Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: R. Divya

31 Tailoring the Parameters of the Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

Authors: Jaskarn Singh Bhullar, Divya Taneja, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Narula

Abstract:

The existence conditions of dual containing constacyclic codes have opened a new path for finding quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes. Using these conditions parameters of length n=(q²+1)/2 quantum MDS codes were improved. A class of quantum MDS codes of length n=(q²+q+1)/h, where h>1 is an odd prime, have also been constructed having large minimum distance and these codes are new in the sense as these are not available in the literature.

Keywords: hermitian construction, constacyclic codes, cyclotomic cosets, quantum MDS codes, singleton bound

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30 True Detective as a Southern Gothic: A Study of Its Music-Lyrics

Authors: Divya Sharma

Abstract:

Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective offers profound mythological and philosophical ramblings for audiences with literary sensibilities. An American Sothern Gothic with its bayon landscape of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, where two detectives Rustin Cohle and Martin Hart begin investigating the isolated murder of Dora Lange, only to discover an entrenched network of perversion and corruption, offers an existential outlook. The proposed research paper shall attempt to investigate the pervasive themes of gothic and existentialism in the music of the first season of the series.

Keywords: gothic, music, existentialism, mythology, philosophy

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29 Development of a Pain Detector Using Microwave Radiometry Method

Authors: Nanditha Rajamani, Anirudhaa R. Rao, Divya Sriram

Abstract:

One of the greatest difficulties in treating patients with pain is the highly subjective nature of pain sensation. The measurement of pain intensity is primarily dependent on the patient’s report, often with little physical evidence to provide objective corroboration. This is also complicated by the fact that there are only few and expensive existing technologies (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-fMRI). The need is thus clear and urgent for a reliable, non-invasive, non-painful, objective, readily adoptable, and coefficient diagnostic platform that provides additional diagnostic information to supplement its current regime with more information to assist doctors in diagnosing these patients. Thus, our idea of developing a pain detector was conceived to take a step further the detection and diagnosis of chronic and acute pain.

Keywords: pain sensor, microwave radiometery, pain sensation, fMRI

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28 Development of Electromyography (EMG) Signal Acquisition System by Simple Electronic Circuits

Authors: Divya Pradip Roy, Md. Zahirul Alam Chowdhury

Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) sensors are generally used to record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. The conventional EMG sensors available in the market are expensive. This research suggests a low cost EMG sensor design which can be built with simple devices within our reach. In this research, one instrumentation amplifier, two high pass filters, two low pass filters and an inverting amplifier is connected sequentially. The output from the circuit exhibits electrical potential generated by the muscle cells when they are neurologically activated. This electromyography signal is used to control prosthetic devices, identifying neuromuscular diseases and for various other purposes.

Keywords: EMG, high pass filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier, low pass filter, neuromuscular

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
27 Sliding Mode Controlled Quadratic Boost Converter

Authors: Viji Vijayakumar, R. Divya, A. Vivek

Abstract:

This paper deals with a quadratic boost converter which belongs to cascade boost family, controlled by sliding mode controller. In the cascade boost family, quadratic boost converter is the best trade-off when circuit complexity and modulator saturation is considered. Sliding mode control being a nonlinear control results in a robust and stable system when applied to switching converters which are inherently variable structured systems. The stability of this system is analyzed through Lyapunov’s approach. Analysis is done for load regulation, line regulation and step response of the system. Also these results are compared with that of PID controller based system.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, quadratic boost converter, sliding mode control, PID control

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26 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia

Abstract:

This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

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25 Structure of Grain Boundaries in α-Zirconium and Niobium

Authors: Divya Singh, Avinash Parashar

Abstract:

Due to superior mechanical, creep and nuclear cross section, zirconium and niobium (Zr-Nb) based alloys are commonly used as nuclear materials for the manufacturing of fuel cladding and pressure tubes in nuclear power plants. In this work, symmetrical tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures in α-Zr are studied for their structure and energies along two tilt axes- [0001] and [0-110] using MD based simulations. Tilt grain boundaries are obtained along [0001] tilt axis, and special twin structures are obtained along [0-110] tilt axis in α-Zr. For Nb, STGBs are constructed along [100] and [110] axis using atomistic simulations. The correlation between GB structures and their energies is subsequently examined. A close relationship is found to exist between individual GB structure and its energy in both α-Zr and Nb. It is also concluded that the energies of the more coherent twin grain boundaries are lower than the symmetrical tilt grain boundaries.

