Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: gastronomy

15 A Case Study on the Tourists' Satisfaction: Local Gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte

Authors: Reysand Mae A. Abapial, Christine Claire Z. Agra, Quenna Lyn V. De Guzman, Marielle Arianne Joyce Q. Hojilla, John Joseph A. Tiangco


The study focused on the assessment of the tourists’ satisfaction on the local gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte as a tourist destination as perceived by 100 tourists visiting the tourist destination, which is determined through convenient random sampling. Mean, percentage frequency and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used in the collection of data. The results revealed that the tourists agree that the local establishments offering local cuisines are accessible in terms of the location, internet visibility and facilities for persons-with-disabilities. The tourist are also willing to pay for the local food because it is attainable, budget-friendly, worthy for an expensive price, satisfies the cravings, reflects the physical appearance of the establishment and its quantity is reasonable based on the price. However, the tourists disagree that the local food completes their overall experience as tourists and it does not have the potential to satisfy all types of tourists. Recommendations for the enhancement of the local cuisine and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: gastronomy, local gastronomy, tourist satisfaction, Pagudpud

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14 Logistics Support as a Key Success Factor in Gastronomy

Authors: Hanna Zietara


Gastronomy is one of the oldest forms of commercial activity. It is currently one of the most popular and still dynamically developing branches of business. Socio-economic changes, its widespread occurrence, new techniques, or culinary styles affect the almost unlimited possibilities of its development. Importantly, regardless of the form of business adopted, food service is strongly related to logistics processes, and areas of food service that are closely linked to logistics are of strategic importance. Any inefficiency in logistics processes results in reduced chances for success and achieving competitive advantage by companies belonging to the catering industry. The aim of the paper is to identify the areas of logistic support occurring in the catering business, affecting the scope of the logistic processes implemented. The aim of the paper is realized through a plural homogeneous approach, based on: direct observation, text analysis of current documents, in-depth free targeted interviews.

Keywords: gastronomy, competitive advantage, logistics, logistics support

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13 Analysis of Turkish Government Cultural Portal for Supporting Gastronomy Tourism

Authors: Hilmi Rafet Yüncü


Today Internet has very important role to promote products and services all over the world. Companies and destinations in tourism industry use Internet to sell and to promote their core products to directly potential tourists. Internet technologies have redefined the relationships between tourists, tourism companies, and travel agents. The new relationship allows for accessing and tapping tourism information and services. Internet technologies ensure new opportunities to available for the tourism industry, including travel accommodation, and tourist destination organizations. Websites are important devices to the marketing of a destination. Most people make a research about the destination before arriving via internet. Governments have a considerable role in the process of marketing tourism destinations. Governments make policies and regulations; furthermore, they help to market destinations to potential tourists. Governments have a comprehensive overview of the sector to see changes in tourism market and design better policies, programs and marketing plans. At the same time, governments support developing of alternative tourism in the country with regulations and marketing tools. The aim of this study is to analyse of an Internet website of governmental tourism portal in Turkey to determine effectiveness about gastronomy tourism. The Turkish government has established a culture portal for foreign and local tourists. The Portal provides local and general information about tourism attractions of cities and Turkey. There are 81 official cities in Turkey and all these cities are conducted to analyse to determine how effective marketing is done by Turkish Government in the manner of gastronomy tourism. A content analysis will be conducted to Internet website of the portal with food content, recipes and gastronomic feature of cities.

Keywords: culture portal, gastronomy tourism, government, Turkey

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12 Art History as Inspiration for Chefs. An Autoethnographic Research About Art History Education in a Restaurant

