Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Dorothy M. Jao

10 A Correlational Study between Parentification and Memory Retention among Parentified Female Adolescents: A Neurocognitive Perspective on Parentification

Authors: Mary Dorothy Roxas, Jeian Mae Dungca, Reginald Agor, Beatriz Figueroa, Lennon Andre Patricio, Honey Joy Cabahug

Abstract:

Parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family. It was found that parentification has the latter effect on adolescents’ cognitive and emotional vulnerability. Attachment theory helps clarify the process of parentification as it involves the relationship between the child and the parent. Carandang theory of “taga-salo” helps explain parentification in the Philippines setting. The present study examined the potential risk of parentification on adolescent’s memory retention by hypothesizing that there is a correlation between the two. The research was conducted with 249 female adolescents ages 12-24, residing in Valenzuela City. Results indicated that there is a significant inverse correlation between parentification and memory retention.

Keywords: memory retention, neurocognitive, parentification, stress

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9 Designing Expressive Behaviors to Improve Human-Robot Relationships

Authors: Sahil Anand, John Luetke, Nikhil Venkatesh, Dorothy Wong

Abstract:

Trust plays an important role in building and sustaining long-term relationships between people. In this paper, we present a robot that communicates using nonverbal behaviors such as facial expressions and body movements. Our study reports on an experiment in which participants were asked to team up with the robot to perform specific tasks. We varied the expressivity of the robot and measured the effects on trust, quality of interactions as well as on the praising and punishing behavior of the participant towards the robot. We found that participants developed a stronger affinity towards the expressive robot, but did not show any significant differences in the level of trust. When the same robot made mistakes, participants unconsciously punished it with lesser intensity compared to the neutral robot. The results emphasize the role of expressive behaviors on participant’s perception of the robot and also on the quality of interactions between humans and robots.

Keywords: human-robot interaction, nonverbal communication, relationships, social robot, trust

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8 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

Abstract:

Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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7 Study on the Work-Life Balance of Selected Working Single Mothers in the Coastal Community of La Huerta, Paranaque

Authors: Idette Sheirina Biyo, Rhodora Lynn C. Lintag

Abstract:

This paper explores how the work-life balance of selected working single mothers situated in a coastal community is affecting their well-being. Working single mothers carry the responsibility of earning for their family while simultaneously exercising their motherhood. This study utilized a purposeful qualitative research through semi-structured interviews among ten working single mothers living in the coastal community of La Huerta, Parañaque in order to identify the following: a) experiences of the working single mothers, b) problems usually encountered, and c) how these problems are affecting their well-being. Dorothy Smith’s Feminist Standpoint theory is used as a theoretical lens in order to explain their work-life balance. Results have shown that despite their dual roles as the main income earners and heads of the households, they are not neglecting to care for their well-being. They consider getting sufficient rest, eating well, and going to church as forms of caring for their well-being. Other factors that affect their work-life balance include living arrangements, work hours, type of work, and income.

Keywords: coastal community, well-being, work-life balance, Working single mother

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6 Prevalence of Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors Obesity among University of Venda Staff

Authors: Avhasei Dorothy Rasifudi, Josephine Mandizha

Abstract:

Cardiovascular risk factors continue to be the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. In 2011, the World Health Organization reported that every year an estimated 17 million people globally die of CVD, representing 30% of all global deaths, particularly caused by heart attacks and strokes. The purpose of the study was to determine and describe the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors among university of Venda staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 staff aged 20-65 years. The anthropometric measurements were conducted in accordance to and with standardized procedures advocated by the International Society for the Advanced Kinanthropometry. Weight, Height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Blood pressure was measured using a Heine cuff and sphygmomanometer. Questionnaire was administered to gather demographic details and cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The parameter t-test was applied to test significance level at p ≤ 0.05 between sexes. The statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension was 23% with the highest prevalence amongst those aged 40 years and above. Factors found to be to be significantly associated with hypertension were gender, age, physical inactivity and family history. Prevalence of obesity was 43%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 years. The factors associated with obesity were diet, age and physical activity. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in the study were high.

