Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: neuromuscular

48 Neuromuscular Control and Performance during Sudden Acceleration in Subjects with and without Unilateral Acute Ankle Sprains

Authors: M. Qorbani

Abstract:

Neuromuscular control of posture as understood through studies of responses to mechanical sudden acceleration automatically has been previously demonstrated in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the presence of acute condition has not been previously explored specially in a sudden acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neuromuscular control pattern in those with and without unilateral acute ankle sprains. Design: Case - control. Setting: University research laboratory. The sinker–card protocol with surface translation was be used as a sudden acceleration protocol with study of EMG upon 4 posture stabilizer muscles in two sides of the body in response to sudden acceleration in forward and backward directions. 20 young adult women in two groups (10 LAS; 23.9 ± 2.03 yrs and 10 normal; 26.4 ± 3.2 yrs). The data of EMG were assessed by using multivariate test and one-way repeated measures 2×2×4 ANOVA (P< 0.05). The results showed a significant muscle by direction interaction. Higher TA activity of left and right side in LAS group than normal group in forward direction significantly be showed. Higher MGR activity in normal group than LAS group in backward direction significantly showed. These findings suggest that compared two sides of the body in two directions for 4 muscles EMG activities between and within group for neuromuscular control of posture in avoiding fall. EMG activations of two sides of the body in lateral ankle sprain (LAS) patients were symmetric significantly. Acute ankle instability following once ankle sprains caused to coordinated temporal spatial patterns and strategy selection.

Keywords: neuromuscular response, sEMG, lateral ankle sprain, posture.

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
47 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises of Upper Extremities Assessment Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Color Marker in a Virtual Reality Environment

Authors: M. Owlia, M. H. Azarsa, M. Khabbazan, A. Mirbagheri

Abstract:

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises are a series of stretching techniques that are commonly used in rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Assessment of these exercises for true maneuvering requires extensive experience in this field and could not be down with patients themselves. In this paper, we developed software that uses Microsoft Kinect sensor, a spherical color marker, and real-time image processing methods to evaluate patient’s performance in generating true patterns of movements. The software also provides the patient with a visual feedback by showing his/her avatar in a Virtual Reality environment along with the correct path of moving hand, wrist and marker. Primary results during PNF exercise therapy of a patient in a room environment shows the ability of the system to identify any deviation of maneuvering path and direction of the hand from the one that has been performed by an expert physician.

Keywords: image processing, Microsoft Kinect, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, upper extremities assessment, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
46 Development of Electromyography (EMG) Signal Acquisition System by Simple Electronic Circuits

Authors: Divya Pradip Roy, Md. Zahirul Alam Chowdhury

Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) sensors are generally used to record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. The conventional EMG sensors available in the market are expensive. This research suggests a low cost EMG sensor design which can be built with simple devices within our reach. In this research, one instrumentation amplifier, two high pass filters, two low pass filters and an inverting amplifier is connected sequentially. The output from the circuit exhibits electrical potential generated by the muscle cells when they are neurologically activated. This electromyography signal is used to control prosthetic devices, identifying neuromuscular diseases and for various other purposes.

Keywords: EMG, high pass filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier, low pass filter, neuromuscular

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
45 EMG Based Orthosis for Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Hemiparesis Patients

Authors: Nancy N. Sharmila, Aparna Mishra

Abstract:

Hemiparesis affects almost 80% of stroke patients each year. It is marked by paralysis or weakness on one half of the body. Our model provides both assistance and physical therapy for hemiparesis patients for swift recovery. In order to accomplish our goal a force is provided that pulls the forearm up (as in flexing the arm), and pushes the forearm down (as in extending the arm), which will also assist the user during ADL (Activities of Daily Living). The model consists of a mechanical component which is placed around the patient’s bicep and an EMG control circuit to assist patients in daily activities, which makes it affordable and easy to use. In order to enhance the neuromuscular system’s effectiveness in synchronize the movement, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) concept is used. The EMG signals are acquired from the unaffected arm as an input to drive the orthosis. This way the patient is invigorated to use the orthosis for regular exercise.

Keywords: EMG, hemiparesis, orthosis, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
44 Anesthesia for Spinal Stabilization Using Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Dog: Case Report

Authors: Agata Migdalska, Joanna Berczynska, Ewa Bieniek, Jacek Sterna

Abstract:

