Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: gothic

8 True Detective as a Southern Gothic: A Study of Its Music-Lyrics

Authors: Divya Sharma

Abstract:

Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective offers profound mythological and philosophical ramblings for audiences with literary sensibilities. An American Sothern Gothic with its bayon landscape of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, where two detectives Rustin Cohle and Martin Hart begin investigating the isolated murder of Dora Lange, only to discover an entrenched network of perversion and corruption, offers an existential outlook. The proposed research paper shall attempt to investigate the pervasive themes of gothic and existentialism in the music of the first season of the series.

Keywords: gothic, music, existentialism, mythology, philosophy

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7 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: P. Nafisi Poor, P. Javid

Abstract:

Religion and divinity have always held important meaning to humans, and therefore it affects different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. Religion and religious scholars have influenced and changed art throughout history. This paper focuses on Islam and Christianity because these two religions have been the most discussed and most popular of all time, starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Based on this popularity, these religions have influenced the arts and especially architecture. Islam on one hand changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day, Islamic architecture has been evolving; however, one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD and 1736 AD in Iran. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD and 1450 AD or the so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at medieval time and reaches its peak at International Gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article studies the focus on the religions of Islam and Christianity in terms of architecture and presents a general philosophy of both styles to comprehend the idea behind each one, followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of each building is provided including 3D visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and research towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: architecture, Gothic, Islamic, religion

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6 Creator and Creation: Mary Shelley’s Monstrous ‘Last Men’ in 'Frankenstein' and 'The Last Man'

Authors: Courtney Laurey Davids

Abstract:

Mary Shelley’s two 19th century novels, the seminal Frankenstein (1818) and the less popular The Last Man (1826) draw on Gothic elements that invite a futuristic questioning and critique of man’s fallibility and propensity to be the author of his own demise be it by transgressing natural law through a scientific endeavour or ‘birthing’ a plague. Recent scholarship about ‘prophetic’ voices in fiction considers The Last Man an influential but overlooked novel deserving of renewed scholarly interest. Through close textual analysis and comparative reading, this paper seeks to explore the continuities (and discontinuities) in thematic concern of creator and creation in Frankenstein and The Last Man, emblematic in the oppositional characters of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature and Adrian, Earl of Windsor and Lionel Verney, his ‘creation’ in The Last Man. It argues that the creator/creation dynamic between Frankenstein and the Creature is to an extent revisited and inverted in Adrian and Verney but presented as no less problematic in The Last Man’s critique of man’s inevitable folly despite nurturing and acceptance of the marginalised figure. Drawing on Romanticism ideals of nature, its foregrounding of a scourging pandemic as punishment for man’s self-dislocation and with nature is a mirroring of Frankenstein and the Creature’s own plague-like deterioration and alienation from self and nature. In a sense, both Verney and the Creature as solitary figures at the novels' denouement are ‘last men’, having learned much about man and society and upon whom the moral injunction rests. In Verney, however, the moral warning coupled with the hope that man can yet be saved offers a different reading perhaps from Frankenstein regarding the creator/creation dichotomy.

Keywords: creator/creation, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, The Gothic, The Last Man

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5 Understanding New Zealand’s 19th Century Timber Churches: Techniques in Extracting and Applying Underlying Procedural Rules

Authors: Samuel McLennan, Tane Moleta, Andre Brown, Marc Aurel Schnabel

Abstract:

The development of Ecclesiastical buildings within New Zealand has produced some unique design characteristics that take influence from both international styles and local building methods. What this research looks at is how procedural modelling can be used to define such common characteristics and understand how they are shared and developed within different examples of a similar architectural style. This will be achieved through the creation of procedural digital reconstructions of the various timber Gothic Churches built during the 19th century in the city of Wellington, New Zealand. ‘Procedural modelling’ is a digital modelling technique that has been growing in popularity, particularly within the game and film industry, as well as other fields such as industrial design and architecture. Such a design method entails the creation of a parametric ‘ruleset’ that can be easily adjusted to produce many variations of geometry, rather than a single geometry as is typically found in traditional CAD software. Key precedents within this area of digital heritage includes work by Haegler, Müller, and Gool, Nicholas Webb and Andre Brown, and most notably Mark Burry. What these precedents all share is how the forms of the reconstructed architecture have been generated using computational rules and an understanding of the architects’ geometric reasoning. This is also true within this research as Gothic architecture makes use of only a select range of forms (such as the pointed arch) that can be accurately replicated using the same standard geometric techniques originally used by the architect. The methodology of this research involves firstly establishing a sample group of similar buildings, documenting the existing samples, researching any lost samples to find evidence such as architectural plans, photos, and written descriptions, and then culminating all the findings into a single 3D procedural asset within the software ‘Houdini’. The end result will be an adjustable digital model that contains all the architectural components of the sample group, such as the various naves, buttresses, and windows. These components can then be selected and arranged to create visualisations of the sample group. Because timber gothic churches in New Zealand share many details between designs, the created collection of architectural components can also be used to approximate similar designs not included in the sample group, such as designs found beyond the Wellington Region. This creates an initial library of architectural components that can be further expanded on to encapsulate as wide of a sample size as desired. Such a methodology greatly improves upon the efficiency and adjustability of digital modelling compared to current practices found in digital heritage reconstruction. It also gives greater accuracy to speculative design, as a lack of evidence for lost structures can be approximated using components from still existing or better-documented examples. This research will also bring attention to the cultural significance these types of buildings have within the local area, addressing the public’s general unawareness of architectural history that is identified in the Wellington based research ‘Moving Images in Digital Heritage’ by Serdar Aydin et al.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital heritage, gothic architecture, Houdini, procedural modelling

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4 State of Conservation of the British Colonial Architectural Heritage of Karachi: Case Study of Damage Mapping of Empress Market Building

Authors: Tania Ali Soomro

Abstract:

In 1839, the British, after the annexation of the port city of Karachi, established a new urban centre consisting of various quarters and introduced new settlements there. These quarters were out of the boundaries of fortified native old area and now contain much of the oldest parts of the city and signify the colonial history of Karachi, in particular the Saddar Bazaar and the neighboring areas of Kharadar and Mithadar. These quarters bestow a mix of functional typology built in a hybrid form of construction - an adaptation of the western architectural attributes to regional requirements and characteristics. This approach is referred to as the Anglo Vernacular, Colonial or the Domestic Gothic architectural form. This research paper investigates the historical and architectural value of one such property: the Empress Market designed by then Municipal Architect, Ar. James Strachan in 1889 as a commemorative monument for the jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Victoria; Empress of British India, at that time. This paper presents information on the present conservation status of the market building and highlights its role as a catalyst to the community interconnection. This building has survived to present day and functioned well, despite undergoing numerous transformations. A detailed analysis of the bio-degradation (Natural-Chemical dissolution of material) and the bio-deterioration (Manmade-Negative state change of the material) of the building, based on the examination of the prevailing causes of these bio-alterations is carried out, and is presented in form of a damage atlas containing both the categories of bio-alteration/ changes occurred to the building over the time. The research methodology followed in this paper starts with the available archival analysis, physical observation, photographic documentation, the statistics review and the interviews with the direct and indirect stakeholders. The results and findings of this research portray that these bio-alterations and changes are the essential part of the life cycle of Empress Market building which illustrate the historic development of the premise and therefore ought to be given due importance (depending upon their condition) while developing the conservation plan for the building.

Keywords: British colonial architecture, bio-alteration, bio-degradation, bio-deterioration, domestic gothic architectural form

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3 Modelling Medieval Vaults: Digital Simulation of the North Transept Vault of St Mary, Nantwich, England

Authors: N. Webb, A. Buchanan

Abstract:

Digital and virtual heritage is often associated with the recreation of lost artefacts and architecture; however, we can also investigate works that were not completed, using digital tools and techniques. Here we explore physical evidence of a fourteenth-century Gothic vault located in the north transept of St Mary’s church in Nantwich, Cheshire, using existing springer stones that are built into the walls as a starting point. Digital surveying tools are used to document the architecture, followed by an analysis process to hypothesise and simulate possible design solutions, had the vault been completed. A number of options, both two-dimensionally and three-dimensionally, are discussed based on comparison with examples of other contemporary vaults, thus adding another specimen to the corpus of vault designs. Dissemination methods such as digital models and 3D prints are also explored as possible resources for demonstrating what the finished vault might have looked like for heritage interpretation and other purposes.

