Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8988

Search results for: Multidimensional Locus of Control

8988 A Study on Multidimensional Locus of Control and the Procrastinating Behavior in Employees

Authors: Richa Mishra, Sonia Munjal

Abstract:

In this increasingly hectic and competitive climate, employees are expected to manage the resources available to them to perform their work. However, many are wasting the most precious and scarce resource at their disposal, time, by procrastinating on tasks and thereby costing themselves and their organizations. As timely performance is a requirement of most jobs, procrastination is particularly problematic in the workplace. Evidence suggests that procrastination and poor performance go hand-in-hand, as procrastinators miss more deadlines than non-procrastinators and make more errors and work at a slower speed than non-procrastinators when performing timed tasks. This research is hence an effort to add a little in the sparse knowledge base. It is an effort to throw light on the relationship of Levenson’s multi dimensions of locus of control and also an effort to identify if it is one of the causes and of employees procrastination which have not been explored earlier. The study also explores the effect and relationship of multidimensional locus of control and various levels of stress on procrastination. The results of the research have ascertained that there is significant impact of LOC dimensions on the procrastinating behavior of the employees. One of the major findings to emerge from the current research that managers with powerful others as their LOC dimensions were least procrastinating, contradicts the previous research results that external procrastinate more than internals.

Keywords: Multidimensional Locus of Control, workplace procrastination, employee behaviour, manufacturing industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
8987 Predictors of Behavior Modification Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Rosemarie Basile, Maria Loizos, John Pallarino, Karen Gibbs

Abstract:

Given that complications can be significant following bariatric surgery and with rates of long-term success measured in excess weight loss varying as low as 33% after five years, an understanding of the psychological factors that may mitigate findings and increase success and result in better screening and supports prior to surgery are critical. An internally oriented locus of control (LOC) has been identified as a predictor for success in obesity therapy, but has not been investigated within the context of bariatric surgery. It is hypothesized that making behavioral changes prior to surgery which mirror those that are required post-surgery may ultimately predict long-term success. 122 subjects participated in a clinical interview and completed self-report measures including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LQ). Pearson correlations were computed between locus of control orientation and likelihood to make behavior changes prior to surgery. Pearson correlations revealed a positive correlation between locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes r = 0.23, p < .05. As hypothesized, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes. Participants with a higher LOC believe that they are able to make decisions about their own health. Future research will focus on whether this positive correlation is a predictor for future bariatric surgery success.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, behavior modification, health locus of control, overeating questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
8986 Associations between Mindfulness, Temporal Discounting, Locus of Control, and Reward-Based Eating in a Sample of Overweight and Obese Adults

Authors: Andrea S. Badillo-Perez, Alexis D. Mitchell, Sara M. Levens

Abstract:

Overeating, and obesity have been associated with addictive behavior, primarily due to behaviors like reward-based eating, the tendency to overeat due to factors such as lack of control, preoccupation over food, and lack of satiation. Temporal discounting (TD), the ability to select future rewards over short term gains, and mindfulness, the process of maintaining present moment awareness, have been suggested to have significant, differential impacts on health-related behaviors. An individual’s health locus of control, the degree to which they feel that they have control over their health is also known to have an impact on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and reward-based eating, as well as the relation between TD and mindfulness in a sample (N = 126) of overweight or obese participants from larger health-focused study. Through the use of questionnaires (including the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Reward-Based Eating Drive (RED), and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLOC)), anthropometric measurements, and a computerized TD task, a series of regressions tested the association between subscales of these measures. Results revealed differences in how the mindfulness subscales are associated with TD measures. Specifically the ‘Observing’ (beta =-.203) and ‘Describing’ (beta =.26) subscales were associated with lower TD rates and a longer subjective devaluation time-frame respectively. In contrast, the ‘Acting with Awareness’ subscale was associated with a shorter subjective devaluation timeframe (beta =-.23). These findings suggest that the reflective perspective initiated through the observing and describing components of mindfulness may facilitate delay of gratification, whereas the acting with awareness component of mindfulness, which focuses on the present moment, may make delay of gratification more challenging. Results also indicated that a higher degree of reward-based eating was associated with a higher degree of an external health locus of control based on the power of chance (beta =.10). However, an external locus of control based on the power of others had no significant association with reward-based eating. This finding implies that the belief that health is due to chance is associated with greater reward-based eating behavior, suggesting that interventions that focus on locus of control may be helpful. Overall, findings demonstrate that weight loss interventions may benefit from health locus of control and mindfulness exercises, but caution should be taken as the components of mindfulness appear to have different effects on increasing or decreasing delay of gratification.