Keywords: grain boundaries, molecular dynamics, grain boundary energy, hcp crystal

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24 A Deep Learning Based Integrated Model For Spatial Flood Prediction

Authors: Vinayaka Gude Divya Sampath

Abstract:

The research introduces an integrated prediction model to assess the susceptibility of roads in a future flooding event. The model consists of deep learning algorithm for forecasting gauge height data and Flood Inundation Mapper (FIM) for spatial flooding. An optimal architecture for Long short-term memory network (LSTM) was identified for the gauge located on Tangipahoa River at Robert, LA. Dropout was applied to the model to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predictions. The estimates are then used along with FIM to identify the spatial flooding. Further geoprocessing in ArcGIS provides the susceptibility values for different roads. The model was validated based on the devastating flood of August 2016. The paper discusses the challenges for generalization the methodology for other locations and also for various types of flooding. The developed model can be used by the transportation department and other emergency response organizations for effective disaster management.

Keywords: deep learning, disaster management, flood prediction, urban flooding

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23 Effect of Moisture Removal from Molten Salt on Corrosion of Alloys

Authors: Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, Divya Raghunandanan, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati

Abstract:

Molten fluoride salt FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a promising candidate as high temperature coolant for next generation nuclear reactors due to its superior thermophysical properties. Corrosion of alloys in molten FLiNaK has however been recognized as a serious issue in the selection of structural materials. Corrosion experiments of alloys Inconel-625 (Fe-Ni alloy) and Hastelloy-B (Ni-Mo alloy) were performed in FLiNaK salt. The tests were carried out at a temperature of 650°C in graphite crucibles for 60 hours under inert atmosphere. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of moisture removal in the salt by pre heating and vacuum drying. Weight loss of the alloy samples due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloy samples was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate was observed for the alloys studied in moisture removed salt.

Keywords: FLiNaK, hastelloy, inconel, weight loss

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22 Dynamics of Hybrid Language in Urban and Rural Uttar Pradesh India

Authors: Divya Pande

Abstract:

The dynamics of culture expresses itself in language. Even after India got independence in 1947 English subtly crept in the language of the masses with a silent and powerful flow towards the vernacular. The culture contact resulted in learning and emergence of a new language across the Hindi speaking belt of Northern and Central India. The hybrid words thus formed displaced the original word and got contextualized and absorbed in the language of the common masses. The research paper explores the interesting new vocabulary used extensively in the urban and rural districts of the state of Uttar- Pradesh which is the most populous state of India. The paper adopts a two way classification- formal and contextual for the analysis of the hybrid vocabulary of the linguistic items where one element is necessarily from the English language and the other from the Hindi. The new vocabulary represents languages of the wider world cutting across the geographical and the cultural barriers. The paper also broadly points out to the Hinglish commonly used in the state.

Keywords: assimilation, culture contact, Hinglish, hybrid words

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21 Effect of Nickel Coating on Corrosion of Alloys in Molten Salts

Authors: Divya Raghunandanan, Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati

Abstract:

Molten fluoride salts are considered as potential coolants for next generation nuclear plants where the heat can be utilized for production of hydrogen and electricity. Among molten fluoride salts, FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a potential candidate for the coolant due to its superior thermophysical properties such as high temperature stability, boiling point, volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Major technical challenge in implementation is the selection of structural material which can withstand corrosive nature of FLiNaK. Corrosion study of alloys SS 316L, Hastelloy B, Ni-201 was performed in molten FLiNaK at 650°C. Nickel was found to be more resistant to corrosive attack in molten fluoride medium. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of nickel coating on corrosion of alloys SS 316L and Hastelloy B. Weight loss of the alloys due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloys was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Keywords: corrosion, FLiNaK, hastelloy, weight loss