Authors: Marta Merkl


The ongoing project what the paper will present is about how the author introduces chefs to the history of art through a selected piece of art. The author is originally an art historian, but since 2019 she has been working on her PhD research topic related to designing dining experiences in the restaurant context, including the role of sensory experiences and storytelling. Due to a scholarship, she can participate in the re-design of a fine dining restaurant called Onyx in Budapest, which was awarded two Michelin stars before the pandemic caused by COVID-19. The management of the restaurant wants to broaden the chefs' horizons and develop their creativity by introducing them to each chapter of the visual arts. There is a kind of polyphony in the mass of information about what should a chef, a food designer, or anybody who make food in everyday basis use as a source of inspiration for inventing and preparing new dishes: nostalgia, raw material, cookbooks, etc. In today's world of fine dining, nature is the main inspiration for outstanding achievements, as exemplified by the Slovenian restaurant Hiša Franko** and its chef Ana Roš. The starting point for the project and the research was the idea of using art history as an inspiration for gastronomy. The research relies on data collection via interviews, ethnography, and autoethnography. In this case, the reflective introspection of the researcher is also relevant because the researcher is an important part of the process (GOULD, 1995). The paper overviews the findings of the autoethnography literature relevant to our topic. In the literature review, it will be also pointed out that sustainability, eating as an experience, and the world of art can be linked. As ERDMANN and co-authors (1999) argues that the health dimension of sustainability has a component called 'joy of eating,' which implies strong ties to the experiential nature of eating. Therefore, it is worth to compare with PINE and GILMORE's (1998) theory of experience economy and with CSÍKSZENTMIHÁLYI's (1999) concept of flow, which give examples of gastronomy and art. The aim of the research is to map experiences of the pilot project, the discourse between the art world and the gastronomy actors. Another noteworthy aspect is whether the chefs are willing to use art history as an inspiration.

Keywords: art history, autoethnography, chef, education, experience, food preparation, inspiration, sustainability

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11 Machine Translation Analysis of Chinese Dish Names

Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Olga Torres-Hostench


This article presents a comparative study evaluating and comparing the quality of machine translation (MT) output of Chinese gastronomy nomenclature. Chinese gastronomic culture is experiencing an increased international acknowledgment nowadays. The nomenclature of Chinese gastronomy not only reflects a specific aspect of culture, but it is related to other areas of society such as philosophy, traditional medicine, etc. Chinese dish names are composed of several types of cultural references, such as ingredients, colors, flavors, culinary techniques, cooking utensils, toponyms, anthroponyms, metaphors, historical tales, among others. These cultural references act as one of the biggest difficulties in translation, in which the use of translation techniques is usually required. Regarding the lack of Chinese food-related translation studies, especially in Chinese-Spanish translation, and the current massive use of MT, the quality of the MT output of Chinese dish names is questioned. Fifty Chinese dish names with different types of cultural components were selected in order to complete this study. First, all of these dish names were translated by three different MT tools (Google Translate, Baidu Translate and Bing Translator). Second, a questionnaire was designed and completed by 12 Chinese online users (Chinese graduates of a Hispanic Philology major) in order to find out user preferences regarding the collected MT output. Finally, human translation techniques were observed and analyzed to identify what translation techniques would be observed more often in the preferred MT proposals. The result reveals that the MT output of the Chinese gastronomy nomenclature is not of high quality. It would be recommended not to trust the MT in occasions like restaurant menus, TV culinary shows, etc. However, the MT output could be used as an aid for tourists to have a general idea of a dish (the main ingredients, for example). Literal translation turned out to be the most observed technique, followed by borrowing, generalization and adaptation, while amplification, particularization and transposition were infrequently observed. Possibly because that the MT engines at present are limited to relate equivalent terms and offer literal translations without taking into account the whole context meaning of the dish name, which is essential to the application of those less observed techniques. This could give insight into the post-editing of the Chinese dish name translation. By observing and analyzing translation techniques in the proposals of the machine translators, the post-editors could better decide which techniques to apply in each case so as to correct mistakes and improve the quality of the translation.