Keywords: health locus of control, mindfulness, obesity, reward-based eating, temporal discounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
8985 Some Properties of Cut Locus of a Flat Torus

Authors: Pakkinee Chitsakul

Abstract:

In this article, we would like to show that there is no cut point of any point in a plane, but there exists the cut locus of a point in a flat torus. By the results, we would like to determine the structure of cut locus of a flat torus.

Keywords: cut locus, flat torus, geodesics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
8984 USA Commercial Pilots’ Views of Crew Resource Management, Social Desirability, and Safety Locus of Control

Authors: Stephen Vera, Tabitha Black, Charalambos Cleanthous, Ryan Sain

Abstract:

A gender comparison of USA commercial pilots’ demographics and views of CRM, social desirability and locus of control were surveyed. The Aviation safety locus of control (ASLOC) was used to measure external (ASLOC-E) or internal (ASLOC-I) aviation safety locus of control. The gender differences were explored using the ASLOC scores as a categorical variable. A differential comparison of crew resource management (CRM), based on the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) guidelines was conducted. The results indicated that the proportion of female to male respondents matches the current ratio of USA commercial pilots. Moreover, there were no significant differences regarding overall education and the total number of communication classes one took. Regarding CRM issues, there were no significant differences on their views regarding the roles of the PIC, stress, time management, and managing a flight team. The females scored significantly lower on aeronautical decision making (ADM) and communications. There were no significant differences on either the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) impression management (IM) or self-deceptive enhancement (SDE). Although there were no overall significant differences on the ASLOC, the females did score higher on the internal subscale than did the males. An additional comparison of socially desirable responding indicates that all scores may be invalid, especially from the female respondents.

Keywords: social desirability, safety locus of control, crew resource management, commercial pilots

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
8983 Locus of Control and Sense of Happiness: A Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Ivanna Shubina

Abstract:

Background/Objectives and Goals: Recent interest in positive psychology is reflected in a plenty of studies conducted on its basic constructs (e.g. self-esteem and happiness) in interrelation with personality features, social rules, business and technology development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of self-esteem, exploring the relationships between self-esteem and happiness, self-esteem and locus of control (LOC). It hypothesizes that self-esteem may be interpreted as a predictor of happiness and mediator in the locus of control establishment. A plenty of various empirical studies results have been analyzed in order to collect data for this theoretical study, and some of the analysed results can be considered as arguable or incoherent. However, the majority of results indicate a strong relationship between three considered concepts: self-esteem, happiness, the locus of control. Methods: In particular, this study addresses the following broad research questions: i) Is self-esteem just an index of global happiness? ii) May happiness be possible or realizable without a healthy self-confidence and self-acceptance? iii) To what extent does self-esteem influence on the level of happiness? iv) Is high self-esteem a sufficient condition for happiness? v) Is self-esteem is a strong predictor of internal locus of control maintenance? vi) Is high self-esteem related to internal LOC, while low self-esteem to external LOC? In order to find the answers for listed questions, 60 reliable sources have been analyzed, results of what are discussed more detailed below. Expected Results/Conclusion/Contribution:It is recognized that the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, locus of control is complex: internal LOC is contributing to happiness, but it is not directly related to it; self-esteem is a powerful and important psychological factor in mental health and well-being; the feelings of being worthy and empowered are associated with significant achievements and high self-esteem; strong and appropriate self-esteem (when the discrepancy between “ideal” and “real” self is balanced) is correlated with more internal LOC (when the individual tends to believe that personal achievements depend on possessed features, vigor, and persistence). Despite the special attention paid to happiness, the locus of control and self-esteem, independently, theoretical and empirical equivocations within each literature foreclose many obvious predictions about the nature of their empirical distinction. In terms of theoretical framework, no model has achieved consensus as an ultimate theoretical background for any of the mentioned constructs. To be able to clarify the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, and locus of control more interdisciplinary studies have to take place in order to get data on heterogeneous samples, provided from various countries, cultures, and social groups.