Muscle relaxation is considered important during general anesthesia for spine stabilization. In a presented case peripherally acting muscle relaxant was applied during general anesthesia for spine stabilization surgery. The patient was a dog, 11-years old, 26 kg, male, mix breed. Spine fracture was situated between Th13-L1-L2, probably due to the car accident. Preanesthetic physical examination revealed no sign underlying health issues. The dog was premedicated with midazolam 0.2 mg IM and butorphanol 2.4 mg IM. General anesthesia was induced with propofol IV. After the induction, the dog was intubated with an endotracheal tube and connected to an open-ended rebreathing system and maintained with the use of inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. 0,5 mg/ kg of rocuronium was given IV. Use of muscle relaxant was accompanied by an assessment of the degree of neuromuscular blockade by peripheral nerve stimulator. Electrodes were attached to the skin overlying at the peroneal nerve at the lateral cranial tibia. Four electrical pulses were applied to the nerve over a 2 second period. When satisfying nerve block was detected dog was prepared for the surgery. No further monitoring of the effectiveness of blockade was performed during surgery. Mechanical ventilation was kept during anesthesia. During surgery dog maintain stable, and no anesthesiological complication occur. Intraoperatively surgeon claimed that neuromuscular blockade results in a better approach to the spine and easier muscle manipulation which was helpful in order to see the fracture and replace bone fragments. Finally, euthanasia was performed intraoperatively as a result of vast myelomalacia process of the spinal cord. This prevented examination of the recovering process. Neuromuscular blocking agents act at the neuromuscular junction to provide profound muscle relaxation throughout the body. Muscle blocking agents are neither anesthetic nor analgesic; therefore inappropriately used may cause paralysis in fully conscious and feeling pain patient. They cause paralysis of all skeletal muscles, also diaphragm and intercostal muscles when given in higher doses. Intraoperative management includes maintaining stable physiological conditions, which involves adjusting hemodynamic parameters, ensuring proper ventilation, avoiding variations in temperature, maintain normal blood flow to promote proper oxygen exchange. Neuromuscular blocking agent can cause many side effects like residual paralysis, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, delayed recovery from anesthesia, histamine release, recurarization. Therefore reverse drug like neostigmine (with glikopyrolat) or edrofonium (with atropine) should be used in case of a life-threatening situation. Another useful drug is sugammadex, although the cost of this drug strongly limits its use. Muscle relaxant improves surgical conditions during spinal surgery, especially in heavily muscled individuals. They are also used to facilitate the replacement of dislocated joints as they improve conditions during fracture reduction. It is important to emphasize that in a patient with muscle weakness neuromuscular blocking agents may result in intraoperative and early postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications, as well as prolonged recovery from anesthesia. This should not appear in patients with recent spine fracture or luxation. Therefore it is believed that neuromuscular blockers could be useful during spine stabilization procedures.

Keywords: anesthesia, dog, neuromuscular block, spine surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
43 Functional Electrical Stimulator and Neuromuscular Electro Stimulator System Analysis for Foot Drop

Authors: Gül Fatma Türker, Hatice Akman

Abstract:

Portable muscle stimulators for real-time applications has first introduced by Liberson in 1961. Now these systems has been advanced. In this study, FES (Functional Electrical Stimulator) and NMES (Neuromuscular Electrostimulator) systems are analyzed through their hardware and their quality of life improvements for foot drop patients. FES and NMES systems are used for people whose leg muscles and leg neural connections are healty but not able to walk properly because of their injured central nervous system like spinal cord injuries. These systems are used to stimulate neurons or muscles by getting information from other movements and programming these stimulations to get natural walk and it is accepted as a rehabilitation method for the correction of drop foot. This systems support person to approach natural form of walking. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait. It is a gait abnormality. This systems helps to person for plantar and dorse reflection movements which are hard to done for foot drop patients.

Keywords: FES, foot drop, NMES, stimulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
42 Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Po-Ching Chou, Wen-Chen Liang, I. Chen Chen, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuh-Jyh Jong

Abstract:

Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.

Keywords: neuromuscular disease, cause of death, tertiary care hospital, medical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
41 Characterization and Correlation of Neurodegeneration and Biological Markers of Model Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: J. DeBoard, R. Dietrich, J. Hughes, K. Yurko, G. Harms

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a predominant type of dementia and is likely a major cause of neural network impairment. The pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has yet to be fully elucidated. There are currently no known cures for the disease, and the best hope is to be able to detect it early enough to impede its progress. Beyond age and genetics, another prevalent risk factor for AD might be traumatic brain injury (TBI), which has similar neurodegenerative hallmarks. Our research focuses on obtaining information and methods to be able to predict when neurodegenerative effects might occur at a clinical level by observation of events at a cellular and molecular level in model mice. First, we wish to introduce our evidence that brain damage can be observed via brain imaging prior to the noticeable loss of neuromuscular control in model mice of AD. We then show our evidence that some blood biomarkers might be able to be early predictors of AD in the same model mice. Thus, we were interested to see if we might be able to predict which mice might show long-term neurodegenerative effects due to differing degrees of TBI and what level of TBI causes further damage and earlier death to the AD model mice. Upon application of TBIs via an apparatus to effectively induce extremely mild to mild TBIs, wild-type (WT) mice and AD mouse models were tested for cognition, neuromuscular control, olfactory ability, blood biomarkers, and brain imaging. Experiments are currently still in process, and more results are therefore forthcoming. Preliminary data suggest that neuromotor control diminishes as well as olfactory function for both AD and WT mice after the administration of five consecutive mild TBIs. Also, seizure activity increases significantly for both AD and WT after the administration of the five TBI treatment. If future data supports these findings, important implications about the effect of TBI on those at risk for AD might be possible.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, blood biomarker, neurodegeneration, neuromuscular control, olfaction, traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
40 Comparison between the Roller-Foam and Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Flexibility of Hamstrings Muscles

