Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: Paulo Cesar Gregorio

252 The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Issue and Ideological Congruence of Trump and Bolsonaro Administrations

Authors: Flavio Contrera, Paulo Cesar Gregorio

Abstract:

Recent political developments and government control actions in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic draw attention to the contrast between the duties of government and the demands of democratic representation. Elected by mobilizing far-right issues, Trump and Bolsonaro moved away from the WHO guidelines but had to accommodate demands on the health and on the social protection system on the one hand and demands from the economic sector on the other. This study used the MARPOR Project method to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the issue and ideological congruence between the electoral and governmental arena in both the Trump and Bolsonaro Administrations. Findings reveal issue congruence between arenas in "National Way of Life: Positive", "Law and Order," and "Technology and Infrastructure" for Donald Trump, and "Welfare State Expansion" for Bolsonaro. Ideological estimation results show that Trump and Bolsonaro positioned to the right in their presidential elections, initially moved to the center-right. However, welfare policies actions at high frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic moved the ideological estimations of both governments to the center-left, despite their denial rhetoric.

Keywords: congruence, COVID-19, Donald Trump, Jair Bolsonaro

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
251 Patchwork City: An Affective Map for a Patchwork Zone

Authors: Maria Lucília Borges

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This article presents the creation and design process of the "patchwork map" made for the project “Santo Amaro em Rede” (Santo Amaro on Web). The project was carried out in 2009 by SESC – SP – Brazil (Social Service for the Commerce of São Paulo) in partnership with Instituto Pólis. It is a mapping of socio-cultural dynamics of São Paulo’s South Zone and neighboring municipalities.

Keywords: affective map, cartography, São Paulo city, space, patchwork

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
250 Depollution of the Pinheiros River in the City of São Paulo: Mapping the Dynamics of Conflicts and Coalitions between Actors in Two Recent Depollution Projects

Authors: Adalberto Gregorio Back

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Historically, the Pinheiros River, which crosses the urban area of the largest South American metropolis, the city of São Paulo, has been the subject of several interventions involving different interests and multiple demands, including the implementation of road axes and industrial occupation in the city, following its floodplains. the dilution of sewers; generation of electricity, with the reversal of its waters to the Billings Dam; and urban drainage. These processes, together with the exclusionary and peripheral urban sprawl with high population density in the peripheries, result in difficulties for the collection and treatment of household sewage, which flow into the tributaries and the Pinheiros River itself. In the last 20 years, two separate projects have been undertaken to clean up its waters. The first one between 2001-2011 was the flotation system, aimed at cleaning the river in its own gutter with equipment installed near the Bilings Dam; and, more recently, from 2019 to 2022, the proposal to connect about 74 thousand dwellings to the sewage collection and treatment system, as well as to install treatment plants in the tributaries of Pinheiros where the connection to the system is impracticable, given the irregular occupations. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis on the dynamics of conflicts, interests and opportunities of coalitions between the actors involved in the two referred projects of pollution of the Pinheiros River. For this, we use the analysis of documents produced by the state government; as well as documents related to the legal disputes that occurred in the first attempt of decontamination involving the sanitation company; the Billings Dam management company interested in power generation; the city hall and regular and irregular dwellings not linked to the sanitation system.

Keywords: depollution of the Pinheiros River, interests groups, São Paulo, water energy nexus

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
249 The Perspective of Waste Frying Oil in São Paulo and Its Dimensions in the Reverse Logistics of the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Max Filipe Goncalves, Alessandra Concilio, Rodrigo Shimada

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The waste frying oil is highly pollutant when disposed incorrectly in the environment. Is necessary search of the Reverse Logistics to identify how can be structure to return the waste like this to productive chain and to be used in the new process. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the perspective of the waste frying oil in São Paulo, and its dimensions in the production of biodiesel. Subjacent factors such as the agents, motivators and legal aspects were analyzed to demonstrate it. Then, the SWOT matrix was built with the aspects observed and the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the reverse logistic chain in São Paulo.