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20 Over the Air Programming Method for Learning Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Sangeeth, P. Rekha, P. Preeja, P. Divya, R. Arya, R. Maneesha

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are small or tiny devices that consists of different sensors to sense physical parameters like air pressure, temperature, vibrations, movement etc., process these data and sends it to the central data center to take decisions. The WSN domain, has wide range of applications such as monitoring and detecting natural hazards like landslides, forest fire, avalanche, flood monitoring and also in healthcare applications. With such different applications, it is being taught in undergraduate/post graduate level in many universities under department of computer science. But the cost and infrastructure required to purchase WSN nodes for having the students getting hands on expertise on these devices is expensive. This paper gives overview about the remote triggered lab that consists of more than 100 WSN nodes that helps the students to remotely login from anywhere in the world using the World Wide Web, configure the nodes and learn the WSN concepts in intuitive way. It proposes new way called over the air programming (OTAP) and its internals that program the 100 nodes simultaneously and view the results without the nodes being physical connected to the computer system, thereby allowing for sparse deployment.

Keywords: WSN, over the air programming, virtual lab, AT45DB

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19 Measurement of Convective Heat Transfer from a Vertical Flat Plate Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Wedge Fringe Setting

Authors: Divya Haridas, C. B. Sobhan

Abstract:

Laser interferometric methods have been utilized for the measurement of natural convection heat transfer from a heated vertical flat plate, in the investigation presented here. The study mainly aims at comparing two different fringe orientations in the wedge fringe setting of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), used for the measurements. The interference fringes are set in horizontal and vertical orientations with respect to the heated surface, and two different fringe analysis methods, namely the stepping method and the method proposed by Naylor and Duarte, are used to obtain the heat transfer coefficients. The experimental system is benchmarked with theoretical results, thus validating its reliability in heat transfer measurements. The interference fringe patterns are analyzed digitally using MATLAB 7 and MOTIC Plus softwares, which ensure improved efficiency in fringe analysis, hence reducing the errors associated with conventional fringe tracing. The work also discuss the relative merits and limitations of the two methods used.

Keywords: Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), natural convection, Naylor method, Vertical Flat Plate

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18 Self-Weight Reduction of Tall Structures by Taper Cladding System

Authors: Divya Dharshini Omprakash, Anjali Subramani

Abstract:

Most of the tall structures are constructed using shear walls and tube systems in the recent decades. This makes the structure heavy and less resistant to lateral effects as the height of the structure goes up. This paper aims in the reduction of self-weight in tall structures by the use of Taper Cladding System (TCS) and also enumerates the construction techniques used in TCS. TCS has a tapering clad either fixed at the top or bottom of the structural core at the tapered end. This system eliminates the use of RC structural elements on the exterior of the structure and uses fewer columns only on the interior part to take up the gravity loads in order to reduce the self-weight of the structure. The self-weight reduction by TCS is 50% more compared to the present structural systems. The lateral loads on the hull will be taken care of by the tapered steel frame. Analysis were done to study the structural behaviour of taper cladded buildings subjected to lateral loads. TCS has a great impact in the construction of tall structures in seismic and dense urban areas. An effective construction management can be done by the use of Taper Cladding System. In this paper, sustainability, design considerations and implications of the system has also been discussed.

Keywords: Lateral Loads Resistance, reduction of self-weight, sustainable, taper clads

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17 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Divya Agarwal, Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: path planning, obstacle avoidance, autonomous mobile robots, algorithms

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16 Target Drug Delivery of Pamidronate Nanoparticles for Enhancing Osteoblastic Activity in Osteoporosis

Authors: Purnima Rawat, Divya Vohora, Sarika Gupta, Farhan J. Ahmad, Sushama Talegaonkar

Abstract:

Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using PLGA–mPEG (poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)–polyethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by using pamidronate as a bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of hydrophilic drugs. The NP was prepared by in situ polymerization method, and their in- vitro characteristics were evaluated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in phosphate-buffered solution. The bone targeting potential of the NP was also evaluated on in-vitro pre-osteoblast MCT3E1 cell line using ALP activity, degree of mineralization and RT-PCR assay. The average particle size of the NP was 101.6 ± 3.7nm, zeta potential values were negative (-25±0.34mV) of the formulations and the entrapment efficiency was 93± 3.1 % obtained. The moiety of the PLGA–mPEG–pamidronate NPs exhibited the best apatite mineral binding ability in-vitro MCT3E1 pre-osteoblast cell line. Our results suggested that the developed nanoparticles may use as a delivery system for Pamidronate in bone repair and regeneration, warranting further evaluation of the treatment of bone disease.