Authors: Paolo Ragazzi, Olivier Peillon, Paul Fauris, Mathias Simon, Raul Navarro, Juan Carlos Martin, Oriol Casasayas, Laura Pacheco, Albert Perez-Bellmunt

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of stretching techniques in the sports world is frequent and widely used for its many effects. One of the main benefits is the gain in flexibility, range of motion and facilitation of the sporting performance. Recently the use of Roller-Foam (RF) has spread in sports practice both at elite and recreational level for its benefits being similar to those observed in stretching. The objective of the following study is to compare the results of the Roller-Foam with the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) (one of the stretchings with more evidence) on the hamstring muscles. Study design: The design of the study is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial and the participants are 40 healthy volunteers. Intervention: The subjects are distributed randomly in one of the following groups; stretching (PNF) intervention group: 4 repetitions of PNF stretching (5seconds of contraction, 5 second of relaxation, 20 second stretch), Roller-Foam intervention group: 2 minutes of Roller-Foam was realized on the hamstring muscles. Main outcome measures: hamstring muscles flexibility was assessed at the beginning, during (30’’ of intervention) and the end of the session by using the Modified Sit and Reach test (MSR). Results: The baseline results data given in both groups are comparable to each other. The PNF group obtained an increase in flexibility of 3,1 cm at 30 seconds (first series) and of 5,1 cm at 2 minutes (the last of all series). The RF group obtained a 0,6 cm difference at 30 seconds and 2,4 cm after 2 minutes of application of roller foam. The results were statistically significant when comparing intragroups but not intergroups. Conclusions: Despite the fact that the use of roller foam is spreading in the sports and rehabilitation field, the results of the present study suggest that the gain of flexibility on the hamstrings is greater if PNF type stretches are used instead of RF. These results may be due to the fact that the use of roller foam intervened more in the fascial tissue, while the stretches intervene more in the myotendinous unit. Future studies are needed, increasing the sample number and diversifying the types of stretching.

Keywords: hamstring muscle, stretching, neuromuscular facilitation stretching, roller foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
39 The Effects of the GAA15 (Gaelic Athletic Association 15) on Lower Extremity Injury Incidence and Neuromuscular Functional Outcomes in Collegiate Gaelic Games: A 2 Year Prospective Study

Authors: Brenagh E. Schlingermann, Clare Lodge, Paula Rankin

Abstract:

Background: Gaelic football, hurling and camogie are highly popular field games in Ireland. Research into the epidemiology of injury in Gaelic games revealed that approximately three quarters of the injuries in the games occur in the lower extremity. These injuries can have player, team and institutional impacts due to multiple factors including financial burden and time loss from competition. Research has shown it is possible to record injury data consistently with the GAA through a closed online recording system known as the GAA injury surveillance database. It has been established that determining the incidence of injury is the first step of injury prevention. The goals of this study were to create a dynamic GAA15 injury prevention programme which addressed five key components/goals; avoid positions associated with a high risk of injury, enhance flexibility, enhance strength, optimize plyometrics and address sports specific agilities. These key components are internationally recognized through the Prevent Injury, Enhance performance (PEP) programme which has proven reductions in ACL injuries by 74%. In national Gaelic games the programme is known as the GAA15 which has been devised from the principles of the PEP. No such injury prevention strategies have been published on this cohort in Gaelic games to date. This study will investigate the effects of the GAA15 on injury incidence and neuromuscular function in Gaelic games. Methods: A total of 154 players (mean age 20.32 ± 2.84) were recruited from the GAA teams within the Institute of Technology Carlow (ITC). Preseason and post season testing involved two objective screening tests; Y balance test and Three Hop Test. Practical workshops, with ongoing liaison, were provided to the coaches on the implementation of the GAA15. The programme was performed before every training session and game and the existing GAA injury surveillance database was accessed to monitor player’s injuries by the college sports rehabilitation athletic therapist. Retrospective analysis of the ITC clinic records were performed in conjunction with the database analysis as a means of tracking injuries that may have been missed. The effects of the programme were analysed by comparing the intervention groups Y balance and three hop test scores to an age/gender matched control group. Results: Year 1 results revealed significant increases in neuromuscular function as a result of the GAA15. Y Balance test scores for the intervention group increased in both the posterolateral (p=.005 and p=.001) and posteromedial reach directions (p= .001 and p=.001). A decrease in performance was determined for the three hop test (p=.039). Overall twenty-five injuries were reported during the season resulting in an injury rate of 3.00 injuries/1000hrs of participation; 1.25 injuries/1000hrs training and 4.25 injuries/1000hrs match play. Non-contact injuries accounted for 40% of the injuries sustained. Year 2 results are pending and expected April 2016. Conclusion: It is envisaged that implementation of the GAA15 will continue to reduce the risk of injury and improve neuromuscular function in collegiate Gaelic games athletes.