Keywords: biodiesel, perspective, reverse logistic, WFO

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
248 Satellite Interferometric Investigations of Subsidence Events Associated with Groundwater Extraction in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: B. Mendonça, D. Sandwell

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The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) has suffered from serious water scarcity. Consequently, the most convenient solution has been building wells to extract groundwater from local aquifers. However, it requires constant vigilance to prevent over extraction and future events that can pose serious threat to the population, such as subsidence. Radar imaging techniques (InSAR) have allowed continuous investigation of such phenomena. The analysis of data in the present study consists of 23 SAR images dated from October 2007 to March 2011, obtained by the ALOS-1 spacecraft. Data processing was made with the software GMTSAR, by using the InSAR technique to create pairs of interferograms with ground displacement during different time spans. First results show a correlation between the location of 102 wells registered in 2009 and signals of ground displacement equal or lower than -90 millimeters (mm) in the region. The longest time span interferogram obtained dates from October 2007 to March 2010. As a result, from that interferogram, it was possible to detect the average velocity of displacement in millimeters per year (mm/y), and which areas strong signals have persisted in the MRSP. Four specific areas with signals of subsidence of 28 mm/y to 40 mm/y were chosen to investigate the phenomenon: Guarulhos (Sao Paulo International Airport), the Greater Sao Paulo, Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul. The coverage area of the signals was between 0.6 km and 1.65 km of length. All areas are located above a sedimentary type of aquifer. Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul showed signals varying from 28 mm/y to 32 mm/y. On the other hand, the places most likely to be suffering from stronger subsidence are the ones in the Greater Sao Paulo and Guarulhos, right beside the International Airport of Sao Paulo. The rate of displacement observed in both regions goes from 35 mm/y to 40 mm/y. Previous investigations of the water use at the International Airport highlight the risks of excessive water extraction that was being done through 9 deep wells. Therefore, it is affirmed that subsidence events are likely to occur and to cause serious damage in the area. This study could show a situation that has not been explored with proper importance in the city, given its social and economic consequences. Since the data were only available until 2011, the question that remains is if the situation still persists. It could be reaffirmed, however, a scenario of risk at the International Airport of Sao Paulo that needs further investigation.

Keywords: ground subsidence, Interferometric Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR), metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, water extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
247 Comparison of Classical Computer Vision vs. Convolutional Neural Networks Approaches for Weed Mapping in Aerial Images

Authors: Paulo Cesar Pereira Junior, Alexandre Monteiro, Rafael da Luz Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Sobieranski, Aldo von Wangenheim

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In this paper, we present a comparison between convolutional neural networks and classical computer vision approaches, for the specific precision agriculture problem of weed mapping on sugarcane fields aerial images. A systematic literature review was conducted to find which computer vision methods are being used on this specific problem. The most cited methods were implemented, as well as four models of convolutional neural networks. All implemented approaches were tested using the same dataset, and their results were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The obtained results were compared to a human expert made ground truth for validation. The results indicate that the convolutional neural networks present better precision and generalize better than the classical models.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, digital image processing, precision agriculture, semantic segmentation, unmanned aerial vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
246 Assessment of the Interface Strength between High-Density Polyethylene Geomembrane and Expanded Polystyrene by the Direct Shear Test

Authors: Sergio Luiz da Costa Junior, Carolina Fofonka Palomino, Paulo Cesar Lodi

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The use of light landfills is an effective solution for road works in soft ground sites, such as Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Santos (SP) - the Southeastern Brazilian coast. The technique consists in replacing the topsoil by expandable polystyrene (EPS) geofoam, lined with geomembrane to prevent the attack of chemical products.Thus, knowing the interface shear strength of those materials is important in projects to avoid rupturing the system. The purpose of this paper is to compare the shear strength in the geomembrane-EPS interfaces by the direct shear test. The tests were performed under the dry and saturated condition, and four kind of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 2,00mm geomembranes were used, smooth and texturized - manufactured in the flat die and blown film process. It was found that the shear strength is directly influenced by the roughness of the geomembrane, showed higher friction angle in the textured geomembrane. The direct shear test, in the saturated condition, also showed smaller friction angle than the now-wetted test.

Keywords: geofoam, geomembrane, soft ground, strength shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
245 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Carlos Roberto Valêncio, Fábio Renato de Almeida, Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini

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By running transactions under the Snapshot isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, Snapshot is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with Snapshot by using some special triggers that we named Daemon Triggers. Besides keeping the benefits of the Snapshot isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the Snapshot isolation and show how to preclude them with Daemon Triggers. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: Daemon Snapshot.