Keywords: nanoparticle, pamidronate, in-situ polymerization, osteoblast

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15 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash

Abstract:

Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

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14 Clustering of Association Rules of ISIS & Al-Qaeda Based on Similarity Measures

Authors: Tamanna Goyal, Divya Bansal, Sanjeev Sofat

Abstract:

In world-threatening terrorist attacks, where early detection, distinction, and prediction are effective diagnosis techniques and for functionally accurate and precise analysis of terrorism data, there are so many data mining & statistical approaches to assure accuracy. The computational extraction of derived patterns is a non-trivial task which comprises specific domain discovery by means of sophisticated algorithm design and analysis. This paper proposes an approach for similarity extraction by obtaining the useful attributes from the available datasets of terrorist attacks and then applying feature selection technique based on the statistical impurity measures followed by clustering techniques on the basis of similarity measures. On the basis of degree of participation of attributes in the rules, the associative dependencies between the attacks are analyzed. Consequently, to compute the similarity among the discovered rules, we applied a weighted similarity measure. Finally, the rules are grouped by applying using hierarchical clustering. We have applied it to an open source dataset to determine the usability and efficiency of our technique, and a literature search is also accomplished to support the efficiency and accuracy of our results.

Keywords: association rules, clustering, similarity measure, statistical approaches

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13 Impact of Firm Location and Organizational Structure on Receipt and Effectiveness of Social Assistance

Authors: Nalanda Matia, Julia Zhao, Amber Jaycocks, Divya Sinha

Abstract:

Social assistance programs for businesses are intended to improve their survival and growth in the face of catastrophic events like the COVID-19 pandemic. However, that goal remains unfulfilled when the mostwantingbusinesses fail to participate in such programs. Reasons for non-participation can include lack of information, inability to cope with applications and program compliance, as well as some programs’ non-entitlement status. Some of these factors may be associated with the organizational and locational characteristics of these businesses. This research investigates these organizational and locational factorsthat determine receipt and effectiveness of social assistance among the firms that receive it. of A sample of firms from the universe of 3 rounds of Small Business Administration backed Paycheck Protection Program recipient and similarly profiled non recipient businesses are used to analyze this question. Initial results show firm organizational factors like size and spatial factors like broadband coverage at firm location impact application for and subsequent receipt of assistance for digitally administered programs. Further, Line of business and wage structure of recipients’ impact effectiveness of the assistance dollars.

Keywords: public economics, economics of social assistance, firm organizational structure, survival analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
12 System of Quality Automation for Documents (SQAD)

Authors: R. Babi Saraswathi, K. Divya, A. Habeebur Rahman, D. B. Hari Prakash, S. Jayanth, T. Kumar, N. Vijayarangan

Abstract:

Document automation is the design of systems and workflows, assembling repetitive documents to meet the specific business needs. In any organization or institution, documenting employee’s information is very important for both employees as well as management. It shows an individual’s progress to the management. Many documents of the employee are in the form of papers, so it is very difficult to arrange and for future reference we need to spend more time in getting the exact document. Also, it is very tedious to generate reports according to our needs. The process gets even more difficult on getting approvals and hence lacks its security aspects. This project overcomes the above-stated issues. By storing the details in the database and maintaining the e-documents, the automation system reduces the manual work to a large extent. Then the approval process of some important documents can be done in a much-secured manner by using Digital Signature and encryption techniques. Details are maintained in the database and e-documents are stored in specific folders and generation of various kinds of reports is possible. Moreover, an efficient search method is implemented is used in the database. Automation supporting document maintenance in many aspects is useful for minimize data entry, reduce the time spent on proof-reading, avoids duplication, and reduce the risks associated with the manual error, etc.

