Search results for: gravity
397 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument
Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin
Abstract:Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.
Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulationProcedia PDF Downloads 248
396 Calculating All Dark Energy and Dark Matter Effects Through Dynamic Gravity Theory
Authors: Sean Kinney
Abstract:In 1666, Newton created the Law of Universal Gravitation. And in 1915, Einstein improved it to incorporate factors such as time dilation and gravitational lensing. But currently, there is a problem with this “universal” law. The math doesn’t work outside the confines of our solar system. And something is missing; any evidence of what gravity actually is and how it manifest. This paper explores the notion that gravity must obey the law of conservation of energy as all other forces in this universe have been shown to do. Explaining exactly what gravity is and how it manifests itself. And looking at many different implications that would be created are explained. And finally, using the math of Dynamic Gravity to calculate Dark Energy and Dark Matter effects to explain all observations without the need of exotic measures.
Keywords: gravity, dynamic gravity, dark matter, dark energyProcedia PDF Downloads 13
395 Calculating All Dark Energy and Dark Matter Effects through Dynamic Gravity Theory II
Authors: Sean Michael Kinney
Abstract:In 1666, Newton created the Law of Universal Gravitation. And in 1915, Einstein improved it to incorporate factors such as time dilation and gravitational lensing. But currently, there is a problem with this “universal” law. The math doesn’t work outside the confines of our solar system. And something is missing; any evidence of what gravity actually is and how it manifests. This paper explores the notion that gravity must obey the law of conservation of energy as all other forces in this universe have been shown to do. Explaining exactly what gravity is and how it manifests itself. And looking at many different implications that would be created are explained. And finally, use the math of Dynamic gravity to calculate Dark Energy and Dark Matter effects to explain all observations without the need for exotic measures.
Keywords: dynamic gravity, gravity, dark matter, dark energyProcedia PDF Downloads 7
394 Exploring Solutions in Extended Horava-Lifshitz Gravity
Authors: Aziza Altaibayeva, Ertan Güdekli, Ratbay Myrzakulov
Abstract:In this letter, we explore exact solutions for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We use of an extension of this theory with first order dynamical lapse function. The equations of motion have been derived in a fully consistent scenario. We assume that there are some spherically symmetric families of exact solutions of this extended theory of gravity. We obtain exact solutions and investigate the singularity structures of these solutions. Specially, an exact solution with the regular horizon is found.
Keywords: quantum gravity, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, black hole, spherically symmetric space timesProcedia PDF Downloads 515
393 Conformal Invariance and F(R,T) Gravity
Authors: P. Y. Tsyba, O. V. Razina, E. Güdekli, R. Myrzakulov
Abstract:In this paper, we consider the equation of motion for the F(R,T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case such a theory is not conformally invariant. Special cases for the functions v and u, in which the properties of the theory can appear, were studied.
Keywords: conformal invariance, gravity, space-time, metricProcedia PDF Downloads 593
392 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data
Authors: M. Yilmaz, I. Yilmaz, M. Uysal
Abstract:The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.
Keywords: free-air gravity anomaly, Bouguer gravity anomaly, global model, land gravityProcedia PDF Downloads 107
391 Comparisons of Co-Seismic Gravity Changes between GRACE Observations and the Predictions from the Finite-Fault Models for the 2012 Mw = 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake Off-Sumatra
Authors: Armin Rahimi
Abstract:The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has been a very successful project in determining math redistribution within the Earth system. Large deformations caused by earthquakes are in the high frequency band. Unfortunately, GRACE is only capable to provide reliable estimate at the low-to-medium frequency band for the gravitational changes. In this study, we computed the gravity changes after the 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake off-Sumatra using the GRACE Level-2 monthly spherical harmonic (SH) solutions released by the University of Texas Center for Space Research (UTCSR). Moreover, we calculated gravity changes using different fault models derived from teleseismic data. The model predictions showed non-negligible discrepancies in gravity changes. However, after removing high-frequency signals, using Gaussian filtering 350 km commensurable GRACE spatial resolution, the discrepancies vanished, and the spatial patterns of total gravity changes predicted from all slip models became similar at the spatial resolution attainable by GRACE observations, and predicted-gravity changes were consistent with the GRACE-detected gravity changes. Nevertheless, the fault models, in which give different slip amplitudes, proportionally lead to different amplitude in the predicted gravity changes.