Keywords: digital simulation, heritage interpretation, medieval vaults, virtual heritage, 3d scanning

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2 Architecture of Contemporary Museums Located in the Historic Center of Cracow: One City, One Architect, Three Projects

Authors: A. Brach

Abstract:

The architecture of modern museums in the historical center should refer to a place in a cultural, historical, urban and architectural sense, using adequate and contemporary forms of architecture. The research and architectural analysis of selected museums in Cracow were conducted to illustrate which elements were decisive for the choice of architectural form. The evaluation of selected objects took into the consideration the following aspects: continuation of the historical form, contemporary form referring to the place, the individual-author form omitting the cultural aspect of the place. The presented projects showed the compromise as positive solutions rejecting both the direct imitation or 'historical continuation' as well as an individual form focused on an abstract form. In order to carry out research and confirm the thesis, three designs of Assoc. Prof. Eng. Arch. Krzysztof Ingarden in the historic city of Cracow were selected. Despite being constructed in one city, the neighborhood and cultural contexts of the locations are completely different. The neighborhood of the historical Royal Road and gothic church with unique decorations from the Polish Art Nouveau, artist Stanislaw Wyspianski (Wyspianski Pavilion), the bend of the Vistula hosting the Japanese culture (Museum of Japanese Art and Technology Manggha) and finally the old area of a horse riding school from the Austrian Empire times (Malopolska Garden of Art). All three buildings are dedicated to the culture of Japan, Polish artist Stanislaw Wyspianski, contemporary achievements and the promotion of art at its widest sense. Important fact for this research is that there is one author of all presented projects.

Keywords: adaptation of existing buildings, architecture in cracow, modern architecture, museums located in historic center

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1 Guiding Urban Development in a Traditional Neighbourhood: Case Application of Kolkata

Authors: Nabamita Nath, Sanghamitra Sarkar

Abstract:

Urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of cities is undergoing a sea change due to imposition of irregular development patterns on a predominantly inclusive urban fabric. In recent times, traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata have experienced irregular urban development which has resulted in transformation of its immediate urban character. The goal is to study and analyse impact of new urban developments within traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata and establish development guidelines to balance the old with the new. Various cities predominantly in third world countries are also experiencing similar development patterns in their traditional neighbourhoods. Existing literature surveys of development patterns in such neighbourhoods have established 9 major parameters viz. edge, movement, node, landmark, size-density, pattern-grain-texture, open spaces, urban spaces, urban form and views-vistas of the neighbourhood. To evaluate impact of urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata, 3 different areas have been chronologically selected based on their settlement patterns. Parameters established through literature surveys have been applied to the selected areas to study and analyse the existing patterns of development. The main sources of this study included extensive on-site surveys, academic archive, census data, organisational records and informational websites. Applying the established parameters, 5 major conclusions were derived. Firstly, it was found that pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods of the city were becoming more car-centric. This has resulted in loss of interactive and social spaces which defined the cultural heritage of Kolkata. Secondly, the urban pattern which was composed of dense and compact fabric is gradually losing its character due to incorporation of new building typologies. Thirdly, the new building typologies include gated communities with private open spaces which is a stark departure from the existing built typology. However, these open spaces have not contributed in creation of inclusive public places for the community which are a significant part of such heritage neighbourhood precincts. Fourthly, commercial zones that primarily developed along major access routes have now infiltrated within these neighbourhoods. Gated communities do not favour formation of on-street commercial activities generating haphazard development patterns. Lastly, individual residential buildings that reflected Indo-saracenic and Neo-gothic architectural styles are converting into multi-storeyed residential apartments. As a result, the axis that created a definite visual identity for a neighbourhood is progressively following an irregular pattern. Thus, uniformity of the old skyline is gradually becoming inconsistent. The major issue currently is threat caused by irregular urban development to heritage zones and buildings of traditional neighbourhoods. Streets, lanes, courtyards, open spaces and buildings of old neighbourhoods imparted a unique cultural identity to the city that is disappearing with emerging urban development patterns. It has been concluded that specific guidelines for urban development should be regulated primarily based on existing urban form of traditional neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhood development strategies should be formulated for various cities of third world countries to control irregular developments thereby balancing heritage and development.

Keywords: heritage, Kolkata, traditional neighbourhood, urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 109