Keywords: Chinese dish names, cultural references, machine translation, translation techniques

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10 Mechanisms for the Art of Food: Tourism with Thainess and a Multi-Stakeholder Participation Approach

Authors: Jutamas Wisansing, Thanakarn Vongvisitsin, Udom Hongchatikul


Food could be used to open up a dialogue about local heritage. Contributing to the world sustainable consumption mission, this research aims to explore the linkages between agriculture, senses of place and performing arts. Thailand and its destination marketing ‘Discover Thainess’ was selected as a working principle, enabling a case example of how the three elements could be conceptualized. The model offered an integrated institutional arrangement where diverse entities could be formed to design how Thainess (local heritage) could be interpreted and embedded into an art of food. Using case study research approach, three areas (Chiangmai, Samutsongkram and Ban Rai Gong King) representing 3 different scales of tourism development were selected. Based on a theoretical analysis, a working model was formulated. An action research was then designed to experiment how the model could be materialized. Brainstorming elicitation and in-depth interview were employed to reflect on how each element could be integrated. The result of this study offered an innovation on how food tourism could be profoundly interpreted and how tourism development could enhance value creation for agricultural based community. The outcomes of the research present co-creative multi-stakeholder model and the value creation method through the whole supply chain of Thai gastronomy. The findings have been eventually incorporated into ‘gastro-diplomacy’ strategy for Thai tourism.

Keywords: community-based tourism, gastro-diplomacy, gastronomy tourism, sustainable tourism development

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9 Understanding the Effective of Cuisine Experience, Emotions on Revisit Intentions: The Case Study of Lu-Kang

Authors: An-Na Li, Ying-Yu Chen, Chang-Kuang Chiou


Food tourism is one of the growing industries and areas of interest in the tourism industry today. The Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to stimulate local and regional economic development. From the heritage and cultural aspects, gastronomy is becoming a more important part of the cultural heritage of region and countries. Heritage destinations provide culinary heritage, which fits the current interest in traditional food, and cuisine is part of a general desire for authentic experiences. However, few studies have empirically examining food tourist’s behavior. This study examined the effects of cuisine experience, emotions and tourists’ revisit intentions. A total of 402 individuals responded to the on-site survey in the historic town of Lu-Kang in Taiwan. The results indicated that tourists’ cuisine experience include place flavor, media recommended local learning, life transfer and interpersonal share. In addition, cuisine experience had significant impacts on emotions, which in turn cuisine experience and emotions had significant effects on tourists’ revisit intentions. The findings suggested that the cuisine experience is a multi- dimensions construct. On the other hands, the good quality of cuisine experience could evoke tourists’ positive emotions and it plays a significant role in promote tourist revisit intentions and word of mouth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: culinary tourism, cuisine experience, emotions, revisit intentions

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8 Exploring the Effects of Cuisine Experience, Emotions, Place Attachment on Heritage Tourists’ Revisit Behavioral Intentions: The Case Study of Lu-Kang

Authors: An-Na Li, Ying-Yu Chen, Yu-Lung Lin


Food tourism is one of the growing industries in the tourism industry today. The Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are aware of the importance of gastronomy to stimulate local and regional economic development. From the heritage and cultural aspects, gastronomy is becoming a more important part of the cultural heritage of the region. Heritage destinations provide culinary heritage, which fits the current interest in traditional food, and cuisine is a part of a general desire for authentic experience. However, few studies have empirically examined antecedents of food tourists’ behavioral intentions. This study examined the effects of cuisine experience; emotions, place attachment and tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. A total of 408 individuals responded to the on-site survey in the historic town of Lu-Kang in Taiwan. The results indicated that tourists’ cuisine experience include place flavor, media recommendation, local learning, life transfer and interpersonal share. In addition, cuisine experience had significant impacts on emotions and place attachment, emotions had significant effects on place attachment, furthermore, which in turn place attachment had significant effects on tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. The findings suggested that the cuisine experience is a multi-dimensions construct. On the other hands, the good quality of cuisine experience could evoke tourists’ positive emotions and it could play a significant role in promoting tourist revisit intentions or word of mouth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: culinary tourism, cuisine experiences, emotions, revisit intentions

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7 Furniko Flour: An Emblematic Traditional Food of Greek Pontic Cuisine