Keywords: e-documents, automation, digital signature, encryption

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11 Midface Trauma: Outpatient Follow-Up and Surgical Treatment Times

Authors: Divya Pathak, James Sloane

Abstract:

Surgical treatment of midface fractures should ideally occur within two weeks of injury, after which bony healing and consolidation make the repair more difficult for the operating surgeon. The oral and maxillofacial unit at the Royal Surrey Hospital is the tertiary referral center for maxillofacial trauma from five regional hospitals. This is a complete audit cycle of midface trauma referrals managed over a one year period. The standard set was that clinical assessment of the midface fracture would take place in a consultant led outpatient clinic within 7 days, and when indicated, surgical fixation would occur within 10 days of referral. Retrospective data was collected over one year (01/11/2018 - 31/12/2019). Three key changes were implemented: an IT referral mailbox, standardization of an on-call trauma table, and creation of a trauma theatre list. Re-audit was carried out over six months completing the cycle. 283 midface fracture referrals were received, of which 22 patients needed surgical fixation. The average time from referral to outpatient follow-up improved from 14.5 days to 8.3 days, and time from referral to surgery improved from 21.5 days to 11.6 days. Changes implemented in this audit significantly improved patient prioritization to appropriate outpatient clinics and shortened time to surgical intervention.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, midface trauma, oral and maxillofacial surgery, surgery fixation

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10 Challenges to Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education in the Middle East

Authors: Lizmol Mathew, Divya Thomas, Shiney Rajan

Abstract:

Educational paradigm all over the globe is undergoing significant reform today. Because of this, so-called flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. Flipped classroom has proved to be more effective than traditional lecture based model as flipped classroom model promotes active learning by encouraging students to work on in collaborative tasks and peer-led learning during the class-time. However, success of flipped classrooms relies on students’ ability and their attitudes towards collaboration and group work. This paper examines: 1) Students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning; 2) Main challenges to successful collaboration from students’ experience and 3) Students’ perception of criteria for successful team work. 4) Recommendations for enhancing collaborative learning. This study’s methodology involves quantitative analysis of surveys collected from students enrolled in undergraduate Architecture program at Qatar University. Analysis indicates that in general students enrolled in the program do not have positive perceptions or experiences associated with group work. Positive and negative factors that influence collaborative learning in higher education have been identified. Recommendations for improving collaborative work experience have been proposed.

Keywords: architecture, collaborative learning, female, group work, higher education, Middle East, Qatar, student experience

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9 Heat Transfer Investigation in a Dimple Plate Heat Exchanger Using Ionic Liquid and Ionanofluid

Authors: Divya P. Soman, S. Karthika, P. Kalaichelvi, T. K. Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Heat transfer characteristics of ionic liquid solution as cold fluid in plate heat exchanger with dimple plate geometry was studied. The ionic liquid solution used in this study was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. The present experimental study is to understand the heat transfer behavior of different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentrations (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) in water. In addition, the heat transfer activity of ionanofluid as cold fluid was investigated. The ionanofluid was prepared by dispersing 0.3% w/w Al2O3 in the ionic liquid solution as base fluid. Experiments were also conducted to determine thermophysical properties of ionanofluid. The empirical correlations as a function of temperature were developed to predict the thermophysical properties. Finally, the heat transfer performance of ionic liquid solution, ionanofluid, nanofluid and water were compared. The impact of hot fluid’s (water) Reynolds number on overall heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of cold fluids were analyzed. The nanofluid and ionanofluid were found to possess better heat transfer behavior than water and ionic liquid solution. Heat transfer augmentation was observed for ionanofluid when compared with the base fluid (0.1% w/w ionic liquid solution).

