making process accommodating cycle parking and renting spaces, public recreational spaces, food courts as well as convenient shopping facilities with appropriate optimization. How to preserve and increase the share of smooth and safe cycling commute cycling for the routine transportation of the urban community of the polluted capital which has been on a steady decline over the past few decades.

Keywords: bicycle track, prototype, road safety, urban spaces

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