Keywords: undersea earthquake, GRACE observation, gravity change, dislocation model, slip distributionProcedia PDF Downloads 295
390 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots
Authors: Meng Wu
Abstract:Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.
Keywords: motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 86
389 Geodynamics Behaviour of Greater Cairo as Deduced from 4D Gravity and Seismic Activities
Authors: Elsayed A. Issawy, Anwar H. Radwan
Abstract:Recent crustal deformations studies in Egypt are applied on the most active areas with relation to seismic activity. Temporal gravity variations in parallel with the geodetic technique (GPS) were used to monitor recent crustal movements in Egypt since 1997. The non-tidal gravity changes were constrained by the vertical component of surface movements derived from the GPS observations. The gravity changes were used to understand the surface tectonics and geodynamic modelling of the Greater Cairo region after the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992. It was found that there is a certain relation showed by increasing of gravity values before the main seismic activity. As example, relative considerable increase of gravity values was noticed for the network between the epochs of 2000 and 2004. Otherwise, the temporal gravity variations were reported a considerable decrease in gravity values between the two campaigns of 2004 and 2007 for the same stations. This behaviour could explain by compressive deformation and strain build-up stage before the South western Cairo earthquake (July 31, 2005 with magnitude of 4.3) and the stress release stage occurred after the main event. The geodetic measurements showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost of points are 5.5 mm/year in approximately NW direction.
Keywords: temporal gravity variations, geodynamics, greater Cairo, recent crustal movements, earthquakesProcedia PDF Downloads 309
388 Gravity Due to the Expansion of Matter and Distortion of Hyperspace
Authors: Arif Ali, Divya Raj Sapkota
Abstract:In this paper, we explain gravitational attraction as the consequence of the dynamics of four-dimensional bodies and the consequent distortion of space. This approach provides an alternative direction to understand various physical phenomena based on the existence of the fourth spatial dimension. For this interpretation, we formulate the acceleration due to gravity and orbital velocity based on the accelerating expansion of three-dimensional symmetric bodies. It is also shown how distortion in space caused by the dynamics of four-dimensional bodies counterbalances the effect of expansion. We find that the motion of four-dimensional bodies through four-dimensional space leads to gravitational attraction, and the expansion of bodies leads to surface gravity. Thus, dynamics in the fourth spatial dimension provide an alternative explanation to gravity.
Keywords: dimensions, four, gravity, volucelerationProcedia PDF Downloads 18
387 Management and Marketing Implications of Tourism Gravity Models
Authors: Clive L. Morley
Abstract:Gravity models and panel data modelling of tourism flows are receiving renewed attention, after decades of general neglect. Such models have quite different underpinnings from conventional demand models derived from micro-economic theory. They operate at a different level of data and with different theoretical bases. These differences have important consequences for the interpretation of the results and their policy and managerial implications. This review compares and contrasts the two model forms, clarifying the distinguishing features and the estimation requirements of each. In general, gravity models are not recommended for use to address specific management and marketing purposes.
Keywords: gravity models, micro-economics, demand models, marketingProcedia PDF Downloads 374
386 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits
Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara
Abstract:Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.
Keywords: anomaly, gravity, influence, mineralProcedia PDF Downloads 138
385 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions
Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo
Abstract:Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.
Keywords: anatomy, clinostat, germination, lycopersicon esculentum, microgravityProcedia PDF Downloads 252
384 Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator
Authors: Weiwei Shan, Wenjing Ding, Juan Ning, Chao He, Zijuan Wang
Abstract:Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.
