Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Noman Shabbir

30 Micro Grids, Solution to Power Off-Grid Areas in Pakistan

Authors: M. Naveed Iqbal, Sheza Fatima, Noman Shabbir

Abstract:

In the presence of energy crisis in Pakistan, off-grid remote areas are not on priority list. The use of new large scale coal fired power plants will also make this situation worst. Therefore, the greatest challenge in our society is to explore new ways to power off grid remote areas with renewable energy sources. It is time for a sustainable energy policy which puts consumers, the environment, human health, and peace first. The renewable energy is one of the biggest growing sectors of the energy industry. Therefore, the large scale use of micro grid is thus described here with modeling, simulation, planning and operating of the micro grid. The goal of this research paper is to go into detail of a library of major components of micro grid. The introduction will go through the detail view of micro grid definition. Then, the simulation of Micro Grid in MATLAB/ Simulink including the Photo Voltaic Cell will be described with the detailed modeling. The simulation with the design and modeling will be introduced too.

Keywords: micro grids, distribution generation, PV, off-grid operations

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29 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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28 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

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27 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

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26 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: photonic crystal fiber, dispersion, bandwidth, chromatic dispersion, effective dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective area, effective refractive index

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25 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques

Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.

Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptography

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24 A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm of Neural Network for Medical Diseases Problems

Authors: Sultan Noman Qasem

Abstract:

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for solving multi-objective optimization problems-based artificial neural network (ANN). The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm used in this study is genetic algorithm while ANN used is radial basis function network (RBFN). The proposed algorithm named memetic elitist Pareto non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-based RBFNN (MEPGAN). The proposed algorithm is implemented on medical diseases problems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is viable, and provides an effective means to design multi-objective RBFNs with good generalization capability and compact network structure. This study shows that MEPGAN generates RBFNs coming with an appropriate balance between accuracy and simplicity, comparing to the other algorithms found in literature.

Keywords: radial basis function network, hybrid learning, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithm

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23 Consequences of Sentence on Children's Socialization: Exploratory Study of Criminal Women of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shabbir

Abstract:

This paper inspects the effects of the sentenced criminal women upon the socialization of their children, in the Pakistani context. The objectives of the study are to find out the socio-psychological and cultural effects of the jail environment on the children and behavior of sentenced women towards their children as well as analyze the facilities provided by the jail authorities for the socialization of the women. Quantitative variables and qualitative thematic variables caused by the opinions through open-ended questionnaire were collected and analyze by applying statistical measures, e.g. Social Sciences Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), to reflect out the results. It was found that the sentence of women shatters the socialization process of their children which commonly leads them to criminality. The government should review the ongoing sentence policies for an improvement and betterment. For this purpose, the idea of socialization centers would be a healthy initiative.

Keywords: socialization, criminal women, sentence, socio-psychological and cultural

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22 Sum Capacity with Regularized Channel Inversion in Multi-Antenna Downlink Systems under Equal Power Constraint

Authors: Attaullah Khawaja, Amna Shabbir

Abstract:

Channel inversion is one of the simplest techniques for multiuser downlink systems with single-antenna users. In this paper regularized channel inversion under equal power constraint in the multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channels has been considered. Sum capacity with plain channel inversion also known as Zero Forcing Beam Forming (ZFBF) and optimum sum capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) has also been investigated. Analysis and simulations show that regularization enhances the system performance and empower linear growth in Sum Capacity and specially work well at low signal to noise ratio (SNRs) regime.

Keywords: broadcast channel, channel inversion, multiple antenna multiple-user wireless, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), regularization, dirty paper coding (DPC), sum capacity

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21 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

Abstract:

In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification

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20 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad

Abstract:

Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

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19 Indigenous Patch Clamp Technique: Design of Highly Sensitive Amplifier Circuit for Measuring and Monitoring of Real Time Ultra Low Ionic Current through Cellular Gates

Authors: Moez ul Hassan, Bushra Noman, Sarmad Hameed, Shahab Mehmood, Asma Bashir

Abstract:

The importance of Noble prize winning “Patch Clamp Technique” is well documented. However, Patch Clamp Technique is very expensive and hence hinders research in developing countries. In this paper, detection, processing and recording of ultra low current from induced cells by using transimpedence amplifier is described. The sensitivity of the proposed amplifier is in the range of femto amperes (fA). Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The circuit designed by the authors was able to measure current in the rangeof 300fA to 100pA. Adequate performance shown by the amplifier with different input current and outcome result was found to be within the acceptable error range. Results were recorded using LabVIEW 8.5®for further research.