Keywords: happiness, locus of control, self-esteem, mediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
8982 Body Image Dissatifaction with and Personal Behavioral Control in Obese Patients Who are Attending to Treatment

Authors: Mariela Gonzalez, Zoraide Lugli, Eleonora Vivas, Rosana Guzmán

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the predictive capacity of self-efficacy perceived for weight control, locus of weight control and skills of weight self-management in the dissatisfaction of the body image in obese people who attend treatment. Sectional study conducted in the city of Maracay, Venezuela, with 243 obese who attend to treatment, 173 of the feminine gender and 70 of the male, with ages ranging between 18 and 57 years old. The sample body mass index ranged between 29.39 and 44.14. The following instruments were used: The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the inventory of body weight self-regulation, The Inventory of self-efficacy in the regulation of body weight and the Inventory of the Locus of weight control. Calculating the descriptive statistics and of central tendency, coefficients of correlation and multiple regression; it was found that a low ‘perceived Self-efficacy in the weight control’ and a high ‘Locus of external control’, predict the dissatisfaction with body image in obese who attend treatment. The findings are a first approximation to give an account of the importance of the personal control variables in the study of the psychological grief on the overweight individual.

Keywords: dissatisfaction with body image, obese people, personal control, psychological variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
8981 The Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control: Empirical Study on Lithuanian Youth

Authors: Dalia Antiniene, Rosita Lekaviciene

Abstract:

The qualitative methodology based study is designed to reveal a connection between emotional intelligence (EI) and locus of control (LC) within the population of Lithuanian youth. In the context of emotional problems, the locus of control reflects how one estimates the causes of his/her emotions: internals (internal locus of control) associate their emotions with their manner of thinking, whereas externals (external locus of control) consider emotions to be evoked by external circumstances. On the other hand, there is little empirical data about this connection, and the results in disposition are often contradictory. In the conducted study 1430 young people, aged 17 to 27, from various regions of Lithuania were surveyed. The subjects were selected by quota sampling, maintaining natural proportions of the general Lithuanian youth population. To assess emotional intelligence the EI-DARL test (i.e. self-report questionnaire consisting of 75 items) was implemented. The emotional intelligence test, created applying exploratory factor analysis, reveals four main dimensions of EI: understanding of one’s own emotions, regulation of one’s own emotions, understanding other’s emotions, and regulation of other’s emotions (subscale reliability coefficients fluctuate between 0,84 and 0,91). An original 16-item internality/externality scale was used to examine the locus of control (internal consistency of the Externality subscale - 0,75; Internality subscale - 0,65). The study has determined that the youth understands and regulates other people’s emotions better than their own. Using the K-mean cluster analysis method, it was established that there are three groups of subjects according to their EI level – people with low, medium and high EI. After comparing means of subjects’ favorability of statements on the Internality/Externality scale, a predominance of internal locus of control in the young population was established. The multiple regression models has shown that a rather strong statistically significant correlation exists between total EI, EI subscales and LC. People who tend to attribute responsibility for the outcome of their actions to their own abilities and efforts have higher EI and, conversely, the tendency to attribute responsibility to external forces is related more with lower EI. While pursuing their goals, young people with high internality have a predisposition to analyze perceived emotions and, therefore, gain emotional experience: they learn to control their natural reactions and to act adequately in a situation at hand. Thus the study unfolds, that a person’s locus of control and emotional intelligence are related phenomena and allows us to draw a conclusion, that a person’s internality/externality is a reliable predictor of total EI and its components.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, externality, internality, locus of control

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
8980 Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among Serially Frustrated Students in Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Oyesoji Aremu, Taiwo Williams

Abstract:

This study examined some factors (academic self-efficacy, locus of control, motivation and gender) that could predict academic dishonesty among serially frustrated students in Ogun State, South West, Nigeria. Serial academically frustrated students are students who are unable to attain and meet academic expectations set by themselves or significant others. A sample of 250 undergraduate students selected from two faculties from a University in Ogun State,South West Nigeria took part in the study. Multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the joint and relative contributions of the independent variables to the prediction of the dependent variable. T-test was used to test the hypothesis determining the gender difference between the independent variables (academic self-efficacy, locus of control and motivation) and academic dishonesty of serial academically frustrated male and female students. The results of the study showed all the independent variables jointly contributed to predicting academic dishonesty, while only academic self-efficacy and motivation had relative contributions to the dependent measure. There was no significant difference in the academic self-efficacy and motivation among males and females on academic dishonesty of the serial academically frustrated students but locus of control showed a significant difference between male and female students on academic dishonesty. Implications for counseling of the findings are discussed in the study.