Keywords: cryopumps, gravity circulation loop, liquid nitrogen, two-phaseProcedia PDF Downloads 330
383 Gravity and Geodetic Control of Geodynamic Activity near Aswan Lake, Egypt
Authors: Anwar H. Radwan, Jan Mrlina, El-Sayed A. Issawy, Ali Rayan, Salah M. Mahmoud
Abstract:Geodynamic investigations in the Aswan Lake region were started after the M=5.5 earthquake in 1981, triggered by the lake water fluctuations. Besides establishing the seismological networks, also the geodetic observations focused on the Kalabsha and Sayal fault zones were started. It was found that the Kalabsha fault is an active dextral strike-slip with normal component indicating uplift on its southern side. However, the annual velocity rates in both components do not exceed 2 mm/y, and do not therefore represent extremely active faulting. We also launched gravity monitoring in 1997, and performed another two campaigns in 2000 and 2002. The observed non- tidal temporal gravity changes indicate rather the flood water infiltration into the porous Nubian sandstone, than tectonic stress effect. The station nearest to the lake exhibited about 60 μGal positive gravity change within the 1997-2002 period.
Keywords: gravity monitoring, surface movements, Lake Aswan, groundwater changeProcedia PDF Downloads 429
382 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding
Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine
Abstract:The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.
Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, slidingProcedia PDF Downloads 343
381 The Use of Image Processing Responses Tools Applied to Analysing Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map (Tangier-Tetuan's Area-Morocco)
Authors: Saad Bakkali
Abstract:Image processing is a powerful tool for the enhancement of edges in images used in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Arial and terrestrial gravimetric surveys were carried out in the region of Tangier-Tetuan. From the observed and measured data of gravity Bouguer gravity anomalies map was prepared. This paper reports the results and interpretations of the transformed maps of Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Tangier-Tetuan area using image processing. Filtering analysis based on classical image process was applied. Operator image process like logarithmic and gamma correction are used. This paper also present the results obtained from this image processing analysis of the enhancement edges of the Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Tangier-Tetuan zone.
Keywords: bouguer, tangier, filtering, gamma correction, logarithmic enhancement edgesProcedia PDF Downloads 364
380 An Active Subsurface Geological Structure Pattern of Mud Volcano Phenomenon as an Environmental Impact of Petroleum Withdrawal in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia
Authors: M. M. S. Prahastomi, M. Muhajir Saputra, Axel Derian
Abstract:Lapindo mud (LUSI ) phenomenon which occurred in Sidoarjo 2006 is a national scale of the geological phenomenon. This mudflow forms a mud volcano that spreads by time is in the need of serious treatment. Some further research has been conducted either by the application method of geodesy, geophysics, and subsurface geology, but still remains a mystery to this phenomenon. Sidoarjo Physiographic regions are included in the Kendeng zone flanked by Rembang zones in northern and Solo zones in southern. In this region revealed Kabuh formation, Jombang formation, and alluvium. In general, in the northern part of the area is composed of sedimentary rocks Sidoarjo klastika, epiklastic, pyroclastics, and older alluvium of the Early Pleistocene to Resen. The study was conducted with the literature study of the stratigraphy and regional geology as well as secondary data from observations coupled gravity method (Anomaly Bouger). The aim of the study is to reveal the subsurface geology structure pattern and the changes in mass flow. Gravity anomaly data were obtained from the calculation of the value of gravity and altitude, then processed into gravity anomaly contours which reflect changes in density of each group observed gravity. The gravity data could indicate a bottom surface which deformation occur the stronger or more intense to the south. Deformation in the form of gravity impairment was associated with a decrease in future density which is indicated by the presence of gas, water and gas bursts. Sectional analysis of changes in the measured value of gravity at different times indicates a change in the value of gravity caused by the presence of subsurface subsidence. While the gravity anomaly section describes the fault zone causes the zone to be unstable.