Keywords: data consistency, serialization, snapshot, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
244 Generation of Medical Waste in Hospitals in Interior of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Silvia Carla Da Silva André, Angela Maria Magosso Takayanagui

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Introduction: The Medical Waste (MW) are responsible per 2% of total waste generated for a city and has merited attention due the risks that offers to the public health and environment, representing an important aspect in waste management. In Brazil, the Resolution 306/04 of the National Health Surveillance Agency classifies the MW into 5 groups as follows: Group A (GA) biological, Group B (GB) chemical, Group C (GC) radioactive waste, Group D (GD) common, and Group E (GE) sharps. Objective: This study aimed to determine the amount of waste generated in hospitals of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Material and Methods: This is a field research, exploratory, using quantitative variables. The survey was conducted in 11 hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is noted that the study sample included general hospitals, skilled, university, maternity, and psychiatric; public, private, and philanthropic; and large, medium, and small. To quantify the MW, the weighing of the waste was held for six days, following methodology adapted from PAHO. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, determining the average global generation of MW and for each group. This research was carried out after approval by the Ethics in Research of the University of São Paulo. Thus, in order to comply with the ethical principles of research, to present the results hospitals were numbered from 1 to 11. Results: The data revealed a greater generation of biological waste among teaching hospitals, which can be justified by the use of materials for the realization of techniques.

Keywords: environmental health, management of medical waste, medical waste, public health

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243 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
242 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine Cristina Barboza, Antonio Jaschke Machado

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This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis, and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate

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241 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

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Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ashes are mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESAR-LCPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
240 The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use

Authors: Giselly Barros Rodrigues, Carlos Leite de Souza

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In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.

Keywords: urbanity, space for public use, appropriation of space, segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
239 Spatio-Temporal Changes of Rainfall in São Paulo, Brazil (1973-2012): A Gamma Distribution and Cluster Analysis

Authors: Guilherme Henrique Gabriel, Lucí Hidalgo Nunes

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An important feature of rainfall regimes is the variability, which is subject to the atmosphere’s general and regional dynamics, geographical position and relief. Despite being inherent to the climate system, it can harshly impact virtually all human activities. In turn, global climate change has the ability to significantly affect smaller-scale rainfall regimes by altering their current variability patterns. In this regard, it is useful to know if regional climates are changing over time and whether it is possible to link these variations to climate change trends observed globally. This study is part of an international project (Metropole-FAPESP, Proc. 2012/51876-0 and Proc. 2015/11035-5) and the objective was to identify and evaluate possible changes in rainfall behavior in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, using rainfall data from 79 rain gauges for the last forty years. Cluster analysis and gamma distribution parameters were used for evaluating spatial and temporal trends, and the outcomes are presented by means of geographic information systems tools. Results show remarkable changes in rainfall distribution patterns in São Paulo over the years: changes in shape and scale parameters of gamma distribution indicate both an increase in the irregularity of rainfall distribution and the probability of occurrence of extreme events. Additionally, the spatial outcome of cluster analysis along with the gamma distribution parameters suggest that changes occurred simultaneously over the whole area, indicating that they could be related to remote causes beyond the local and regional ones, especially in a current global climate change scenario.

Keywords: climate change, cluster analysis, gamma distribution, rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
238 Biological Institute Actions for Bovine Mastitis Monitoring in Low Income Dairy Farms, Brazil: Preliminary Data

Authors: Vanessa Castro, Liria H. Okuda, Daniela P. Chiebao, Adriana H. C. N. Romaldini, Harumi Hojo, Marina Grandi, Joao Paulo A. Silva, Alessandra F. C. Nassar

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The Biological Institute of Sao Paulo, in partnership with a private company, develops an Animal Health Family Farming Program (Prosaf) to enable communication among smallholder farmers and scientists, on-farm consulting and lectures, solving health questions that will benefit agricultural productivity. In Vale do Paraiba region, a dairy region of Sao Paulo State, southern Brazil, many of these types of farms are found with several milk quality problems. Most of these farms are profit-based business; however, with non-technified cattle rearing systems and uncertain veterinary assistance. Feedback from Prosaf showed that the biggest complaints from farmers were low milk production, sick animals and, mainly, loss of selling price due to a high somatic cell count (SCC) and a total bacterial count (TBC). The aims of this study were to improve milk quality, animal hygiene and herd health status by adjustments into general management practices and introducing techniques of sanitary control and milk monitoring in five dairy farms from Sao Jose do Barreiro municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, to increase their profits. A total of 119 milk samples from 56 animals positive for California Mastitis Test (CMT) were collected. The positive CMT indicates subclinical mastitis, therefore laboratorial exams were performed in the milk (microbiological, biochemical and antibiogram test) detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (41.8%), Bacillus sp. (11.8%), Streptococcus sp. (2.1%), nonfermenting, motile and oxidase-negative Gram-negative Bacilli (2.1%) and Enterobacter (2.1%). Antibiograms revealed high resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, probably due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics without veterinarian prescription. We suggested the improvement of hygiene management in the complete milking and cooling tanks system. Using the results of the laboratory tests, animals were properly treated, and the effects observed were better CMT outcomes, lower SCCs, and TBCs leading to an increase in milk pricing. This study will have a positive impact on the family farmers from Sao Paulo State dairy region by improving their market milk competitiveness.