Keywords: GAA15, Gaelic games, injury prevention, neuromuscular training

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
38 Factors Associated with Commencement of Non-Invasive Ventilation

Authors: Manoj Kumar Reddy Pulim, Lakshmi Muthukrishnan, Geetha Jayapathy, Radhika Raman

Abstract:

Introduction: In the past two decades, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) emerged as one of the most important advances in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure in children. In the acute setting, it is an alternative to intubation with a goal to preserve normal physiologic functions, decrease airway injury, and prevent respiratory tract infections. There is a need to determine the clinical profile and parameters which point towards the need for NIV in the pediatric emergency setting. Objectives: i) To study the clinical profile of children who required non invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation, ii) To study the clinical parameters common to children who required non invasive ventilation. Methods: All children between one month to 18 years, who were intubated in the pediatric emergency department and those for whom decision to commence Non Invasive Ventilation was made in Emergency Room were included in the study. Children were transferred to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and started on Non Invasive Ventilation as per our hospital policy and followed up in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Clinical profile of all children which included age, gender, diagnosis and indication for intubation were documented. Clinical parameters such as respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation, grunting were documented. Parameters obtained were subject to statistical analysis. Observations: Airway disease (Bronchiolitis 25%, Viral induced wheeze 22%) was a common diagnosis in 32 children who required Non Invasive Ventilation. Neuromuscular disorder was the common diagnosis in 27 children (78%) who were Intubated. 17 children commenced on Non Invasive Ventilation who later needed invasive ventilation had Neuromuscular disease. High frequency nasal cannula was used in 32, and mask ventilation in 17 children. Clinical parameters common to the Non Invasive Ventilation group were age < 1 year (17), tachycardia n = 7 (22%), tachypnea n = 23 (72%) and severe respiratory distress n = 9 (28%), grunt n = 7 (22%), SPO2 (80% to 90%) n = 16. Children in the Non Invasive Ventilation + INTUBATION group were > 3 years (9), had tachycardia 7 (41%), tachypnea 9(53%) with a male predominance n = 9. In statistical comparison among 3 groups,'p' value was significant for pH, saturation, and use of Ionotrope. Conclusion: Invasive ventilation can be avoided in the paediatric Emergency Department in children with airway disease, by commencing Non Invasive Ventilation early. Intubation in the pediatric emergency department has a higher association with neuromuscular disorders.

Keywords: clinical parameters, indications, non invasive ventilation, paediatric emergency room

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
37 Importance of Flexibility Training for Older Adults: A Narrative Review

Authors: Andrej Kocjan

Abstract:

Introduction: Mobility has been shown to play an important role of health and quality of life among older adults. Falls, which are often related to decreased mobility, as well as to neuromuscular deficits, represent the most common injury among older adults. Fall risk has been shown to increase with reduced lower extremity flexibility. The aim of the paper is to assess the importance of flexibility training on joint range of motion and functional performance among elderly population. Methods: We performed literature research on PubMed and evaluated articles published until 2000. The articles found in the search strategy were also added. The population of interest included older adults (≥ 65 years of age). Results: Flexibility training programs still represent an important part of several rehabilitation programs. Static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation are the most frequently used techniques to improve the length of the muscle-tendon complex. Although the effectiveness of type of stretching seems to be related to age and gender, static stretching is a more appropriate technique to enhance shoulder, hip, and ankle range of motion in older adults. Stretching should be performed in multiple sets with holds of more than 60 seconds for a single muscle group. Conclusion: The literature suggests that flexibility training is an effective method to increase joint range of motion in older adults. In the light of increased functional outcome, activities such as strengthening, balance, and aerobic exercises should be incorporated into a training program for older people. Due to relatively little published literature, it is still not possible to prescribe detailed recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults.

Keywords: elderly, exercise, flexibility, falls

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
36 Muscle Neurotrophins Family Response to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Rasoul Eslami, Reza Gharakhanlou

Abstract:

NT-4/5 and TrkB have been proposed to be involved in the coordinated adaptations of the neuromuscular system to elevated level of activity. Despite the persistence of this neurotrophin and its receptor expression in adult skeletal muscle, little attention has been paid to the functional significance of this complex in the mature neuromuscular system. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of one session of resistance exercise on mRNA expression of NT4/5 and TrkB proteins in slow and fast muscles of Wistar Rats. Male Wistar rats (10 mo of age, preparation of Pasteur Institute) were housed under similar living conditions in cages (in groups of four) at room temperature under a controlled light/dark (12-h) cycle with ad libitum access to food and water. A number of sixteen rats were randomly divided to two groups (resistance exercise (T) and control (C); n=8 for each group). The resistance training protocol consisted of climbing a 1-meter–long ladder, with a weight attached to a tail sleeve. Twenty-four hours following the main training session, rats of T and C groups were anaesthetized and the right soleus and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were removed under sterile conditions via an incision on the dorsolateral aspect of the hind limb. For NT-4/5 and TrkB expression, quantitative real time RT-PCR was used. SPSS software and independent-samples t-test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Data indicate that resistance training significantly (P<0.05) decreased mRNA expression of NT4/5 in soleus muscle. However, no significant alteration was detected in FHL muscle (P>0.05). Our results also indicate that no significant alterations were detected for TrkB mRNA expression in soleus and FHL muscles (P>0.05). Decrease in mRNA expression of NT4/5 in soleus muscle may be as result of post-translation regulation following resistance training. Also, non-alteration in TrkB mRNA expression was indicated in probable roll of P75 receptor.