Keywords: drug discovery, ionic current, operational amplifier, patch clamp

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18 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy

Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.

Keywords: cultural challenges, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, leadership

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17 Replacing MOSFETs with Single Electron Transistors (SET) to Reduce Power Consumption of an Inverter Circuit

Authors: Ahmed Shariful Alam, Abu Hena M. Mustafa Kamal, M. Abdul Rahman, M. Nasmus Sakib Khan Shabbir, Atiqul Islam

Abstract:

According to the rules of quantum mechanics there is a non-vanishing probability of for an electron to tunnel through a thin insulating barrier or a thin capacitor which is not possible according to the laws of classical physics. Tunneling of electron through a thin insulating barrier or tunnel junction is a random event and the magnitude of current flowing due to the tunneling of electron is very low. As the current flowing through a Single Electron Transistor (SET) is the result of electron tunneling through tunnel junctions of its source and drain the supply voltage requirement is also very low. As a result, the power consumption across a Single Electron Transistor is ultra-low in comparison to that of a MOSFET. In this paper simulations have been done with PSPICE for an inverter built with both SETs and MOSFETs. 35mV supply voltage was used for a SET built inverter circuit and the supply voltage used for a CMOS inverter was 3.5V.

Keywords: ITRS, enhancement type MOSFET, island, DC analysis, transient analysis, power consumption, background charge co-tunneling

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16 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman

Abstract:

This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

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15 Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth and Land Use Change in Islamabad Using Object-Based Classification Method

Authors: Rabia Shabbir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Amna Butt

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Rapid land use changes have taken place in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, over the past decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In this study, land use changes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad was observed by the combined use of GIS and satellite remote sensing for a time period of 15 years. High-resolution Google Earth images were downloaded from 2000-2015, and object-based classification method was used for accurate classification using eCognition software. The information regarding urban settlements, industrial area, barren land, agricultural area, vegetation, water, and transportation infrastructure was extracted. The results showed that the city experienced a spatial expansion, rapid urban growth, land use change and expanding transportation infrastructure. The study concluded the integration of GIS and remote sensing as an effective approach for analyzing the spatial pattern of urban growth and land use change.

Keywords: land use change, urban growth, Islamabad, object-based classification, Google Earth, remote sensing, GIS

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14 An Improved Data Aided Channel Estimation Technique Using Genetic Algorithm for Massive Multi-Input Multiple-Output

Authors: M. Kislu Noman, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam, Shahriar Hassan, Raihana Pervin

Abstract:

With the increasing rate of wireless devices and high bandwidth operations, wireless networking and communications are becoming over crowded. To cope with such crowdy and messy situation, massive MIMO is designed to work with hundreds of low costs serving antennas at a time as well as improve the spectral efficiency at the same time. TDD has been used for gaining beamforming which is a major part of massive MIMO, to gain its best improvement to transmit and receive pilot sequences. All the benefits are only possible if the channel state information or channel estimation is gained properly. The common methods to estimate channel matrix used so far is LS, MMSE and a linear version of MMSE also proposed in many research works. We have optimized these methods using genetic algorithm to minimize the mean squared error and finding the best channel matrix from existing algorithms with less computational complexity. Our simulation result has shown that the use of GA worked beautifully on existing algorithms in a Rayleigh slow fading channel and existence of Additive White Gaussian Noise. We found that the GA optimized LS is better than existing algorithms as GA provides optimal result in some few iterations in terms of MSE with respect to SNR and computational complexity.

Keywords: channel estimation, LMMSE, LS, MIMO, MMSE

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13 Community-based Mapping as a Planning Tool; Examples from Pakistan

Authors: Noman Ahmed, Fariha Tahseen

Abstract:

Since several decades, unplanned urbanization and rapid growth of informal settlements have evolved and increased in size and number. Large cities such as Karachi have been impacted with sprawl and rising share of unplanned settlements where poor communities reside. Threats of eviction, deteriorating law and order situation, lack of essential amenities and infrastructure, extortion and bullying from local and non-local musclemen and feeble response of government agencies towards their development needs are some predicaments. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have caused important interventions in such locations. Appraisal of the community-based mapping as a tool in supporting the development work in less privileged areas in Karachi has been the objective of this research. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP), under the leadership of its slain director Perween Rahman had a significant role to play in developing and extending this approach in low income locations in Karachi and beyond. The paper investigates the application of mapping in the process of peri urban land invasion causing rapid transformation of traditional settlements in Karachi. Mixed methodology components comprising literature review, archival research, and unstructured interviews with key informants and case studies have been used.