Keywords: milk, family farming, food quality, antibiogram, profitability

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237 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin

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Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

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236 Absenteeism of Nursing Staff in Emergency Care Units of a City in the Interior of SãO Paulo

Authors: B. P. G. Figueira, I. C. Pinto, D. Ferro, F. C. M. Zacharias

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The absenteeism at work constitutes in a temporary absence of labor functions resulting from various reasons, bringing damage to production, increasing costs of care and overburdening other workers, has its principal cause due to illness, often due exposure to several risks in the workplace. This study aims to know, identify and analyze the types and causes of absenteeism, such as the frequency at which it occurs by professional category, for employment contract and days not worked in Emergency Care Public in a city in the interior of São Paulo. We conducted exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, with nursing professionals, after selection of inclusion criteria was reached a universe of 208 subjects, the data collected are for the years from 2010-2013. Research has shown that the professional category of nursing assistant had 88,11% of total absenteeism, absenteeism lasting 1 day was the with the highest frequency, the women were responsible for 74,80% of absenteeism disease. It was concluded that absenteeism shall be monitored to plan control actions, establishing better political for the management of human resources, because it can be an aggravating factor in the quality of care.

Keywords: absenteeism; nursing; emergency medical services, human resource

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
235 Congenital Malformations in Neonate Dogs in the Sao Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

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Congenital malformations are organ defects due to genetic or teratogenic causes, which can lead to high mortality in dog litters. This study assessed and described the congenital malformations in newborn dogs. The study included litters attend in the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. One hundred seventy-eight litters and 803 newborns were evaluated. The occurrence of litters with malformations was 24.7%, and of newborns was 6.7%. Twenty-seven different malformations were registered: anasarca, anal atresia, cleft lip, cleft palate, duplicated right ribcage, equinovarus, exencephaly, gastroschisis, hydrocephaly, lissencephaly, macroglossia, microphthalmia, mitral valve dysplasia, omphalocele, eyelid agenesis, persistent urachus, polydactyly, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary valve stenosis, rectovaginal fistula, agenesis of abdominal muscles, rib hypoplasia, scoliosis, segmental aplasia of the intestines, tricuspid valve dysplasia, unilateral kidney agenesis, and vaginal atresia. 68.7% of newborns died as a result of malformations. The pure breeds with the highest chances of manifesting malformations in contrast with mixed breeds were French Bulldog, Pug, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, German Spitz, Pinscher, Pitbull, Yorkshire Terrier, and Shih-Tzu. Significant values (P<0.05) occurred in races French Bulldogs and Pugs. The causes of congenital disabilities are possibly related to hereditary genetic factors considering that the highest incidence of malformations was observed among purebreds. There as one case of exposure to a teratogenic agent, but no other mothers were exposed to such agents during pregnancy. Two cases of consanguineal breeding between siblings were reported. The mortality rate was high. Genetic breeding programs for reproduction, avoiding consanguineous mating, care in choosing parents, and avoiding maternal exposure to teratogenic agents are of utmost importance in reducing dog malformations and consequent mortality.

Keywords: congenital defects, teratogenesis, canine neonatology, newborn puppy

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234 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez

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Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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233 Scaling out Sustainable Land Use Systems in Colombia: Some Insights and Implications from Two Regional Case Studies

Authors: Martha Lilia Del Rio Duque, Michelle Bonatti, Katharina Loehr, Marcos Lana, Tatiana Rodriguez, Stefan Sieber