Keywords: academic dishonesty, serially frustrated students, academic self-efficacy, locus of control

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
8979 Molecular Characterization of Ardi Goat Assisted by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: M. F. Elzarei, A. M. Alseaf

Abstract:

Hundred uncorrelated animal and thirty six markers were used in this study to study the molecular characterization of Saudi native Ardi goat (BM18189, ILSTS030, INRA005, OarFCB48, BM2113, ILSTS033, INRA023, RM088, CSRD247, ILSTS034, INRA063, SRCRSP1, ILSTS002, ILSTS044, INRA172, SRCRSP5, ILSTS005, ILSTS049, MAF70, SRCRSP8, ILSTS011, ILSTS058, OarAE54, SRCRSP9, ILSTS019, ILSTS059, OARCP34, TGLA53, ILSTS022, ILSTS082, OARE129, TGLA73, ILSTS029, ILSTS087, OARE193, and RM004). Ardi goat showed high variability. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 in SRCRSP1 locus to 13.5 in CSRD247 locus. Gene diversities varied within a wide range, from 0.53 in ILSTS002 locus to 0.86 in RM088 locus. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in order to evaluate the significance of inbreeding occurring in each locus in Ardi population. Only SRCRSP9, INRA005, ILSTS030 loci showed significance in this way.

Keywords: molecular characterization, microsatellite markers, Ardi goats, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
8978 The Interplay of Locus of Control, Academic Achievement and Biological Variables among Iranian Online EFL Learners

Authors: Azizeh Chalak, Niloufar Nasri

Abstract:

Students' academic achievement, along with the effects of different variables, has been a serious concern of educators since long ago. This study was an attempt to investigate the interplay of Locus of Control (LOC), academic achievement and biological variables among Iranian online EFL Learners. The participants of the study included 100 students of different age groups and genders studying English online at Iran Language Institute (ILI), Isfahan, Iran. The instrument used was Trice Academic LOC questionnaire which identifies orientations of internality or externality. The participants' Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were used as the measure of their academic achievement. A series of independent samples t-tests were performed on the data. The results of the study showed that (a) there were no significant differences between male and female participants in LOC orientation, (b) there was no relationship between LOC and academic achievement among internal males and females, (c) external females were better achievers than external males, (d) and the age had no significant relationship with LOC and academic achievement. It can be concluded that the social, cultural patterns of genders have changed. This study might help sociologists and psychologists as well as applied linguists in that they reflect the recent social changes and their effects on the LOC and their consequent implications in teaching languages.

Keywords: academic achievement, biological variables, Iranian online EFL learners, locus of control

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
8977 A Multidimensional Genetic Algorithm Applicable for Our VRP Variant Dealing with the Problems of Infrastructure Defaults SVRDP-CMTW: “Safety Vehicle Routing Diagnosis Problem with Control and Modified Time Windows”

Authors: Ben Mansour Mouin, Elloumi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

We will discuss the problem of routing a fleet of different vehicles from a central depot to different types of infrastructure-defaults with dynamic maintenance requests, modified time windows, and control of default maintained. For this reason, we propose a modified metaheuristicto to solve our mathematical model. SVRDP-CMTW is a variant VRP of an optimal vehicle plan that facilitates the maintenance task of different types of infrastructure-defaults. This task will be monitored after the maintenance, based on its priorities, the degree of danger associated with each default, and the neighborhood at the black-spots. We will present, in this paper, a multidimensional genetic algorithm “MGA” by detailing its characteristics, proposed mechanisms, and roles in our work. The coding of this algorithm represents the necessary parameters that characterize each infrastructure-default with the objective of minimizing a combination of cost, distance and maintenance times while satisfying the priority levels of the most urgent defaults. The developed algorithm will allow the dynamic integration of newly detected defaults at the execution time. This result will be displayed in our programmed interactive system at the routing time. This multidimensional genetic algorithm replaces N genetic algorithm to solve P different type problems of infrastructure defaults (instead of N algorithm for P problem we can solve in one multidimensional algorithm simultaneously who can solve all these problemsatonce).