Keywords: neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), TrkB receptor, resistance training, slow and fast muscles

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
35 A Top-down vs a Bottom-up Approach on Lower Extremity Motor Recovery and Balance Following Acute Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Vijaya Kumar, Vidayasagar Pagilla, Abraham Joshua, Rakshith Kedambadi, Prasanna Mithra

Abstract:

Background: Post stroke rehabilitation are aimed to accelerate for optimal sensorimotor recovery, functional gain and to reduce long-term dependency. Intensive physical therapy interventions can enhance this recovery as experience-dependent neural plastic changes either directly act at cortical neural networks or at distal peripheral level (muscular components). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a traditional bottom-up approach, mirror therapy (MT), a relatively new top down approach have found to be an effective adjuvant treatment methods for lower extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. However there is a scarcity of evidence to compare their therapeutic gain in stroke recovery.Aim: To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and mirror therapy (MT) in very early phase of post stroke rehabilitation addressed to lower extremity motor recovery and balance. Design: observer blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Setting: Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals. Subjects: 32 acute stroke subjects with first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis, referred for rehabilitation (onset < 3 weeks), Brunnstorm lower extremity recovery stages ≥3 and MMSE score more than 24 were randomized into two group [Group A-NMES and Group B-MT]. Interventions: Both the groups received eclectic approach to remediate lower extremity recovery which includes treatment components of Roods, Bobath and Motor learning approaches for 30 minutes a day for 6 days. Following which Group A (N=16) received 30 minutes of surface NMES training for six major paretic muscle groups (gluteus maximus and medius,quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius). Group B (N=16) was administered with 30 minutes of mirror therapy sessions to facilitate lower extremity motor recovery. Outcome measures: Lower extremity motor recovery, balance and activities of daily life (ADLs) were measured by Fugyl Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI) before and after intervention. Results: Pre Post analysis of either group across the time revealed statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all the outcome variables for the either group. All parameters of NMES had greater change scores compared to MT group as follows: FMA-LE (25.12±3.01 vs. 23.31±2.38), BBS (35.12±4.61 vs. 34.68±5.42) and BI (40.00±10.32 vs. 37.18±7.73). Between the groups comparison of pre post values showed no significance with FMA-LE (p=0.09), BBS (p=0.80) and BI (p=0.39) respectively. Conclusion: Though either groups had significant improvement (pre to post intervention), none of them were superior to other in lower extremity motor recovery and balance among acute stroke subjects. We conclude that eclectic approach is an effective treatment irrespective of NMES or MT as an adjunct.

Keywords: balance, motor recovery, mirror therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
34 The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Lumbar Stabilization Exercises on Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance in Patients with Lumbar Disc Hernia

Authors: Mustafa Gulsen, Mitat Koz

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of lumbar stabilisation and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on muscle strength and muscle endurance. The participants were 64 between the ages of 15-69 (53.04 ± 14.59), who were graded protrusion and bulging lumbar herniation according to 'Macnab Classification'. The participants were divided into four groups as each group had 16 participants: lumbar stabilitation training, PNF training, physical therapy and control groups. Sociodemographic features were recorded. Then their muscle strength tests (by isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex 770 Norm Lumex Inc, Ronkonkoma, NY, USA) were recorded. Before and after applications; visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability İndex were applied by a physical therapist. The participants in lumbar stabilisation group performed 45 minutes, 5 days in a week for 4 weeks strength training with a physical therapist observation. The participants in PNF group performed 5 days in a week for 4 weeks with pelvic patterns of PNF by a physiotherapist. The participants in physical therapy group underwent Hotpack, Tens and Ultrasound therapy 5 days in a week for 4 weeks. The participants in control group didn’t take any training programme. After 4 weeks, the evaluations were repeated. There were significant increases in muscle strength and muscle endurance in lumbar stabilization training group. Also in pain intensity at rest and during activity in this group and in Oswestry disability index of patients, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05). In PNF training group likewise, there were significant improvements in muscle strength, muscle endurance, pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). But improvements in the Lumbar Stabilization group was better than PNF Group. We found significant differences only in pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). in the patients in Physical Therapy group. We think that appropriate physiotherapy and rehabilitation program which will be prepared for patients, to protect the waist circumference of patients with low muscle strength and low muscle endurance will increase muscle strength and muscle endurance. And it is expected that will reduce pain and will provide advances toward correcting functional disability of the patients.