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Nowadays, most agricultural practices can reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services. To enhance environmentally friendly food production and to maximize social and economic benefits, sustainable land use systems (SLUS) are one of the most critical strategies increasingly/strongly promoted by donors organizations, international agencies, and policymakers. This process involves the question of how SLUS can be scaled out also large-scale landscapes and not merely isolated experiments. As SLUS are context-specific strategies, diffusion and replication of successful SLUS in Colombia required the identification of main factors that facilitate this scaling out process. We applied a case study approach to investigate the scaling out process of SLUS in cocoa and livestock sector within peacebuilding territories in Colombia, specifically, in Cesar and Caqueta region. These two regions are contrasting, but both have a current trend of increasing land degradation. Presently in Colombia, Caqueta is one of the most deforested departments, and Cesar has some most degraded soils. Following a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted with agroforestry experts in both regions to analyze (1) what does it mean a sustainable land use system in Cocoa/Livestock, specifically in Caqueta or Cesar and (2) to identify the key elements at the level of the following dimensions: biophysical, economic and profitability, market, social, policy and institutions that can explain how and why SLUS are replicated and spread among more producers. The Interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA to identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within data. As the results show, key themes, among which: premium market, solid regional markets and price stability, water availability and management, generational renewal, land use knowledge and diversification, producer organization and certifications are crucial to understand how the SLUS can have an impact across large-scale landscapes and how the scaling out process can be set up best in order to be successful across different contexts. The analysis further reveals which key factors might affect SLUS efficiency.

Keywords: agroforestry, cocoa sector, Colombia, livestock sector, sustainable land use system

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232 Restoring, Revitalizing and Recovering Brazilian Rivers: Application of the Concept to Small Basins in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Juliana C. Alencar, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto

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Watercourses in Brazilian urban areas are constantly being degraded due to the unplanned use of the urban space; however, due to the different contexts of land use and occupation in the river watersheds, different intervention strategies are required to requalify them. When it comes to requalifying watercourses, we can list three main techniques to fulfill this purpose: restoration, revitalization and recovery; each one being indicated for specific contexts of land use and occupation in the basin. In this study, it was demonstrated that the application of these three techniques to three small basins in São Paulo city, listing the aspects involved in each of the contexts and techniques of requalification. For a protected watercourse within a forest park, renaturalization was proposed, where the watercourse is preserved in a state closer to the natural one. For a watercourse in an urban context that still preserves open spaces for its maintenance as a landscape element, an intervention was proposed following the principles of revitalization, integrating the watercourse with the landscape and the population. In the case of a watercourse in a harder context, only recovery was proposed, since the watercourse is found under the road system, which makes it difficult to integrate it into the landscape.

Keywords: sustainable drainage, river restoration, river revitalization, river recovery

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231 Hydro-Sedimentological Evaluation in Itajurú Channel–Araruama Lagoon-Rj, Due Superelevation of the Sea Level by Climate Change

Authors: Paulo José Sigaúque, Paulo Rosman

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The Itajurú channel, located in the Eastern side of the Araruama lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, is the one who makes the connection between Araruama lagoon and the sea. It is important to understand the hydrodynamic circulation of the location and effects of the sedimentological processes, and also estimate of the hydrodynamic and sedimentological processes in the future after the sea level change due to effects of climate change. This work presents results of a study about sediments dynamics in the Araruama lagoon focusing on the Itajurú channel region considering the present mean sea level and a foreseen sea level rise of 0.5 meters due to climate changes. The study was conducted with the aid of computer modeling for hydrodynamic and morphodynamic in SisBaHiA®. The results indicate that Araruama lagoon is composed by two hydrodynamics compartments; one is dominated by the action of the tide between the entrance of the channel and the strait of Perynas, and another one by the action of wind in narrow region between strait of Perynas and western extreme of the lagoon. With sea level rise, the magnitude of current velocities and flow rates is increased and consequently flow of sediment transport from upstream to downstream of Itajurú channel is increased and has more effect in the bridge Feliciano Sodré.

Keywords: hydrodinamic, superelevation, sea level, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
230 Anthropocentric and Ecocentric Representation of Human-Environment Relationship in Paulo Coelho's the Alchemist

Authors: Tooba Sabir, Namra Sabir, Mohammad Amjad Sabir

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The human-environment relationship has been projected since the beginning of literary tradition i.e. pastoral tradition, however, the interest of critics, writers and poets, in this view, has been developed, since the last couple of decades because of the increasing scope of environmental studies and growing environmental issues. One such novel, that projects human-environment relationship, is ‘The Alchemist.’ It is Paulo Coelho’s one of the most read novels. It holds a central theme that the universe conspires to help a person achieve his destiny, projecting anthropocentrism and human domination by centralizing human and devaluing the intrinsic worth of ecosystem. However, ecocritical analysis of the text reveals that the novel contains, at several instances, ecocentrism as well e.g. ‘everything on earth is being continuously transformed because earth is alive.’ This portrays ecosphere as living and dynamic entity rather than a mere instrument for human to achieve his destiny. The idea that the universe shares the same language projects unity of nature showing the relationship between human and non-human aspects of the environment as one being and not separate or superior to one another. It depicts human as a part of the environment and not the lord of the world. Therefore, it can be concluded that the novel oscillates between both the ecocentric and the anthropocentric phenomena. It is not suggested, however, that one phenomenon should be valued over the other but that the complexities of both the phenomena should be recognized, acknowledged and valued in order to encourage the interactions between literature and environment.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, ecocritical analysis, human-environment relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
229 Analysis of the Interests, Conflicts and Power Resources in the Urban Development in the Megacity of Sao Paulo