Keywords: mathematical model, VRP, multidimensional genetic algorithm, metaheuristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
8976 Locus of Control and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Maternal and Child Healthcare Services Utilization in Nigeria

Authors: Josephine Aikpitanyi, Friday Okonofua, Lorrettantoimo, Sandy Tubeuf

Abstract:

Every day, 800 women die from conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth, resulting in an estimated 300,000 maternal deaths worldwide per year. Over 99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with more than half of them occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria being the most populous nation in sub-Saharan Africa bears a significant burden of worsening maternal and child health outcomes with a maternal mortality rate of 917 per 100,000 live births and child mortality rate of 117 per 1,000 live births. While several studies have documented that financial barriers disproportionately discourage poor women from seeking needed maternal and child healthcare, other studies have indicated otherwise. Evidence shows that there are instances where health facilities with skilled healthcare providers exist, and yet maternal, and child health outcomes remain abysmally low, indicating the presence of non-cognitive and behavioural factors that may affect the utilization of healthcare services. This study investigated the influence of locus of control and self-esteem on utilization of maternal and child healthcare services in Nigeria. Specifically, it explored the differences in utilization of antenatal care, skilled birth care, postnatal care, and child vaccination by women having an internal and external locus of control and women having high and low self-esteem. We collected information on non-cognitive traits of 1411 randomly selected women, along with information on utilization of the various indicators of maternal and child healthcare. Estimating logistic regression models for various components of healthcare services utilization, we found that women’s internal locus of control was a significant predictor of utilization of antenatal care, skilled birth care, and completion of child vaccination. We also found that having high self-esteem was a significant predictor of utilization of antenatal care, postnatal care, and completion of child vaccination after adjusting for other control variables. By improving our understanding of non-cognitive traits as possible barriers to maternal and child healthcare utilization, our findings offer important insights for enhancing participant engagement in intervention programs that are initiated to improve maternal and child health outcomes in low-and-middle-income countries.

Keywords: behavioural economics, health-seeking behaviour, locus of control and self-esteem, maternal and child healthcare, non-cognitive traits, and healthcare utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
8975 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram

Abstract:

From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: classical measures, predictions, financial bubbles, multidimensional, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
8974 A Model Architecture Transformation with Approach by Modeling: From UML to Multidimensional Schemas of Data Warehouses

Authors: Ouzayr Rabhi, Ibtissam Arrassen

Abstract:

To provide a complete analysis of the organization and to help decision-making, leaders need to have relevant data; Data Warehouses (DW) are designed to meet such needs. However, designing DW is not trivial and there is no formal method to derive a multidimensional schema from heterogeneous databases. In this article, we present a Model-Driven based approach concerning the design of data warehouses. We describe a multidimensional meta-model and also specify a set of transformations starting from a Unified Modeling Language (UML) metamodel. In this approach, the UML metamodel and the multidimensional one are both considered as a platform-independent model (PIM). The first meta-model is mapped into the second one through transformation rules carried out by the Query View Transformation (QVT) language. This proposal is validated through the application of our approach to generating a multidimensional schema of a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) DW. We are interested in the BSC perspectives, which are highly linked to the vision and the strategies of an organization.

Keywords: data warehouse, meta-model, model-driven architecture, transformation, UML

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
8973 Multidimensional Study on the Deprivations Faced by Women in India

Authors: Ramya Rachel S.