Keywords: squatters (katchi abadis), land grabbing, community empowerment, housing rights, mapping, infrastructure development

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12 Degree Tracking System (DTS) to Improve the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Open Distance Learning System: A Case Study of Islamabad Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)

Authors: Hatib Shabbir

Abstract:

Student support services play an important role in providing technical and motivational support to distance learner. ICT based systems have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of support services. In distance education, students being at distant require quick responses from their institution. In the manual system, it is practically hard to give prompt response to each and every student, so as a result student has to suffer a lot. The best way to minimize inefficiencies is to use automated systems. This project involves the development of centralized automated software that would not only replace the manual degree issuance system of 1.3 million students studying at AIOU but also provide online tracking to all the students applying for Degrees. DTS is also the first step towards the paperless culture which is adopted by the major organizations of the world. DTS would not only save university cost but also save students cost and time too by conveying all the information/objection through email and SMS. Moreover, DTS also monitors the performance of each and every individual working in the exam department AIOU and generates daily, monthly and yearly reports of every individual which helps a lot in continuous performance monitoring of the employees.

Keywords: aiou dts, dts aiou, dts, degree tracking aiou

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11 Rethinking Peace Journalism in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of News Discourse on the Afghan Refugee Repatriation Conflict

Authors: Ayesha Hasan

Abstract:

This study offers unique perspectives and analyses of peace and conflict journalism through interpretative repertoire, media frames, and critical discourse analyses. Two major English publications in Pakistan, representing both long and short-form journalism, are investigated to uncover how the Afghan refugee repatriation from Pakistan in 2016-17 has been framed in Pakistani English media. Peace journalism focuses on concepts such as peace initiatives and peace building, finding common ground, and preventing further conflict. This study applies Jake Lynch’s Coding Criteria to guide the critical discourse analysis and Lee and Maslog’s Peace Journalism Quotient to examine the extent of peace journalism in each text. This study finds that peace journalism is missing in Pakistani English press, but represented, to an extent, in long-form print and online coverage. Two new alternative frames are also proposed. This study gives an in-depth understanding of if and how journalists in Pakistan are covering conflicts and framing stories that can be identified as peace journalism. This study represents significant contributions to the remarkably limited scholarship on peace and conflict journalism in Pakistan and extends Shabbir Hussain’s work on critical pragmatic perspectives on peace journalism in Pakistan.

Keywords: Afghan refugee repatriation, Critical discourse analysis, Media framing , Peace and conflict journalism

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10 Suitability Number of Coarse-Grained Soils and Relationships among Fineness Modulus, Density and Strength Parameters

Authors: Khandaker Fariha Ahmed, Md. Noman Munshi, Tarin Sultana, Md. Zoynul Abedin

Abstract:

Suitability number (SN) is perhaps one of the most important parameters of coarse-grained soil in assessing its appropriateness to use as a backfill in retaining structures, sand compaction pile, Vibro compaction, and other similar foundation and ground improvement works. Though determined in an empirical manner, it is imperative to study SN to understand its relation with other aggregate properties like fineness modulus (FM), and strength and density properties of sandy soil. The present paper reports the findings of the study on the examination of the properties of sandy soil, as mentioned. Random numbers were generated to obtain the percent fineness on various sieve sizes, and fineness modulus and suitability numbers were predicted. Sand samples were collected from the field, and test samples were prepared to determine maximum density, minimum density and shear strength parameter φ against particular fineness modulus and corresponding suitability number Five samples of SN value of excellent (0-10) and three samples of SN value fair (20-30) were taken and relevant tests were done. The data obtained from the laboratory tests were statistically analyzed. Results show that with the increase of SN, the value of FM decreases. Within the SN value rated as excellent (0-10), there is a decreasing trend of φ for a higher value of SN. It is found that SN is dependent on various combinations of grain size properties like D10, D30, and D20, D50. Strong linear relationships were obtained between SN and FM (R²=.0.93) and between SN value and φ (R²=.94). Correlation equations are proposed to define relationships among SN, φ, and FM.