Authors: A. G. Back

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Urban planning is a relevant tool to address, in a systemic way, several sectoral policies capable of linking the urban agenda with the reduction of socio-environmental risks. The Sao Paulo’s master plan (2014) presents innovations capable of promoting the transition to sustainability in the urban space, with a view to its regulatory instruments related to i) promotion of density in the axes of mass transport involving the mixture of commercial, residential, services, and leisure uses (principles related to the compact city); ii) vulnerabilities reduction based on housing policies including regular sources of funds for social housing and land reservation in urbanized areas; iii) reserve of green areas in the city to create parks and environmental regulations for new buildings focused on reducing the effects of heat island and improving urban drainage. However, its long-term implementation involves distributive conflicts and can undergo changes in different political, economic, and social contexts over time. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the dynamics of conflicts of interest between social groups in the implementation of Sao Paulo’s urban development policy, particularly in relation to recent attempts at a (re) interpretation of the Master Plan guidelines, in view of the proposals for revision of the urban zoning law. In this sense, we seek to identify the demands, narratives of urban actors, including the real estate market, middle-class neighborhood associations ('not in my backyard' movements), and social housing rights movements. And we seek to analyze the power resources that these actors mobilize to influence the decision-making process, involving five categories: social capital, political access; discursive resource; media, juridical resource. The major findings of this research suggest that the interests and demands of the real estate market do not always prevail in urban regulation. After all, other actors also press for the definition of urban law with interests opposite to those of the real estate market. This is the case of associations of middle-class neighborhoods, which work to protect the characteristics of the locality, acting, in general, to prevent constructive and population densification in neighborhoods well located near the center, in São Paulo. One of the main demands of these “not in my backyard” movements is the delimitation of exclusively residential areas in the central region of the city, which is not only contrary to the interests of the real state market but also contrary to the principles of the compact city. On the other hand, social housing rights movements have also made progress in delimiting special areas of social interest in well-located and valued areas in the city dedicated to building social housing, also contrary to the interests of the real estate market. An urban development that follows the principles of the compact city must take into account the insertion of low-income populations in well-located regions; otherwise, such a development model may continue to push the less favored to the peripheries towards the preservation areas and/or risk areas.

Keywords: interest groups, Sao Paulo, sustainable urban development, urban policies implementation

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228 A Brief of Survey on Use of Videoconferencing in Teaching during Quarantine Conducted in Sao Paulo

Authors: Fernanda Laureti T. Ferreira, Kazuo Nishimoto

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This paper presents a summary of the experience on videoconferencing tools that have been used to teach regular classes during this pandemic period in educational institutions in São Paulo, which tools and applications are most used and the challenges related to this mode of delivery. At this moment, the massive online education is not a choice of students or a structured development of education system, but a solution that emerged to attend urgent needs and it presents the opportunity to teach and learning available for the most students in this single time of social isolation that forced among others, this significant change for education, students, teachers, institutions and families. Distance education enables synchronous and asynchronous mode classes, and even though the current circumstances generate discomfort and uncertainty, on the other hand, there is a chance to promote a 'learning to learn'. The videoconference is a preferred choice of schools because synchronous mode to give more interaction between a group of students and teachers, but this mode requires specifics teacher competencies and skills, in addition to equipment and provision of adequate internet signal for all participants of the process. The approach is making use of known technical information about video conference tools and the results of search answered by a group of students, teachers, schools, and parents. The results presented refer to the perspectives of students and parents as respondents.