Abstract:

For women in a developing country like India, poverty is an ever-clinging problem which has rooted itself without any trace of absolute abolition. Poverty is a deprivation of many imminent needs and must be measured accordingly. Therefore, it is important to study the dimensions of education, health, and standard of living to understand the true nature of the impoverished. The study focused on studying the deprivation on these aspects using the Alkire-Foster methodology to estimate the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The study has utilized the individual data of women aged 15 to 49 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the year 2015-16. Findings reveal that women in India still face extreme levels of deprivation in various dimensions. More than one-third of the total women aged 15 to 24 in India were multidimensionally poor. Dimensional breakdown of the levels of multidimensional poverty indicates that the dimension of Education is the highest contributor to poverty. Decomposition of the multidimensional poverty among various demographic sub-groups, reveals that the multidimensional poverty level increases with age. Results point out that deprivations were higher among widowed and married women, and among women who lived alone. There was also a huge rural-urban divide with respect to poverty. The basic needs of these women must be targeted and met so that they are withdrawn from all forms of poverty.

Keywords: deprivations, multidimensional poverty, sub-group decomposition, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
8972 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik

Abstract:

Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
8971 A New Realization of Multidimensional System for Grid Sensor Network

Authors: Yang Xiong, Hua Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, for the basic problem of wireless sensor network topology control and deployment, the Roesser model in rectangular grid sensor networks is presented. In addition, a general constructive realization procedure will be proposed. The procedure enables a distributed implementation of linear systems on a sensor network. A non-trivial example is illustrated.

Keywords: grid sensor networks, Roesser model, state-space realization, multidimensional systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
8970 Multidimensional Poverty and Child Cognitive Development

Authors: Bidyadhar Dehury, Sanjay Kumar Mohanty

Abstract:

According to the Right to Education Act of India, education is the fundamental right of all children of age group 6-14 year irrespective of their status. Using the unit level data from India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we tried to understand the inter-relationship between the level of poverty and the academic performance of the children aged 8-11 years. The level of multidimensional poverty is measured using five dimensions and 10 indicators using Alkire-Foster approach. The weighted deprivation score was obtained by giving equal weight to each dimension and indicators within the dimension. The weighted deprivation score varies from 0 to 1 and grouped into four categories as non-poor, vulnerable, multidimensional poor and sever multidimensional poor. The academic performance index was measured using three variables reading skills, math skills and writing skills using PCA. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was used in the analysis. The outcome variable was ordinal. So the predicted probabilities were calculated using the ordinal logistic regression. The predicted probabilities of good academic performance index was 0.202 if the child was sever multidimensional poor, 0.235 if the child was multidimensional poor, 0.264 if the child was vulnerable, and 0.316 if the child was non-poor. Hence, if the level of poverty among the children decreases from sever multidimensional poor to non-poor, the probability of good academic performance increases.

Keywords: multidimensional poverty, academic performance index, reading skills, math skills, writing skills, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
8969 A Comparison of Income and Fuzzy Index of Multidimensional Poverty in Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries

Authors: Joseph Siani

Abstract:

Over the last decades, dissatisfaction with global indicators of economic performance, such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita, has shifted the attention to what is now referred to as multidimensional poverty. In this framework, poverty goes beyond income to incorporate aspects of well-being not captured by income measures alone. This paper applies the totally fuzzy approach to estimate the fuzzy index of poverty (FIP) in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data and explores whether pictures created by the standard headcount ratio at $1.90 a day and the fuzzy index of poverty tell a similar story. The results suggest that there is indeed considerable mismatch between poverty headcount and the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty, meaning that the majority of the most deprived people (as identified by the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty) would not be identified by the poverty headcount ratio. Moreover, we find that poverty is distributed differently by colonial heritage (language). In particular, the most deprived countries in SSA are French-speaking.

Keywords: fuzzy set approach, multidimensional poverty, poverty headcount, overlap, Sub-Saharan Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
8968 The Role of Internal and External Control in the Migrant Related Representations of Right-Wing Extremists

Authors: Gabriella Kengyel

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the differences between the attitudes of the right-wing extremists with internal or external control towards migrants. They both have a significantly higher score on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and they are quite xenophobic (54%) according to Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Present research suggests their motives are different. Principle components analysis shows that extremists with internal control reject migrants because of welfare chauvinism and they think that there is some kind of political conspirationism behind the European Refugee Crisis. Contrarily extremist with external control believe in a common enemy and they are significantly more ethnocentric and less skeptical in politics. Results suggest that extremist with internal control shows hostility toward minorities and migrants mainly because of their own reference group.