Authors: A. Keramaris, T. Sawidis, E. Kasapidou, P. Mitlianga


Although the gastronomy of the Greeks of Pontus is highly prominent, it has not received the same level of scientific analysis as another local cuisine of Greece, that of Crete. As a result, we intended to focus our research on Greek Pontic cuisine to shed light on its unique recipes, food products, and, ultimately, its features. The Greeks of Pontus, who lived for a long time in the northern part (Black Sea Region) of contemporary Turkey and now widely inhabit northern Greece, have one of Greece's most distinguished local cuisines. Despite their gastronomy being simple, it features several inspiring delicacies. It's been a century since they immigrated to Greece, yet their gastronomic culture remains a critical component of their collective identity. As a first step toward comprehending Greek Pontic cuisine, it was attempted to investigate the production of one of its most renowned traditional products, furniko flour. In this project, we targeted residents of Western Macedonia, a province in northern Greece with a large population of descendants of Greeks of Pontus who are primarily engaged in agricultural activities. In this quest, we approached a descendant of the Greeks of Pontus who is involved in the production of furniko flour and who consented to show us the entire process of its production as we participated in it. The furniko flour is made from non-hybrid heirloom corn. It is harvested by hand when the moisture content of the seeds is low enough to make them suitable for roasting. Manual harvesting entails removing the cob from the plant and detaching the husks. The harvested cobs are then roasted for 24 hours in a traditional wood oven. The roasted cobs are then collected and stored in sacks. The next step is to extract the seeds, which is accomplished by rubbing the cobs. The seeds should ideally be ground in a traditional stone hand mill. We end up with aromatic and dark golden furniko flour, which is used to cook havitz. Accompanied by the preparation of the furnikoflour, we also recorded the cooking process of the havitz (a porridge-like cornflour dish). A savory delicacy that is simple to prepare and one of the most delightful dishes in Greek Pontic cuisine. According to the research participant, havitzis a highly nutritious dish due to the ingredients of furniko flour. In addition, he argues that preparing havitz is a great way to bring families together, share stories, and revisit fond memories. In conclusion, this study illustrates the traditional preparation of furnikoflour and its use in various traditional recipes as an initial effort to highlight the elements of Pontic Greek cuisine. As a continuation of the current study, it could be the analysis of the chemical components of the furniko flour to evaluate its nutritional content.

Keywords: furniko flour, greek pontic cuisine, havitz, traditional foods

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6 Determining the Awareness Level of Chefs and Students on Food Safety and Allergens in Kano State, Nigeria and Ankara City in Turkey

Authors: Balarabe Bilyaminu Ismail, Osman Cavus, Fügen Durlu Özkaya


This study is aimed at determining the level of awareness of chefs and students of food science and technology on food safety in general and allergens in particular. To get appropriate data, a questionnaire comprising of 19 questions covering many food safety issues and allergens in foods were used to collect information for the study through face to face interviews. Interviews were conducted for 284 people in Nigeria and Turkey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents from Turkey; 31.3% were students and 68.7% were chefs. Thirty-one percent of respondents from Nigeria include 33.7% students and 66.3% chefs. The result of the study indicated that most of the findings of scientific studies on food safety issues have not been directly applied by the people working in the food sector. Additionally, the knowledge level of the gastronomy and culinary arts students on food safety and allergens are significantly higher than the restaurant chefs that prepare the food and serve it to the public. The study, therefore, concluded that proper training of food business operators is critical to ensuring the safety of foods and control of allergens.

Keywords: allergens, food safety, questionnaire survey, training

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5 Examining the Acceptability of Destination Local Food by Domestic Tourist Visiting Northern Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Jamila Mohammed Waziri


There are challenges faced by tourist in respect of choosing food while in tourism destination. Food is very important in the choice of holiday of tourist. Many tourists choose a destination not only because of physical attraction but they choose destination where they will not encounter challenges in respect to food. The study is aimed at examining the acceptability of northern delicacies by tourists from other parts of Nigeria. Six delicacies were produced and presented to 50 tourists who are randomly picked from the south-east, south-west, south-south and the middle belt of Nigeria. The study found out that Danwake, Masa, and Kwadon zogale were generally accepted by majority of the respondents. Although, the respondents were not comfortable with the appearance of danwake, other aspect of the checklist was accepted. Tuwon shinkafa miyan taushe was accepted in terms of appearance but rejected in terms of taste and texture. ‘Yar Tsame and dindikolo were generally rejected. The study recommended that caterers, attraction owners and hoteliers should include such meals in their menu so that tourist will enjoy the gastronomy of the northern part of Nigeria.