Keywords: cardiovascular, prevalence, risk factors, staff

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5 Clothing as Cure: Dress as Moral Treatment in Psychiatry

Authors: Dorothy Chyung

Abstract:

In the psychiatric interview, the mental status exam begins with an assessment of the patient's appearance, noting aspects such as grooming and hygiene. However, it is not well established whether further examination of a patient's attire can provide further useful information. The popular assumption is that those who are mentally unwell will manifest this in unusual clothing. In the moral treatment of the 19th century, proper clothing was also seen as a pivotal therapeutic concern. This project examines assumptions about clothing, both as a reflection of and treatment for psychopathology. The methodology considers the opinions expressed in 19th century art and journals, as well as asylum rules, in comparison to contemporary psychiatric practice and research evidence. Per moral treatment in the 19th century, self-discipline and a proper environment would cure insanity. Madness was evident in the opposite of these ideals—such as ragged or ‘improper’ clothing—and rules about attire delineated the most correct (i.e. sane) ways to dress. These rules applied not only for the patients but also for staff. Despite these ideals, accusations were made that asylums, in fact, dressed patients to look more mentally unwell and further removed patients’ agency. Current practice in psychiatric hospitals retains remnants of moral treatment. Patients are expected to dress ‘appropriately’ while retaining some choice to build self-esteem, with arguments about safety being used to justify the removal of choice. Meanwhile, staff is expected to dress professionally and as role models, based on the assumption that conservative dress is least pathological. Research on this subject is limited, and there is little evidence that discrete psychiatric diagnoses manifest in the particular dress, nor that conservative dress would result in a reduction in pathology. Dressing unusually has become a privilege granted only to those without association with mental illness.

Keywords: fashion, history of psychiatry, medical humanities, mental health treatment

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4 Improvement of Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Gem-Hydro Streamflow Forecasting System

Authors: Etienne Gaborit, Dorothy Durnford, Daniel Deacu, Marco Carrera, Nathalie Gauthier, Camille Garnaud, Vincent Fortin

Abstract:

A new experimental streamflow forecasting system was recently implemented at the Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Canadian Centre for Meteorological and Environmental Prediction (CCMEP). It relies on CaLDAS (Canadian Land Data Assimilation System) for the assimilation of surface variables, and on a surface prediction system that feeds a routing component. The surface energy and water budgets are simulated with the SVS (Soil, Vegetation, and Snow) Land-Surface Scheme (LSS) at 2.5-km grid spacing over Canada. The routing component is based on the Watroute routing scheme at 1-km grid spacing for the Great Lakes and Nelson River watersheds. The system is run in two distinct phases: an analysis part and a forecast part. During the analysis part, CaLDAS outputs are used to force the routing system, which performs streamflow assimilation. In forecast mode, the surface component is forced with the Canadian GEM atmospheric forecasts and is initialized with a CaLDAS analysis. Streamflow performances of this new system are presented over 2019. Performances are compared to the current ECCC’s operational streamflow forecasting system, which is different from the new experimental system in many aspects. These new streamflow forecasts are also compared to persistence. Overall, the new streamflow forecasting system presents promising results, highlighting the need for an elaborated assimilation phase before performing the forecasts. However, the system is still experimental and is continuously being improved. Some major recent improvements are presented here and include, for example, the assimilation of snow cover data from remote sensing, a backward propagation of assimilated flow observations, a new numerical scheme for the routing component, and a new reservoir model.

Keywords: assimilation system, distributed physical model, offline hydro-meteorological chain, short-term streamflow forecasts

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3 The Effectiveness of the Recovering from Child Abuse Programme (RCAP) for the Treatment of CPTSD: A Pilot Study

Authors: Siobhan Hegarty, Michael Bloomfield, Kim Entholt, Dorothy Williams, Helen Kennerley

Abstract:

Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) confers greater risk of poor outcomes than does Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Despite this, the current treatment guidelines for CPTSD aim to reduce only the ‘core’ symptoms of re-experiencing, hyper-vigilance and avoidance, while not addressing the Disturbances of Self Organisation (DSO) symptoms that distinguish this novel diagnosis from PTSD. The Recovering from Child Abuse Programme (RCAP) is a group protocol, based on the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Preliminary evidence suggests the program is effective at reducing DSO symptoms. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effectiveness of the RCAP for the specific treatment of CPTSD. This study was conducted as a service evaluation in a secondary care, traumatic stress service. Treatment was delivered once a week, in two-hour sessions, to ten existing female CPTSD patients of the service, who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood. The programme was administered by two therapists and two additional facilitators, following the RCAP protocol manual. Symptom severity was measured before the administration of therapy and was tracked across a range of measures (International Trauma Questionnaire; Patient Health Questionnaire; Community Assessment of Psychic Experience; Work and Social Adjustment Scale) at five time points, over the course of treatment. Qualitative appraisal of the programme was gathered via weekly feedback forms and from audio-taped recordings of verbal feedback given during group sessions. Preliminary results suggest the programme causes a slight reduction in CPTSD and depressive symptom severity and preliminary qualitative analysis suggests that the RCAP is both helpful and acceptable to group members. Final results and conclusions will follow completed thematic analysis of results.

Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Cognitive behavioural therapy, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Recovering from child abuse programme

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2 Home Environment and Peer Pressure as Predictors of Disruptive Behaviour and Risky Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Dorothy Ebere Adimora

Abstract:

The study investigated the predictive power of home environment and peer pressure on disruptive behaviour and risky sexual behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria. The design of the study is a cross sectional survey of correlational study. The study was carried out in the six Education zones in Enugu state, Nigeria. Enugu State is divided into six education zones, namely Agbani, Awgu, Enugu, Nsukka, Obollo-Afor and Udi. The population for the study was all the 31,680 senior secondary class two adolescents in 285 secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria in 2014/2015 academic session. The target population was students in SSS.2 senior secondary class two. They constitute one-sixth of the entire student population in the state. The sample of the study was 528, a multi stage sampling technique was employed to draw the sample. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The instruments for data collection were an interview session and a structured questionnaire of four clusters, they are; home environment, peer pressure, risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder questionnaires. The instruments were validated by 3 experts, two in psychology and one in measurement and Evaluation in Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability coefficient of the instruments was ascertained by subjection to field trial. The adolescents were asked to complete the questionnaire on their home environment, peer pressure, disruptive behaviour disorder and risky sexual behaviours. The risky sexual behaviours were ascertained based on interview conducted on their actual sexual practice within the past 12 months. The research questions were analyzed using Pearson r and R-square, while the hypotheses were tested using ANOVA and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The results of this survey revealed that the adolescents are sexually active in very young ages. The mean age at sexual debut for the adolescents covered in this survey is a pointer to the fact that some of them started engaging in sexual activities long ago. It was also found that the adolescents engage in disruptive behaviour as a result of their poor home environment factors and association with negative peers. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the adolescents should be exposed to enhanced home environment such as parents’ responsiveness, organization of the environment, availability of appropriate learning materials, opportunities for daily stimulation and to offer a proper guidance to these adolescents to avoid negative peer influence which could result in risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder.

Keywords: parenting, peer group, adolescents, sexuality, conduct disorder

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1 Bee Keeping for Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Success Story for Sustainable Tourism in Kibale National Park, Western Uganda

Authors: Dorothy Kagazi

Abstract:

The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) remains one of the most crop-damaging species around Kibale National Park, western Uganda. Elephant crop raiding deprives communities of food and incomes, consequently impacting livelihoods, attitude, and support for conservation. It also attracts an aggressive reaction from local communities including the retaliatory killing of a species that is already endangered and listed under Appendix I of the Convention on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES). In order to mitigate against elephant crop raiding and minimize conflict, a number of interventions were devised by the government of Uganda such as physical guarding, scare-shooting, excavation of trenches, growing of unpalatable crops and fire lighting all of which have over the years been implemented around the park. These generated varying degrees of effectiveness but largely never solved the problem of elephants crossing into communities to destroy food and shelter which had a negative effect onto sustainable tourism of the communities who often resorted to killing these animals and hence contributing the falling numbers of these animals. It was until government discovered that there are far more effective ways of deterring these animals from crossing to communities that it commissioned a study to deploy the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) as a deterrent against elephant crop raiding and income enhancement for local people around the park. These efforts led to a number of projects around Kibale National Park where communities were facilitated to keep bees for human-elephant conflict mitigation and rural income enhancement through the sale of honey. These projects have registered tremendous success in reducing crop damage, enhance rural incomes, influence positive attitude change and ultimately secure community support for elephant and park conservation which is a clear manifestation of sustainable tourism development in the area. To address the issue of sustainability, the project was aligned with four major objectives that contributed to the overall goal of maintaining the areas around the parks and the national park itself in such a manner that it remains viable over an infinite period. Among these included determining deterrence effects of bees against elephant crop raiding, assessing the contribution of beekeeping towards rural income enhancement, determining the impact of community involvement of park conservation and management among others. The project deployed 500 improved hives by placing them at specific and previously identified and mapped out elephant crossing points along the park boundary. A control site was established without any intervention to facilitate comparison of findings and data was collected on elephant raiding frequency, patterns, honey harvested, and community attitude towards the park. A socio-economic assessment was also undertaken to ascertain the contribution of beekeeping to incomes and attitude change. In conclusion, human-wildlife conflicts have disturbed conservation and sustainable tourism development efforts. Such success stories like the beekeeping strategy should hence be extensively discussed and widely shared as a conservation technique for sustainable tourism.

Keywords: bees, communities, conservation, elephants

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