Keywords: density, fineness modulus, shear strength parameter, suitability number

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9 Site Suitability Analysis for Multipurpose Dams Using Geospatial Technologies

Authors: Saima Iftikhar Rida Shabbir, Zeeshan Hassan

Abstract:

Water shortage, energy crisis and natural misfortunes are the glitches which reduce the efficacy of agricultural ecosystems especially in Pakistan where these are more frequent besides being intense. Accordingly, the agricultural water resources, food security and country’s economy are at risk. To address this, we have used Geospatial techniques incorporating ASTER Global DEM, Geological map, rainfall data, discharge data, Landsat 5 image of Swat valley in order to assess the viability of selected sites. The sites have been studied via GIS tools, Hydrological investigation and multiparametric analysis for their potentialities of collecting and securing the rain water; regulating floods by storing the surplus water bulks by check dams and developing them for power generation. Our results showed that Siat1-1 was very useful for low-cost dam with main objective of as Debris dam; Site-2 and Site 3 were check dams sites having adequate storing reservoir so as to arrest the inconsistent flow accompanied by catering the sedimentation effects and the debris flows; Site 4 had a huge reservoir capacity but it entails enormous edifice cost over very great flood plain. Thus, there is necessity of active Hydrological developments to estimate the flooded area using advanced and multifarious GIS and remote sensing approaches so that the sites could be developed for harnessing those sites for agricultural and energy drives.

Keywords: site suitability, check dams, SHP, terrain analysis, volume estimation

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8 Study on the Impact of Windows Location on Occupancy Thermal Comfort by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Farhan E Shafrin, Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed

Abstract:

Natural ventilation strategies continue to be a key alternative to costly mechanical ventilation systems, especially in healthcare facilities, due to increasing energy issues in developing countries, including Bangladesh. Besides, overcrowding and insufficient ventilation strategies remain significant causes of thermal discomfort and hospital infection in Bangladesh. With the proper location of inlet and outlet windows, uniform flow is possible in the occupancy area to achieve thermal comfort. It also determines the airflow pattern of the ward that decreases the movement of the contaminated air. This paper aims to establish a relationship between the location of the windows and the thermal comfort of the occupants in a naturally ventilated hospital ward. It defines the openings and ventilation variables that are interrelated in a way that enhances or limits the health and thermal comfort of occupants. The study conducts a full-scale experiment in one of the naturally ventilated wards in a primary health care hospital in Manikganj, Dhaka. CFD simulation is used to explore the performance of various opening positions in ventilation efficiency and thermal comfort in the study area. The results indicate that the opening located in the hospital ward has a significant impact on the thermal comfort of the occupants and the airflow pattern inside the ward. The findings can contribute to design the naturally ventilated hospital wards by identifying and predicting future solutions when it comes to relationships with the occupants' thermal comforts.

Keywords: CFD simulation, hospital ward, natural ventilation, thermal comfort, window location

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7 Artificial Intelligence Based Online Monitoring System for Cardiac Patient

Authors: Syed Qasim Gilani, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Noman, Syed Bilawal Shah, Aqib Abbasi, Muhammad Waheed

Abstract:

Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD's) are the major cause of death in the world. The main reason for these deaths is the unavailability of first aid for heart failure. In many cases, patients die before reaching the hospital. We in this paper are presenting innovative online health service for Cardiac Patients. The proposed online health system has two ends. Users through device developed by us can communicate with their doctor through a mobile application. This interface provides them with first aid.Also by using this service, they have an easy interface with their doctors for attaining medical advice. According to the proposed system, we developed a device called Cardiac Care. Cardiac Care is a portable device which a patient can use at their home for monitoring heart condition. When a patient checks his/her heart condition, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood Pressure(BP), Temperature are sent to the central database. The severity of patients condition is checked using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm at the database. If the patient is suffering from the minor problem, our algorithm will suggest a prescription for patients. But if patient's condition is severe, patients record is sent to doctor through the mobile Android application. Doctor after reviewing patients condition suggests next step. If a doctor identifies the patient condition as critical, then the message is sent to the central database for sending an ambulance for the patient. Ambulance starts moving towards patient for bringing him/her to hospital. We have implemented this model at prototype level. This model will be life-saving for millions of people around the globe. According to this proposed model patients will be in contact with their doctors all the time.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, classification, electrocardiogram, blood pressure