Keywords: disc herniation, endurance, lumbar stabilitation exercises, PNF, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
33 The Effects of Dry Needling on Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Fatemeh Hasannia

Abstract:

Muscle fatigue is the result of intensive training sessions and leads to limitation of muscle force. It is a physical phenomenon that can impair performance considerably. Athletic injuries most commonly occur in the lower extremity and can have destabilizing effects on balance and postural control. Under intense circumstances, muscle fatigue can lead to multiple impairments. Recovery is therefore important to prevent injuries and maximize performance. Previous research shows that 14.3% of male and 20% of the female population have experienced muscle fatigue. Athletes, in particular, have to undergo intense recovery sessions to avoid reduced performance due to muscle fatigue. Various modalities are used to facilitate recovery from muscle fatigue, including neuromuscular electrical stimulation, contrast water therapy, massage therapy, active recovery, and dry needling. However, the relative effectiveness of each approach has not been fully investigated. Dry needling is an effective approach to treat neuromusculoskeletal conditions involving insertion of a solid needle into the muscles. It is most commonly used to treat trigger points and their symptoms. It can be used as a single modality or in combination with other modalities to reduce pain and increase flexibility and muscle force. The effects of dry needling on muscle recovery has not been studied adequately. The aim of this investigation is, therefore, to explore the effects of a dry needling session on muscle recovery under quadriceps muscle fatigue conditions. A random double-blind clinical trial is carried out among the subjects. Exclusion criteria were previous injuries, fractures, pain in the lower extremity, history of surgery, neuromuscular, vestibular, or cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the subjects had no history of receiving dry needling in the previous 3 months, not performed intense physical exercise 48 hours prior to the trial, or contraindication for dry needling. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving dry needling treatment and the second entering the placebo group. Tests and measurements were administered randomly. Following the recording of baseline measurements, the fatigue protocol was performed. Dry needling was performed randomly for 1 minute using a fast in-fast out technique, and measurements were made. Isometric peak torque, single leg hop test, Y balance test results show that the mean isometric peak torque decreases with fatigue and is improved after dry needling. It is also evident that the mean single leg hop test decreases after fatigue and is improved after dry needling. Furthermore, the mean values Y balance test decreases with fatigue and is improved after dry needling. The results indicate that using dry needling leads to a significant reduction in fatigue, and variations in maximum torque, performance, and balance in the dry needling group are more considerable compared to the placebo group.

Keywords: quadriceps muscle fatigue, dry needling, isometric peak torque, single-leg hop test

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
32 Effects of Sprint Training on Athletic Performance Related Physiological, Cardiovascular, and Neuromuscular Parameters

Authors: Asim Cengiz, Dede Basturk, Hakan Ozalp

Abstract:

Practicing recurring resistance workout such as may cause changes in human muscle. These changes may be because combination if several factors determining physical fitness. Thus, it is important to identify these changes. Several studies were reviewed to investigate these changes. As a result, the changes included positive modifications in amplified citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity, increased capacity for pyruvate oxidation, improvement on molecular signaling on human performance, amplified resting muscle glycogen and whole GLUT4 protein content, better health outcomes such as enhancement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Sprint training also have numerous long long-term changes inhuman body such as better enzyme action, changes in muscle fiber and oxidative ability. This is important because SV is the critical factor influencing maximal cardiac output and therefore oxygen delivery and maximal aerobic power.

Keywords: sprint, training, performance, exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
31 Relation of Electromyography, Strength and Fatigue During Ramp Isometric Contractions

Authors: Cesar Ferreira Amorim, Tamotsu Hirata, Runer Augusto Marson

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength ramp isometric contraction on changes in surface electromyography (sEMG) signal characteristics of the hamstrings muscles. All measurements were obtained from 20 healthy well trained healthy adults (age 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs, body mass 63.4 ± 1.5 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.05 m). Subjects had to perform isometric ramp contractions in knee flexion with the force gradually increasing from 0 to 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a 20s period. The root mean square (RMS) amplitude of sEMG signals obtained from the biceps femoris (caput longum) were calculated at four different strength levels (10, 20, 30, and 40% MVC) from the ramp isometric contractions (5s during the 20s task %MVC). The main results were a more pronounced increase non-linear in sEMG-RMS amplitude for the muscles. The protocol described here may provide a useful index for measuring of strength neuromuscular fatigue.

Keywords: biosignal, surface electromyography, ramp contractions, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
30 Orthosis and Finite Elements: A Study for Development of New Designs through Additive Manufacturing

Authors: M. Volpini, D. Alves, A. Horta, M. Borges, P. Reis

Abstract:

The gait pattern in people that present motor limitations foment the demand for auxiliary locomotion devices. These artifacts for movement assistance vary according to its shape, size and functional features, following the clinical applications desired. Among the ortheses of lower limbs, the ankle-foot orthesis aims to improve the ability to walk in people with different neuromuscular limitations, although they do not always answer patients' expectations for their aesthetic and functional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of using new design in additive manufacturer to reproduce the shape and functional features of a ankle-foot orthesis in an efficient and modern way. Therefore, this work presents a study about the performance of the mechanical forces through the analysis of finite elements in an ankle-foot orthesis. It will be demonstrated a study of distribution of the stress on the orthopedic device in orthostatism and during the movement in the course of patient's walk.