Keywords: mud volcano, Lumpur Sidoarjo, Bouger anomaly, IndonesiaProcedia PDF Downloads 397
379 Geopotential Models Evaluation in Algeria Using Stochastic Method, GPS/Leveling and Topographic Data
Authors: M. A. Meslem
Abstract:For precise geoid determination, we use a reference field to subtract long and medium wavelength of the gravity field from observations data when we use the remove-compute-restore technique. Therefore, a comparison study between considered models should be made in order to select the optimal reference gravity field to be used. In this context, two recent global geopotential models have been selected to perform this comparison study over Northern Algeria. The Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) and the Global Gravity Model (GECO) conceived with a combination of the first model with anomalous potential derived from a GOCE satellite-only global model. Free air gravity anomalies in the area under study have been used to compute residual data using both gravity field models and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to subtract the residual terrain effect from the gravity observations. Residual data were used to generate local empirical covariance functions and their fitting to the closed form in order to compare their statistical behaviors according to both cases. Finally, height anomalies were computed from both geopotential models and compared to a set of GPS levelled points on benchmarks using least squares adjustment. The result described in details in this paper regarding these two models has pointed out a slight advantage of GECO global model globally through error degree variances comparison and ground-truth evaluation.
Keywords: quasigeoid, gravity aomalies, covariance, GGMProcedia PDF Downloads 84
378 Seismological Studies in Some Areas in Egypt
Authors: Gamal Seliem, Hassan Seliem
Abstract:Aswan area is one of the important areas in Egypt and because it encompasses the vital engineering structure of the High dam, so it has been selected for the present study. The study of the crustal deformation and gravity associated with earthquake activity in the High Dam area of great importance for the safety of the High Dam and its economic resources. This paper deals with using micro-gravity, precise leveling and GPS data for geophysical and geodetically studies. For carrying out the detailed gravity survey in the area, were established for studying the subsurface structures. To study the recent vertical movements, a profile of 10 km length joins the High Dam and Aswan old dam were established along the road connecting the two dams. This profile consists of 35 GPS/leveling stations extending along the two sides of the road and on the High Dam body. Precise leveling was carried out with GPS and repeated micro-gravity survey in the same time. GPS network consisting of nine stations was established for studying the recent crustal movements. Many campaigns from December 2001 to December 2014 were performed for collecting the gravity, leveling and GPS data. The main aim of this work is to study the structural features and the behavior of the area, as depicted from repeated micro-gravity, precise leveling and GPS measurements. The present work focuses on the analysis of the gravity, leveling and GPS data. The gravity results of the present study investigate and analyze the subsurface geologic structures and reveal to there be minor structures; features and anomalies are taking W-E and N-S directions. The geodetic results indicated lower rates of the vertical and horizontal displacements and strain values. This may be related to the stability of the area.
Keywords: repeated micro-gravity changes, precise leveling, GPS data, Aswan High DamProcedia PDF Downloads 392
377 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument
Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin
Abstract:Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.
Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulationProcedia PDF Downloads 238
376 Induced-Gravity Inflation in View of the Bicep2 Results
Authors: C. Pallis
Abstract:Induced-Gravity inflation is a model of chaotic inflation where the inflaton is identified with a Higgs-like modulus whose the vacuum expectation value controls the gravitational strength. Thanks to a strong enough coupling between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar curvature, inflation is attained even for subplanckian values of the inflaton with the corresponding effective theory being valid up to the Planck scale. In its simplest realization, induced-gravity inflation is based on a quatric potential and a quadratic non-minimal coupling and the inflationary observables turn out to be in agreement with the Planck data. Its supersymmetrization can be formulated within no-scale Supergravity employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields and applying a continuous $R$ and a discrete Zn symmetry to the proposed superpotential and Kahler potential. Modifying slightly the non-minimal coupling to Gravity, the model can account for the recent results of BICEP2. These modifications can be also accommodated beyond the no-scale SUGRA considering the fourth order term of the Kahler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field and small deviations from the prefactor $-3$ encountered in the adopted Kahler potential.