Keywords: distance education, interaction on education, online classes, synchronous e-learning, videoconference

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227 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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226 Networks, Regulations and Public Action: The Emerging Experiences of Sao Paulo

Authors: Lya Porto, Giulia Giacchè, Mario Aquino Alves

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The paper aims to describe the linkage between government and civil society proposing a study on agro-ecological agriculture policy and urban action in São Paulo city underling the main achievements obtained. The negotiation processes between social movements and the government (inputs) and its results on political regulation and public action for Urban Agriculture (UA) in São Paulo city (outputs) have been investigated. The method adopted is qualitative, with techniques of semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and documental analysis. The authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with organic farmers, activists, governmental and non-governmental managers. Participant observation was conducted in public gardens, urban farms, public audiences, democratic councils, and social movements meetings. Finally, public plans and laws were also analyzed. São Paulo city with around 12 million inhabitants spread out in a 1522 km2 is the economic capital of Brazil, marked by spatial and socioeconomic segregation, currently aggravated by environmental crisis, characterized by water scarcity, pollution, and climate changes. In recent years, Urban Agriculture (UA) social movements gained strength and struggle for a different city with more green areas, organic food production, and public occupation. As the dynamics of UA occurs by the action of multiple actresses and institutions that struggle to build multiple senses on UA, the analysis will be based on literature about solidarity economy, governance, public action and networks. Those theories will mark out the analysis that will emphasize the approach of inter-subjectivity built between subjects, as well as the hybrid dynamics of multiple actors and spaces in the construction of policies for UA. Concerning UA we identified four main typologies based on land ownership, main function (economic or activist), form of organization of the space, and type of production (organic or not). The City Hall registers 500 productive unities of agriculture, with around 1500 producers, but researcher estimated a larger number of unities. Concerning the social movements we identified three categories that differ in goals and types of organization, but all of them work by networks of activists and/or organizations. The first category does not consider themselves as a movement, but a network. They occupy public spaces to grow organic food and to propose another type of social relations in the city. This action is similar to what became known as the green guerrillas. The second is configured as a movement that is structured to raise awareness about agro-ecological activities. The third one is a network of social movements, farmers, organizations and politicians that work focused on pressure and negotiation with executive and legislative government to approve regulations and policies on organic and agro-ecological Urban Agriculture. We conclude by highlighting how the interaction among institutions and civil society produced important achievements for recognition and implementation of UA within the city. Some results of this process are awareness for local production, legal and institutional recognition of the rural zone around the city into the planning tool, the investment on organic school public procurements, the establishment of participatory management of public squares, the inclusion of UA on Municipal Strategic Plan and Master Plan.

Keywords: public action, policies, agroecology, urban and peri-urban agriculture, Sao Paulo

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
225 Mapping Actors in Sao Paulo's Urban Development Policies: Interests at Stake in the Challenge to Sustainability

Authors: A. G. Back

Abstract:

In the context of global climate change, extreme weather events are increasingly intense and frequent, challenging the adaptability of urban space. In this sense, urban planning is a relevant instrument for addressing, in a systemic manner, various sectoral policies capable of linking the urban agenda to the reduction of social and environmental risks. The Master Plan of the Municipality of Sao Paulo, 2014, presents innovations capable of promoting the transition to sustainability in the urban space. Among such innovations, the following stand out: i) promotion of density in the axes of mass transport involving mixture of commercial, residential, services, and leisure uses (principles related to the compact city); ii) vulnerabilities reduction based on housing policies, including regular sources of funds for social housing and land reservation in urbanized areas; iii) reserve of green areas in the city to create parks and environmental regulations for new buildings focused on reducing the effects of heat island and improving urban drainage. However, long-term implementation involves distributive conflicts and may change in different political, economic, and social contexts over time. Thus, the central objective of this paper is to identify which factors limit or support the implementation of these policies. That is, to map the challenges and interests of converging and/or divergent urban actors in the sustainable urban development agenda and what resources they mobilize to support or limit these actions in the city of Sao Paulo. Recent proposals to amend the urban zoning law undermine the implementation of the Master Plan guidelines. In this context, three interest groups with different views of the city come into dispute: the real estate market, upper middle class neighborhood associations ('not in my backyard' movements), and social housing rights movements. This paper surveys the different interests and visions of these groups taking into account their convergences, or not, with the principles of sustainable urban development. This approach seeks to fill a gap in the international literature on the causes that underpin or hinder the continued implementation of policies aimed at the transition to urban sustainability in the medium and long term.