Keywords: additive manufacture, new designs, orthoses, finite elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
29 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue

Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
28 High-Intensity, Short-Duration Electric Pulses Induced Action Potential in Animal Nerves

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi

Abstract:

The use of high-intensity, short-duration electric pulses is a promising development with many biomedical applications. The uses include irreversible electroporation for killing abnormal cells, reversible poration for drug and gene delivery, neuromuscular manipulation, and the shrinkage of tumors, etc. High intensity, short-duration electric pulses result in the creation of high-density, nanometer-sized pores in the cellular membrane. This electroporation amounts to localized modulation of the transverse membrane conductance, and effectively provides a voltage shunt. The electrically controlled changes in the trans-membrane conductivity could be used to affect neural traffic and action potential propagation. A rat was taken as the representative example in this research. The simulation study shows the pathway from the sensorimotor cortex down to the spinal motoneurons, and effector muscles could be reversibly blocked by using high-intensity, short-duration electrical pulses. Also, actual experimental observations were compared against simulation predictions.

Keywords: action potential, electroporation, high-intensity, short-duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
27 Cretinism Muscular Hypertrophy: An Unorthodox Reflection

Authors: Harim Mohsin, Afshan Channa, Beena Saad

Abstract:

The Kocher Debre Semelaigne Syndrome (KDSS) is known as cretinism muscular hypertrophy. It is an unusual presentation in intellectually deficit children, commonly associated with congenital or iatrogenic hypothyroidism. The creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) is usually elevated and it’s commonly found in males, consanguineous marriage and ages 18 months to 10 years. It might be misdiagnosed without the classical features of hypothyroidism at first presentation. We present a case of 15 year old intellectually deficit female with epilepsy managed on phenytoin. She had rigidity, myxedema, calf muscle hypertrophy and agitation. The patient was managed as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome due to raised CPK of 40,680 IU/L and mixed presentation. Nevertheless, no improvement was noticed and thyroid profile was done to exclude alternative resources. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 74.5 IU, Free T3 1.22 ng/dl, and Free T4 0.43 ng/dl. Thyroxine was started along with change in antiepileptic leading to recovery. This case report highlights the inconsistent finding of KDSS. The female gender, non-consanguineous marriage, delayed onset with primarily neuromuscular symptoms, and raised CPK is a rare demonstration in KDSS. Additionally, thyroid profile is not routinely done, which can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement.

Keywords: cretinism, hypothyroidism, intellectual deficit, KDSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
26 Comparison of Remifentanil EC50 for Facilitating I-Gel and Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion with Propofol Anesthesia

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Jong Bum Choi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee

Abstract:

Background: Each supraglottic airway requires different anesthetic depth because it has a specific structure and different compressive force in the oropharyngeal cavity. We designed the study to investigate remifentanil effect-site concentration (Ce) in 50% of patients (EC50) for successful insertion of i- gel, and to compare it with that for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI). Methods: Forty-one female patients were randomized to the i-gel group (n=20) or the LMA group (n=21). Anesthesia induction was performed using propofol Ce of 5 μg/ml and the predetermined remifentanil Ce, and i-gel or LMA insertion was attempted 5 min later. The remifentanil Ce was estimated by modified Dixon's up-and-down method (initial concentration: 3.0 ng/ml, step size: 0.5 ng/ml). The patient’s response to device insertion was classified as either ‘success (no movement)’ or ‘failure (movement)’. Results: Using the Dixon’s up and down method, EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel (1.58 ± 0.41 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA (2.25 ± 0.55 ng/ml) (p=0.038). Using isotonic regression, EC50 (83% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [1.50 (1.37-1.80) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [2.00 (1.82-2.34) ng/ml]. EC95 (95% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [2.38 (1.48-2.50) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [3.35 (2.58-3.48) ng/ml]. Conclusion: We found that EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel insertion (1.58 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA insertion (2.25 ng/ml), in female patients during propofol TCI without neuromuscular blockade.

Keywords: i-gel, laryngeal mask airway, propofol, remifentanil

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
25 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli

Abstract:

Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
24 The Change In The Temporomandibular Joint Bone In Osteoarthritis Induced Mice

Authors: Boonyalitpun P., Pruckpattranon P., Thonghom A., Rotpenpian N.

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis is a musculoskeletal and neuromuscular abnormality, masticatory muscle, and other tissue that causes pain and breaks down the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The aim of this study is to investigate the change in the mandibular condyle, in terms of thickness and porosity, and osteoclast marker in the mandibular condyle of TMJ induced osteoarthritis mice (TMJ-OA mice). We investigated the bony changes in the TMJ structure of a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-injected TMJ in a mice model over 28 days. On day 28, we observed any change in the TMJ by a micro computed tomography scan (micro-CT scan) in the parameters of trabecular microarchitecture. Then we studied the thickness of the condyles by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, we calculated the area around the TMJ’s condylar head containing the osteoclast expression by TRAP (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) immunohistochemistry staining. The result found that the parameter of a micro-CT scan was no different from microarchitecture in the TMJ compared with the control group; however, mandibular condyles of the TMJ-OA group was significantly thinner than the control groups, and the osteoclast expression significantly increased in the TMJ-OA group. Therefore, our findings suggest that CFA-induced TMJ-OA represents an expression of osteoclast mandibular condyle of the TMJ, which is the proposed mechanism for a TMJ-OA model.