Keywords: cosmology, supersymmetric models, supergravity, modified gravityProcedia PDF Downloads 638
375 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System
Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith
Abstract:This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.
Keywords: exoskeleton- upper limb system, model free terminal sliding mode, gravity compensation, robustness analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 75
374 Determination of Hydrocarbon Path Migration from Gravity Data Analysis (Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia, North Africa)
Authors: Mohamed Dhaoui, Hakim Gabtni
Abstract:The migration of hydrocarbons is a fairly complicated process that depends on several parameters, both structural and sedimentological. In this study, we will try to determine secondary migration paths which convey hydrocarbon from their main source rock to the largest reservoir of the Paleozoic petroleum system of the Tunisian part of Ghadames basin. In fact, The Silurian source rock is the main source rock of the Paleozoic petroleum system of the Ghadames basin. However, the most solicited reservoir in this area is the Triassic reservoir TAGI (Trias Argilo-Gréseux Inférieur). Several geochemical studies have confirmed that oil products TAGI come mainly from the Tannezuft Silurian source rock. That being said that secondary migration occurs through the fault system which affects the post-Silurian series. Our study is based on analysis and interpretation of gravity data. The gravity modeling was conducted in the northern part of Ghadames basin and the Telemzane uplift. We noted that there is a close relationship between the location of producing oil fields and gravity gradients which separate the positive and negative gravity anomalies. In fact, the analysis and transformation of the Bouguer anomaly map, and the residual gravity map allowed as understanding the architecture of the Precambrian in the study area, thereafter gravimetric models were established allowed to determine the probable migration path.
Keywords: basement, Ghadames, gravity, hydrocarbon, migration pathProcedia PDF Downloads 269
373 Magneto-Solutal Convection in Newtonian Fluid Layer with Modulated Gravity
Authors: Om Prakash Keshri, Anand Kumar, Vinod K. Gupta
Abstract:In the present study, the effect of gravity modulation on the onset of convection in viscous fluid layer under the influence of induced magnetic field, salted from above on the boundaries, has been investigated. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis has been performed. A linear stability analysis is performed to show that the gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. A method based on small amplitude of the modulation is used to compute the critical value of Rayleigh number and wave number. The effect of Smith number, salute Rayleigh number and magnetic Prandtl number on the stability of the system is investigated.
Keywords: viscous fluid, induced magnetic field, gravity modulation, salute convectionProcedia PDF Downloads 108
372 Delineating Subsurface Linear Features and Faults Under Sedimentary Cover in the Bahira Basin Using Integrated Gravity and Magnetic Data
Authors: M. Lghoul, N. El Goumi, M. Guernouche
Abstract:In order to predict the structural and tectonic framework of the Bahira basin and to have a 3D geological modeling of the basin, an integrated multidisciplinary work has been conducted using gravity, magnetic and geological data. The objective of the current study is delineating the subsurfacefeatures, faults, and geological limits, using airborne magnetic and gravity data analysis of the Bahira basin. To achieve our goal, we have applied different enhanced techniques on magnetic and gravity data: power spectral analysis techniques, reduction to pole (RTP), upward continuation, analytical signal, tilt derivative, total horizontal derivative, 3D Euler deconvolutionand source parameter imagining. The major lineaments/faults trend are: NE–SW, NW-SE, ENE–WSW, and WNW–ESE. The 3D Euler deconvolution analysis highlighted a number of fault trend, mainly in the ENE-WSW, WNW-ESE directions. The depth tothe top of the basement sources in the study area ranges between 200 m, in the southern and northern part of the Bahira basin, to 5000 m located in the Eastern part of the basin.