Keywords: acceptability, examination, food, tourism

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4 The Role of Marketing in the Promotion of the Istanbul Brand

Authors: Ipek Krom, Nurdan Tumbek Tekeoglu


In our globalizing world increased competition between cities have resulted in expanding investments in marketing activities. In order to promote tourism and reinvestments, the cities have been using marketing activities to create more attractive sites and make use of their resources more efficiently. In becoming a branded city marketing activities play a major role in building brand value, which in turn results in the attraction of newcomers, revisits, settlements, reinvestments and the development of the city. This paper focuses on the Istanbul brand, which carries an important role in the promotion of Turkey as being its cultural, economic and financial center. As one of the most historical and appealing metropolitans in the world with remains of ancient civilizations, Istanbul has attracted 11 million 843 thousand tourists in 2014. Increasing number of marketing activities developed by numerous actors of private and public sector are among the reasons why tourists prefer Istanbul. Among these reasons we can list the increasing number of hotels, developed infrastructure and better transportation, modern shopping malls, international festivals, exportation of Turkish TV series, gastronomy investments, congress tourism, health tourism, student exchange programs, expatriation opportunities, recreational activities and new tourism destinations. In this paper we explore the marketing activities in Istanbul in order to make the city of the most visited metropolitans in the world. Decision making people in the tourism sector have been interviewed to provide better insight to the addressed topics.

Keywords: brand cities, marketing, tourism in istanbul, tourism marketing

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3 Sand Dollars: Sex Tourism and Coloniality of Power in the Dominican Republic

Authors: Fernando Valerio-Holguin


Over the recent three decades, the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had an enormous impact on the country’s culture. The arrival of tourists from Germany, France, Italy, Russia and the United States has rewritten Dominican cultural identity and created a cultural palimpsest in the areas of language, gastronomy, habits, fashion, values, and gender relations. As a consequence of tourism, a prostitution network has flourished across the country. In the film Sand Dollars (2015) directed by Laura Amelia Guzmán and Israel Cárdenas, Noelí (Janet Mojica), a young mulatto woman, altogether with her boyfriend (Ricardo Ariel Toribio), strips tourists of dollars and euro through prostitution. One of her frequent clients is Anne, a mature French woman (Geraldine Chaplin). While Noeli’s goal is to get all the euros she can, Anne falls in love with her and tries to bring her to France. Both the content of the film and its cinematographic languages are analyzed in light of theory of coloniality. This concept shows how European and American tourism, through the power of money, perpetuates colonial discourse, i. e., how race and ethnocentrism permeate cultural activities in their former colonies. Moreover, in the content analysis of the film the concepts of exchange value and fetishism are crucial to understanding how the colonial body becomes sexual commodity. They facilitate grasping the film’s inequity in terms of power in the relationship between the two women: the white old European woman and the young, poor, third-world mulatta. Even though the film attempts to break away from compulsory heterosexuality, the power relation between the two women persists due to the presence of the axis of race, ethnicity, age and gender. Both the novel Les dollars des sables written by Jean-Noel Pancrazi, and the film Sand Dollars offer an interesting insight into sex tourism and coloniality and shed additional light on the power relations between the former colonizers and its colonies.

Keywords: coloniality, ethnocentrism, exchange value, Europe, fetishism, money, power, prostitution, sex tourism, United States of America

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2 Ways to Effectively Use Tourism Potential Through International Marketing and PR Communication Strategy in the Post-pandemic Period (On the Example of Georgia)