Keywords: ionic liquid, nanofluid, ionanofluid, dimple plate heat exchanger, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient

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8 Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Development Programs in Nepal: Construction of a Stakeholder Informed Framework

Authors: Divya Dawadi, Kerry Bissaker

Abstract:

Inclusion of children with a disability (CwD) in Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) programs in Nepal while viewed as desirable is not widespread. Even though the ECED program is currently providing access to ECED services for one million young children, with the aim to improve children's school readiness by equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to succeed more effectively in their primary schooling, access to early year's education in inclusive settings for CwD is challenging. Using a heuristic qualitative design, this research aims to construct a framework by analyzing the perspectives of parents and professionals through interviews and focus group discussions, with a view to recommending a new policy to address the rights of CwD and their families. Several school-based and/or organizational and contextual factors interact to contribute to CwD becoming victims of multiple layers of exclusion. The school-based factors include policy, attitudes, teacher efficacy, resources, coordination and parental engagement. The contextual factors are spirituality, caste ethnicity, language, economic status, and geographic location. However, there is a varied effect of the interaction between school-based and contextual factors on different groups of CwD. A policy needs to recognize the multiplicity of the interactions between these factors that inhibit the inclusion of varied groups of CwD in ECED programs and address them separately.

Keywords: children with a disability, early childhood education and development, framework, inclusion

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7 Redefining Urban Landfills – Transformation of a Sanitary Landfill in Indian Cities

Authors: N. L. Divya Gayatri

Abstract:

In India, over 377 million urban people generate 62 million tons of municipal solid waste per annum. Forty-three million tons are collected, 11.9 million are treated and 31 million tons is dumped in landfill sites. The study aims to have an overall understanding of the working and functioning of a sanitary landfill from the siting to the closure stage and identifying various landscape design techniques that can be implemented in a landfill site and come up with a set of guidelines by analyzing the existing policies and guidelines pertaining to landfills. Constituents of municipal solid waste, methods of landfilling, issues, impacts, Mitigation strategies, Landscape design strategies, design approaches towards a landfill, infrastructure requirements, end-use opportunities have been discussed. The objective is to study the ecological and environmental degradation prevention methods, compare various techniques in remediation, study issues in landfill sites in India, analyze scope and opportunities and explore various landscape design strategies. The understanding of the function of landfills with respect to Municipal solid waste and landscaping is conveyed through this study. The study is limited to Landscape design factors in landfill design guidelines and policies mentioned with regard to the issues and impacts specific to the Indian context.

Keywords: sanitary landfill landscaping, environmental impact, municipal solid waste, guidelines, landscape design strategies, landscape design approaches

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6 Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium

Authors: Neha Parekh, Divya Ladha, Poonam Wadhwani, Nisha Shah

Abstract:

Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).

Keywords: corrosion, green inhibitor, nanoparticles, zinc

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5 Preservation of Phenytoin and Sodium Valproate Induced Bone Loss by Raloxifene through Modulating Serum Estradiol and TGF-β3 Content in Bone of Female Mice

Authors: Divya Vohora, Md. Jamir Anwar

Abstract:

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced adverse consequences on bone are now well recognized. Despite this, there is limited data on the effect of anti-osteoporotic therapies on AEDs-induced bone loss. Both phenytoin (PHT) and sodium valproate (SVP) inhibit human aromatase enzyme and stimulate microsomal catabolism of oestrogens. Estrogen deficiency states are known to reduce the deposition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β3), a bone matrix protein, having anti-osteoclastic property. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with CVD supplementation, on PHT and SVP-induced alterations in bone in mice. Further, the effect of raloxifene on seizures and on the antiepileptic efficacy of AEDs was also investigated. Swiss strains of female mice were treated with PHT (35 mg/kg, p.o.) and SVP (300 mg/kg, p.o.) for 120 days to induce bone loss as evidenced by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone turnover markers in lumbar bones (alkaline phosphatase, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase, hydroxyproline) and urine (calcium). The bone loss was accompanied by reduced serum estradiol levels and bone TGF-β3 content. Preventive and curative treatment with raloxifene ameliorated bony alterations and was more effective than CVD. Deprived estrogen levels (that in turn reduced lumbar TGF-β3 content) following PHT and SVP, thus, might represent one of the various mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone loss. Raloxifene preserved the bony changes without interfering with their antiepileptic efficacy, and hence raloxifene could be a potential therapeutic option in the management of PHT and SVP-induced bone disease if clinically approved.

Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, osteoporosis, raloxifene, TGF-β3

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4 Pre-Experimental Research to Investigate the Retention of Basic and Advanced Life Support Measures Knowledge and Skills by Qualified Nurses Following a Course in Professional Development in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Gayanandra Malla, Anita Gurung, Anu Aryal, Divya Labh, Hricha Neupane

Abstract:

Objectives: Lack of resuscitation skills of nurses and doctors in basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) has been identified as a contributing factor to poor outcomes of cardiac arrest victims. The objective of this study was to examine retention of life support measures (BLS/ALS) knowledge and skills of nurses following education intervention programme. Materials and Methods: Pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the nurses working in medical units of B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, where CPR is very commonly performed. Using convenient sampling technique total of 20 nurses agreed to participate and give consent were included in the study. The theoretical, demonstration and re-demonstration were arranged involving the trained doctors and nurses during the three hours educational session. Post-test was carried out after two week of education intervention programme. The 2010 BLS & ALS guidelines were used as guide for the study contents. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: It was found that there is significant increase in knowledge after education intervention in the components of life support measures (BLS/ALS) i.e. ratio of chest compression to ventilation in BLS (P=0.001), correct sequence of CPR (p <0.001), rate of chest compression in ALS (P=0.001), the depth of chest compression in adult CPR (p<0.001), and position of chest compression in CPR (P=0.016). Nurses were well appreciated the programme and request to continue in future for all the nurses. Conclusions: At recent BLS/ALS courses (2010), a significant number of nurses remain without any such training. Action is needed to ensure all nurses receive BLS training and practice this skill regularly in order to retain their knowledge.

Keywords: pre-experimental, basic and advance life support, nurses, sampling technique

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3 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh

Abstract:

Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation, sleep, stress

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2 Yoga as a Tool for Public Health

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla

Abstract:

Of all the major health threats to emerge, none has challenged the very foundation of public health so profoundly as the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCD). Encouraging a holistic health approach encompasses the community’s well-being. Competent public health grounded with holistic health approach can lay a better foundation in the modern world. Yoga has been increasingly explored as an adjunct therapy to major disorders. This study explores the efficacy of Yoga as a tool for public health. A survey was administered to 5500 adults, and 300 teens were selected from 25 states of India. The study explored the differences in health, happiness, and sustainable living between Yoga-practitioners and Non-yoga practitioners. The study also explored the practice and habits of yoga practitioners (frequency, place, reasons to practice) and Health, Happiness, and Sustainable Living. The subjects were grouped based on age, education, experience in yoga (years of practice), and occupational background. The study population comprised of 54% males and 46% females. Majority of the respondents (59%) were from 18 to 30 years age group. The study indicated that 96.4% of the total respondents have heard of Yoga. However, only 46.8% of the total study population practice yoga (YP) and the rest 53.2% were non-practitioners (NP). From a perspective of how Yoga and health, 72.7% yoga practitioners asserted a peaceful and happy life, 71.9% yoga practitioners felt satisfaction in life, and 70.2 % yoga practitioners had satisfactory health. 61.9% of yoga practitioners report being vegetarian, not eating junk food, and not drinking alcohol than 38.1% Non-Practitioners population. 47% of yoga practitioners found themselves to be more sensitive to the environment compared to only 40% of non-practitioners. India has been witnessing an unprecedented rise in the NCDs, accounting for 61% deaths. The importance of yoga as an adjunct therapy for various disorders and diseases is gaining momentum across the globe. There are various studies on yoga that have indicated benefits of yoga as a unique holistic approach towards lifestyle and a consistent, complementary solution that could be adopted for long-term viability for a well being. The comprehensive study is the first of its kind that takes a holistic look at the prevalence of Yoga for public health in India. Our study is unique and stands out as it is detailed in its outlook with extensive coverage of almost the whole country (surveying 25 out of 29 states) and contemplates on the benefits to an individual at the grass-root level – physical, mental and social outlook. The insights from the study will enable the health care systems and grassroots organizations to make the holistic practice of Yoga accessible to spread sustainable living for a healthy community.

Keywords: non-communicable disease (NCD), sustainable development goal (SDG 3), public health, healthy living

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