Keywords: magnetic, gravity, structural trend, depth to basementProcedia PDF Downloads 64
371 Quantitative Analysis of the Trade Potential of the United States with Members of the European Union: A Gravity Model Approach
Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Nauman Ali
Abstract:This study has estimated the trade between USA and individual members of European Union using Gravity Model of Trade as The USA has a complex trade relationship with the European countries consist of a large number of consumers, which make USA dependent on EU for major of its total world trade. However, among the member of EU, the trade potential of USA with individual members of EU is not known. Panel data techniques e.g. Random Effect, Fixed Effect and Pooled Panel have been applied to secondary quantitative data to analyze the Trade between USA and EU. Trade Potential of USA with individual members of EU has been obtained using the ratio of Actual trade of USA with EU members and the trade as predicted by Gravity Model. The Study concluded that the USA has greater trade potential with 16 members of EU, including Croatia, Portugal and United Kingdom on top. On the other hand, Finland, Ireland, and France are the top countries with which the USA has exhaustive trade potential.
Keywords: analytical technique, economic, gravity, international trade, significantProcedia PDF Downloads 224
370 Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation
Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani
Abstract:The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus during very high gravity fermentation was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. Wort gravity of 21oP was prepared from barley malt, hops and water, to which the metal ions were supplemented in their combinations and subsequently pitched. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F)= 29.53 was obtained in wort medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol titre 7.3491 %(v/v) and 7.1313 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F= 22.54 and ethanol titre 6.1757% (v/v) was recorded in wort medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual metal ions, increased %F= 27.94 and %F= 26.03 were obtained in media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+, with increased ethanol yield of 7.8844% (v/v) and 7.6245% (v/v) respectively. Least %F of 11.75 and 10.80, and ethanol titre of 4.99 (%v/v) and 4.80 (%v/v) were obtained for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ respectively.
Keywords: ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 306
369 Progressive Structural Capacity Loss Assessment
Authors: M. Zain, Thaung H. Aung, Naveed Anwar
Abstract:During the service life, a structure may experience extreme loading conditions. The current study proposes a new methodology that covers the effect of uncertainty involved in gravity loadings on key structural elements of new and complex structures by emphasizing on a very realistic assumption that allows the 'Performance-Based Assessment' to be executed on the structure against the gravity loadings. The methodology does not require the complete removal of an element, instead, it permits the incremental reduction in the capacity of key structural elements and preserves the same stiffness of the member in each case of capacity loss. To demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology, a 13 story complex structure is selected that comprises of a diverse structural configuration. The results ensure the structural integrity against the applied gravity loadings, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Keywords: force-deformation relationship, gravity loading, incremental capacity reduction, multi-linear plastic link element, SAP2000, stiffnessProcedia PDF Downloads 391
368 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Diagrid Components
Authors: Taejin Kim, Heonwoo Lee, Jong-Ho Kim, Dongchul Lee
Abstract:Recently, there have been various high-rise building projects which reflect unique inspiration from architects to their feature. And it is frequently found that some of these buildings have diagrid structural system. Diagrid system provides engineers many options for structural plan, since it has triangular module so it can form a number of complex shapes. Unlike braced frame systems, diagonal members in diagrid system resist gravity and horizontal loads simultaneously. Correspondingly, diagrid members take roles of both beams and columns, and it is expected that their ductile capacity may depend on the amount of gravity loads. However, not enough studies have been made for this issue so far, which means that there is demand of examination on the seismic behavior of diagrid members under large gravity loads. Therefore, in this study, the ductile capacity of diagrid members was evaluated through analytical and experimental method. Several cases that have different vertical load condition were set up for both approaches to consider the effect of initial compression force due to gravity load. Regarding the result, it was found that buckling in a diagonal member occurs at smaller drift angle when larger gravity load acts on the specimen, which also reduces the amount of energy dissipation. It means that axial stress in a diagonal member reaches critical buckling force early due to the combined axial force from not only horizontal load but also gravity load.
Keywords: buckling, diagrid, ductility, seismic performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 344