Keywords: adaptation, ecosystem-based adaptation, interest groups, urban planning, urban transition to sustainability

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224 Evaluation of the Quality of Education Offered to Students with Special Needs in Public Schools in the City of Bauru, Brazil

Authors: V. L. M. F. Capellini, A. P. P. M. Maturana, N. C. M. Brondino, M. B. C. L. B. M. Peixoto, A. J. Broughton

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A paradigm shift is a process. The process of implementing inclusive education, a system constructed to support all learners, requires planning, identification, experimentation, and evaluation. In this vein, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of one Brazilian state school systems to provide special education students with a quality inclusive education. This study originated at the behest of concerned families of students with special needs who filed complaints with the Municipality of Bauru, São Paulo. These families claimed, 1) children with learning differences and educational needs had not been identified for services, and 2) those who had been identified had not received sufficient specialized educational assistance (SEA) in schools across the City of Bauru. Hence, the Office of Civil Rights for the state of São Paulo (Ministério Público de São Paulo) summoned the local higher education institution, UNESP, to design a research study to investigate these allegations. In this exploratory study, descriptive data were gathered from all elementary and middle schools including 58 state schools and 17 city schools, for a total of 75 schools overall. Data collection consisted of each school's annual strategic action plan, surveys and interviews with all school stakeholders to determine their perceptions of the inclusive education available to students with Special Education Needs (SEN). The data were collected as one of four stages in a larger study which also included field observations of a focal students' experience and a continuing education course for all teachers and administrators in both state and city schools. For the purposes of this study, the researchers were interested in understanding the perceptions of school staff, parents, and students across all schools. Therefore, documents and surveys from 75 schools were analyzed for adherence to federal legislation guaranteeing students with SEN the right to special education assistance within the regular school setting. Results shows that while some schools recognized the legal rights of SEN students to receive special education, the plans to actually deliver services were absent. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed both school staff and families have insufficient planning and accessibility resources, and the schools have inadequate infrastructure for full-time support to SEN students, i.e., structures and systems to support the identification of SEN and delivery of services within schools of Bauru, SP. Having identified the areas of need, the city is now prepared to take next steps in the process toward preparing all schools to be inclusive.

Keywords: inclusion, school, special education, special needs

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223 NK Cells Expansion Model from PBMC Led to a Decrease of CD4+ and an Increase of CD8+ and CD25+CD127- T-Reg Lymphocytes in Patients with Ovarian Neoplasia

Authors: Rodrigo Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Maira Cardozo, Paulo Cesar Martins Alves, Sophie Françoise Derchain, Fernando Guimarães

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T-reg lymphocytes are important for the control of peripheral tolerance. They control the adaptive immune system and prevent autoimmunity through its suppressive action on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive action also includes B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and recently, studies have shown that T-reg are also able to inhibit NK cells, therefore they exert their control of the immune response from innate to adaptive response. Most tumors express self-ligands, therefore it is believed that T-reg cells induce tolerance of the immune system, hindering the development of successful immunotherapies. T-reg cells have been linked to the suppression mechanisms of the immune response against tumors, including ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to disclose the sub-population of the expanded CD3+ lymphocytes reported by previous studies, using the long-term culture model designed by Carlens et al 2001, to generate effector cell suspensions enriched with cytotoxic CD3-CD56+ NK cells, from PBMC of ovarian neoplasia patients. Methods and Results: Blood was collected from 12 patients with ovarian neoplasia after signed consent: 7 benign (Bng) and 5 malignant (Mlg). Mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Paque gradient. Long-term culture was conducted by a 21 day culturing process with SCGM CellGro medium supplemented with anti-CD3 (10ng/ml, first 5 days), IL-2 (1000UI/ml) and FBS (10%). After 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD3+ lymphocytes in the benign and malignant group. Within CD3+ population, there was a significant decrease in the population of CD4+ lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=73.68%, D-21=21.05%) (p<0.05) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=64.00%, D-21=11.97%) (p < 0.01) group. Inversely, after 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD8+ lymphocytes within the CD3+ population in the benign (median Bgn D-0=16.80%, D-21=38.56%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=27.12%, D-21=72.58%) group. However, this increase was only significant on the malignant group (p<0.01). Within the CD3+CD4+ population, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the population of T-reg lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=9.84%, D-21=39.47%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=3.56%, D-21=16.18%) group. Statistical analysis inter groups was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and intra groups by Mann Whitney test. Conclusion: The CD4+ and CD8+ sub-population of CD3+ lymphocytes shifts with the culturing process. This might be due to the process of the immune system to produce a cytotoxic response. At the same time, T-reg lymphocytes increased within the CD4+ population, suggesting a modulation of the immune response towards cells of the immune system. The expansion of the T-reg population can hinder an immune response against cancer. Therefore, an immunotherapy using this expansion procedure should aim to halt the expansion of T-reg or its immunosuppresion capability.

Keywords: regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, NK cell expansion

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