Keywords: condyle, osteoarthritis, osteoclast, temporomandibular joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
23 Marine Natural Products: A Rich Source of Medicine in Ayurveda, the Ancient Indian Medical Science

Authors: Ashok D. Satpute

Abstract:

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian Medical system is practiced all over India and abroad, is rich in natural source of medicines, including marine products. The marine drugs which prominently used are pravala (coral), mukta (pearl), kapardika (cowry).Shukti (oyster shell), shankha (conch), agnijara (amber) etc. Except agnijara (amber) all are rich in calcium. Interestingly they are not used as supplements in calcium deficiency as done in conventional medical practice. They are used as medicines in the disease like fever, tuberculosis, bleeding disorders, eye problems, digestive complaints etc. Many scientific studies have shown their potent medicinal value. Each has its own properties and used therapeutically after subjecting them to various purificatory processes which are called shodhana in which several medicinal plants are used which also help in enhancing therapeutical activity. Then these purified marine products are subjected to marana (incineration) process and obtained in the form of Bhasma (a finest form of medicine). Agnijara, a derivative of whale is useful as aphrodisiac and prescribed in neuromuscular disorders and tetanus. The ancient scriptures written in Sanskrit language thousands of years back have rich information about all these natural marine products and their medicinal usage.

Keywords: Ayurveda, bhasma, marana, shodhana

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
22 The Contribution of the PCR-Enzymatic Digestion in the Positive Diagnosis of Proximal Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the Moroccan Population

Authors: H. Merhni, A. Sbiti, I. Ratbi, A. Sefiani

Abstract:

The proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to the degeneration and loss of anterior motor neurons of the spinal cord. Depending on the age of onset of symptoms and their evolution, four types of SMA, varying in severity, result in a mutations of the SMN gene (survival of Motor neuron). We have analyzed the DNA of 295 patients referred to our genetic counseling; since January 1996 until October 2014; for suspected SMA. The homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN gene was found in 133 patients; of which, 40.6% were born to consanguineous parents. In countries like Morocco, where the frequency of heterozygotes for SMA is high, genetic testing should be offered as first-line and, after careful clinical assessment, especially in newborns and infants with congenital hypotonia unexplained and prognosis compromise. The molecular diagnosis of SMA allows a quick and certainly diagnosis, provide adequate genetic counseling for families at risk and suggest, for couples who want prenatal diagnosis. The analysis of the SMN gene is a perfect example of genetic testing with an excellent cost/benefit ratio that can be of great interest in public health, especially in low-income countries. We emphasize in this work for the benefit of the generalization of molecular diagnosis of SMA by the technique of PCR-enzymatic digestion in other centers in Morocco.

Keywords: Exon7, PCR-digestion, SMA, SMN gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
21 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band

Abstract:

Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: facial nerve palsy, treatment, physiotherapy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
20 Core Stability Training and the Young Para-Swimmers’ Results on 50 Meters and 100 Meters Freestyle

Authors: Ninomyslaw Jakubczyk, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk

Abstract:

Background: Central stabilisation training aims to improve neuromuscular coordination. It is used in the form of injury prevention and completing the swimmers' process. The aim of the study was to access the impact of this training on the results by disabled swimmers at 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Material/Method: 20 competitors with similar dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, randomly assigned to the experimental and control group, participated in the study. Each group consisted of 7 swimmers started in competitions from the standing starting position, and 3 started from the water. The study included a 4-week set of stabilization exercises, 4 times a week instead of pulling by legs. Exercises were held under specialist swimming conditions and involved controlled circuit muscle movements while maintaining a floating stable position in the water. Results: All groups improved their 'best times' besides swimmers started from standing position in the control group. There were no significant differences between intergroup and intra-group results, both at distance 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Conclusions: Better improvements in the experimental group were noted, but this effect cannot be attributed to 4-week stabilisation training. However, this investigation might suggest that this type of training could be beneficial for junior disabled swimmers.

Keywords: athletes, swimming, trunk exercises, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
19 The Beneficial Effects of Hydrotherapy for Recovery from Team Sport – A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

To speed/enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within the high-level team sport. Initially, research into CWI and CWT protocols and recovery was sparse; athletes relied solely upon an anecdotal support. However, an increase into recovery research has occurred. A number of reviews have subsequently been conducted to clarify scientific evidence. However, as the nature of physiological stress and training status of participants will impact on results, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus to a more exacting review evaluating hydrotherapy for recovery in a team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. 23 peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was likely beneficial for recovery at 24h (Countermovement Jump (CMJ): p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801; DOMS: p=0.08, CI -0.092 to 1.936) and at 72h (accumulated sprinting: p=0.07, CI -0.062 to 1.209; DOMS: p=0.09, CI -0.121 to 1.555) following team sport. Whereas CWT was likely beneficial for recovery at 1h (CMJ: p= 0.07, CI -0.004 to 0.863) and at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. Athlete’s perceptions of muscle soreness and fatigue are enhanced with CWI and/or CWT, however even though CWI and CWT were beneficial in attenuating decrements in neuromuscular performance 24 hours following team sport, indications are those benefits were no longer Sydney evident 48 hours following team sport.

Keywords: cold water immersion, contrast water therapy, recovery, team sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 441