Keywords: control, extremist, migrant, right-wing

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
8967 Study on the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Its Psycho-Social-Genetic Risk Factors among Tibetan Alolescents in Heavily-Hit Area Three Years after Yushu Earthquake in Qinghai Province, China

Authors: Xiaolian Jiang, Dongling Liu, Kun Liu

Abstract:

Aims: To examine the prevalence of POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) symptoms among Tibetan adolescents in heavily-hit disaster area three years after Yushu earthquake, and to explore the interactions of the psycho-social-genetic risk factors. Methods: This was a three-stage study. Firstly, demographic variables,PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C),the Internality、Powerful other、Chance Scale,(IPC),Coping Style Scale(CSS),and the Social Support Appraisal(SSA)were used to explore the psychosocial factors of PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors. PCL-C was used to examine the PTSD symptoms among 4072 Tibetan adolescents,and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders(SCID)was used by psychiatrists to make the diagnosis precisely. Secondly,a case-control trial was used to explore the relationship between PTSD and gene polymorphisms. 287adolescents diagnosed with PTSD were recruited in study group, and 280 adolescents without PTSD in control group. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology(PCR-RFLP)was used to test gene polymorphisms. Thirdly,SPSS 22.0 was used to explore the interactions of the psycho-social-genetic risk factors of PTSD on the basis of the above results. Results and conclusions: 1.The prevalence of PTSD was 9.70%. 2.The predictive psychosocial factors of PTSD included earthquake exposure, support from others, imagine, abreact, tolerant, powerful others and family support. 3.Synergistic interactions between A1 gene of DRD2 TaqIA and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were found. Antagonism interactions between A1 gene of DRD2 TaqIA and poor social support was found. Synergistic interactions between A1/A1 genotype and the external locus of control, negative coping style were found. Synergistic interactions between 12 gene of 5-HTTVNTR and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were found. Synergistic interactions between 12/12 genotype and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were also found.

Keywords: adolescents, earthquake, PTSD, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
8966 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

Abstract:

This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: action, art, liquid, locus, negotiation, place, science

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
8965 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim

Abstract:

This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 608
8964 Operational Excellence Performance in Pharmaceutical Quality Control Labs: An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness and Efficiency Relation

Authors: Stephan Koehler, Thomas Friedli

Abstract:

Performance measurement has evolved over time from a unidimensional short-term efficiency focused approach into a balanced multidimensional approach. Today, integrated performance measurement frameworks are often used to avoid local optimization and to encourage continuous improvement of an organization. In literature, the multidimensional characteristic of performance measurement is often described by competitive priorities. At the same time, on the highest abstraction level an effectiveness and efficiency dimension of performance measurement can be distinguished. This paper aims at a better understanding of the composition of effectiveness and efficiency and their relation in pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research comprises a lab-specific operationalization of effectiveness and efficiency and examines how the two dimensions are interlinked. The basis for the analysis represents a database of the University of St. Gallen including a divers set of 40 different pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research provides empirical evidence that labs with a high effectiveness also accompany a high efficiency. Lab effectiveness explains 29.5 % of the variance in lab efficiency. In addition, labs with an above median operational excellence performance have a statistically significantly higher lab effectiveness and lab efficiency compared to the below median performing labs.

Keywords: empirical study, operational excellence, performance measurement, pharmaceutical quality control lab

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
8963 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

Abstract:

Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
8962 Particle Swarm Optimization and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization to Multidimensional Function Approximation

Authors: Diogo Silva, Fadul Rodor, Carlos Moraes

Abstract:

This work compares the results of multidimensional function approximation using two algorithms: the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). These algorithms were both tested on three functions - The Rosenbrock, the Rastrigin, and the sphere functions - with different characteristics by increasing their number of dimensions. As a result, this study shows that the higher the function space, i.e. the larger the function dimension, the more evident the advantages of using the QPSO method compared to the PSO method in terms of performance and number of necessary iterations to reach the stop criterion.

Keywords: PSO, QPSO, function approximation, AI, optimization, multidimensional functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
8961 Personal Egocentrism as an Indicator of the Management Activity Efficiency

Authors: Lusine S. Stepanyan, Elina V. Asriyan.