Authors: Marine Kobalava


The article analyzes the level of Georgia's tourism potential usage during the pandemic. The conclusion is drawnthat Georgia, as a tourism brand, is in a significant crisis at this stage, revenues from this sector have been substantially reduced, communication with potential customers is interrupted, no international marketing and PR communication strategies have been developed for the post-pandemic period. In order to rehabilitate the tourism industry of Georgia, it is considered vital to take measures using international marketing and PR communication strategies adjusted to the needs of the sectorthat will improve the use of tourism potential and stimulate the development of the sector. The goal of the research is to identify the factors hindering the use of tourism potential in the direction of international marketing and PR communication strategies in the post-pandemic period and to develop recommendations on ways to solve them. Research methods. The paper uses various theoretical and methodological tools of research, including Bibliographic research has been conducted on the main research issues; Analysis, synthesis, induction, and other methods are used to select and group data, identify similarities and differences, and identify trends; Endogenous and exogenous factors affecting the field of tourism have been studied by means of SWOT and PESTEL analyzes. A comparison model is used to analyze the strategy documents. Primary accounting materials are obtained from the National Statistics Office and the relevant ministries. Based on the results of the research, the directions of correct positioning of tourism products and marketing communication in the post-pandemic period have been developed. It is substantiated that a short-term international marketing strategy should include: probable goals of communication, maintaining a position on a potential traveler's “radar,” focusing communication on key motivating factors (gastronomy, winemaking, folklore, protected areas, mountainous regions). From a marketing point of view, it is important: holding international marketing events, compiling a list of target countries, formation of stimulus mechanisms, development of incentive programs for international tour operators, etc. The paper draws conclusions about the problems of using the tourism potential, recommendations on ways to solve this problems through international marketing and PR communication strategies are offered

Keywords: PR communication, international marketing strategy, tourism potential, post-pandemic period

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1 Sustainable Marine Tourism: Opinion and Segmentation of Italian Generation Z

Authors: M. Bredice, M. B. Forleo, L. Quici


Coastal tourism is currently facing huge challenges on how to balance environmental problems and tourist activities. Recent literature shows a growing interest in the issue of sustainable tourism from a so-called civilized tourists’ perspective by investigating opinions, perceptions, and behaviors. This study investigates the opinions of youth on what makes them responsible tourists and the ability of coastal marine areas to support tourism in future scenarios. A sample of 778 Italians attending the last year of high school was interviewed. Descriptive statistics, tests, and cluster analyses are applied to highlight the distribution of opinions among youth, detect significant differences based on demographic characteristics, and make segmentation of the different profiles based on students’ opinions and behaviors. Preliminary results show that students are largely convinced (62%) that by 2050 the quality of coastal environments could limit seaside tourism, while 10% of them believe that the problem can be solved simply by changing the tourist destination. Besides the cost of the holiday, the most relevant aspect respondents consider when choosing a marine destination is the presence of tourist attractions followed by the quality of the marine-coastal environment, the specificity of the local gastronomy and cultural traditions, and finally, the activities offered to guests such as sports and events. The reduction of waste and lower air emissions are considered the most important environmental areas in which marine-coastal tourism activities can contribute to preserving the quality of seas and coasts. Areas in which, as a tourist, they believe possible to give a personal contribution were (responses “very much” and “somewhat”); do not throw litter in the sea and on the beach (84%), do not buy single-use plastic products (66%), do not use soap or shampoo when showering in beaches (53%), do not have bonfires (47%), do not damage dunes (46%), and do not remove natural materials (e.g., sand, shells) from the beach (46%). About 6% of the sample stated that they were not interested in contributing to the aforementioned activities, while another 7% replied that they could not contribute at all. Finally, 80% of the sample has never participated in voluntary environmental initiatives or citizen science projects; moreover, about 64% of the students have never participated in events organized by environmental associations in marine or coastal areas. Regarding the test analysis -based on Kruskal-Wallis and Mann and Whitney tests - gender, region, and studying area of students reveals significance in terms of variables expressing knowledge and interest in sustainability topics and sustainable tourism behaviors. The classification of the education field is significant for a great number of variables, among which those related to several sustainable behaviors that respondents declare to be able to contribute as tourists. The ongoing cluster analysis will reveal different profiles in the sample and relevant variables. Based on preliminary results, implications are envisaged in the fields of education, policy, and business strategies for sustainable scenarios. Under these perspectives, the study has the potential to contribute to the conference debate about marine and coastal sustainable development and management.

Keywords: cluster analysis, education, knowledge, young people

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