Abstract:

It is known, that the efficiency of management depend on individual characteristics of manager. In case, was shown the role of personal position in the efficiency of management. Current research is aimed at reveal psychological and psychophysiological basis efficiency of management and finding ways of increasing the productivity of management that is most essential and topical problems of modern society. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The Eysenk questionnaire was used for determining the level of aggression, frustration, anxiety and rigidity. The test of egocentric associations was used for determining the level of egocentrism. The test of COS (communicativeness and organizational skills) was used for diagnosing the level of communicativeness. The integral index of job satisfaction was used for diagnosis the efficiency of management activity. Then, the relationship between the above mentioned mental state, communicativeness, self-esteem, job satisfaction, locus of control, and egocentrism was investigated. The obtained results have shown the positive correlation between the egocentrism and frustration, anxiety and also the negative correlation with job satisfaction and communicativeness. Intergroup analyses has revealed the significant differences by communicativeness and the internality’ level. The revealed results can be used for diagnosis of efficiency of management.

Keywords: egocentrism, locus control, mental state, job satisfaction, professional activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
8960 Computerized Adaptive Testing for Ipsative Tests with Multidimensional Pairwise-Comparison Items

Authors: Wen-Chung Wang, Xue-Lan Qiu

Abstract:

Ipsative tests have been widely used in vocational and career counseling (e.g., the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey). Pairwise-comparison items are a typical item format of ipsative tests. When the two statements in a pairwise-comparison item measure two different constructs, the item is referred to as a multidimensional pairwise-comparison (MPC) item. A typical MPC item would be: Which activity do you prefer? (A) playing with young children, or (B) working with tools and machines. These two statements aim at the constructs of social interest and investigative interest, respectively. Recently, new item response theory (IRT) models for ipsative tests with MPC items have been developed. Among them, the Rasch ipsative model (RIM) deserves special attention because it has good measurement properties, in which the log-odds of preferring statement A to statement B are defined as a competition between two parts: the sum of a person’s latent trait to which statement A is measuring and statement A’s utility, and the sum of a person’s latent trait to which statement B is measuring and statement B’s utility. The RIM has been extended to polytomous responses, such as preferring statement A strongly, preferring statement A, preferring statement B, and preferring statement B strongly. To promote the new initiatives, in this study we developed computerized adaptive testing algorithms for MFC items and evaluated their performance using simulations and two real tests. Both the RIM and its polytomous extension are multidimensional, which calls for multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT). A particular issue in MCAT for MPC items is the within-person statement exposure (WPSE); that is, a respondent may keep seeing the same statement (e.g., my life is empty) for many times, which is certainly annoying. In this study, we implemented two methods to control the WPSE rate. In the first control method, items would be frozen when their statements had been administered more than a prespecified times. In the second control method, a random component was added to control the contribution of the information at different stages of MCAT. The second control method was found to outperform the first control method in our simulation studies. In addition, we investigated four item selection methods: (a) random selection (as a baseline), (b) maximum Fisher information method without WPSE control, (c) maximum Fisher information method with the first control method, and (d) maximum Fisher information method with the second control method. These four methods were applied to two real tests: one was a work survey with dichotomous MPC items and the other is a career interests survey with polytomous MPC items. There were three dependent variables: the bias and root mean square error across person measures, and measurement efficiency which was defined as the number of items needed to achieve the same degree of test reliability. Both applications indicated that the proposed MCAT algorithms were successful and there was no loss in measurement proficiency when the control methods were implemented, and among the four methods, the last method performed the best.

Keywords: computerized adaptive testing, ipsative tests, item response theory, pairwise comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
8959 Automatic Vowel and Consonant's Target Formant Frequency Detection

Authors: Othmane Bouferroum, Malika Boudraa

Abstract:

In this study, a dual exponential model for CV formant transition is derived from locus theory of speech perception. Then, an algorithm for automatic vowel and consonant’s target formant frequency detection is developed and tested on real speech. The results show that vowels and consonants are detected through transitions rather than their small stable portions. Also, vowel reduction is clearly observed in our data. These results are confirmed by the observations made in perceptual experiments in the literature.

Keywords: acoustic invariance, coarticulation, formant transition, locus equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 157