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6 Assessment of Ocular Morbidity, Knowledge and Barriers to Access Eye Care Services among the Children Live in Offshore Island, Bangladesh

Authors: Abir Dey, Shams Noman

Abstract:

Introduction: Offshore Island is the remote and isolated area from the terrestrial mainland. They are deprived of their needs. The children from an offshore island are usually underserved in the case of health care because it is a remote area where the health care systems are quite poor compared to mainland. So, the proper information is required for appropriate planning to reduce underlying causes behind visual deprivation among the surviving children of the Offshore Island. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine ocular morbidities, knowledge, and barriers of eye care services among children in an Offshore Island. Methods: The study team visited, and all data were collected from different rural communities at Sandwip Upazila, Chittagong district for screening the children aged 5-16 years old by doing spot examination. The whole study was conducted in both qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine ocular status of children, examinations were done under skilled Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. A focus group discussion was held. The sample size was 490. It was a community based descriptive study and the sampling method was purposive sampling. Results: In total 490 children, about 56.90% were female and 43.10% were male. Among them 456 were school-going children (93.1%) and 34 were non-school going children (6.9%). In this study the most common ocular morbidity was Allergic Conjunctivitis (35.2%). Other mentionable ocular morbidities were Refractive error (27.7%), Blepharitis (13.8%), Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (7.5%), Strabismus (6.3%) and Amblyopia (6.3%). Most of the non-school going children were involved in different types of domestic work like farming, fishing, etc. About 90.04% children who had different ocular abnormalities could not attend to the doctor due to various reasons. Conclusions: The ocular morbidity was high in rate on the offshore island. Eye health care facility was also not well established there. Awareness should be raised about necessity of maintaining hygiene and eye healthcare among the island people. Timely intervention through available eye care facilities and management can reduce the ocular morbidity rate in that area.

Keywords: morbidities, screening, barriers, offshore island, knowledge

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5 Tumour Radionuclides Therapy: in vitro and in vivo Dose Distribution Study

Authors: Rekaya A. Shabbir, Marco Mingarelli, Glenn Flux, Ananya Choudhury, Tim A. D. Smith

Abstract:

Introduction: Heterogeneity of dose distributions across a tumour is problematic for targeted radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhance dose-distributions of targeted radionuclides. The aim of this study is to demonstrate if tumour dose-distribution of targeted AuNPs radiolabelled with either of two radioisotopes (¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y) in breast cancer cells produced homogeneous dose distributions. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to study the importance of receptor level on cytotoxicity of EGFR-targeted AuNPs in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were functionalised with DOTA and OPPS-PEG-SVA to optimise labelling with radionuclide tracers and targeting with Erbitux. Radionuclides were chelated with DOTA, and the uptake of the radiolabelled AuNPs and targeted activity in vitro in both cell lines measured using liquid scintillation counting. Cells with medium (HCT8) and high (MDA-MB-468) EGFR expression were incubated with targeted ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs for 4h, then washed and allowed to form colonies. Nude mice bearing tumours were used to study the biodistribution by injecting ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs or ⁹⁰Y-AuNPs via the tail vein. Heterogeneity of dose-distribution in tumours was determined using autoradiography. Results: Colony formation (% control) was 81 ± 4.7% (HCT8) and 32 ± 9% (MDA-MB-468). High uptake was observed in the liver and spleen, indicating hepatobiliary excretion. Imaging showed heterogeneity in dose-distributions for both radionuclides across the tumours. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of EGFR-targeted AuNPs is greater in cells with higher EGFR expression. Dose-distributions for individual radiolabelled nanoparticles were heterogeneous across tumours. Further strategies are required to improve the uniformity of dose distribution prior to clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer cells, dose distributions, radionuclide therapy, targeted gold nanoparticles

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4 Quality of Life after Damage Control Laparotomy for Trauma

Authors: Noman Shahzad, Amyn Pardhan, Hasnain Zafar

Abstract:

Introduction: Though short term survival advantage of damage control laparotomy in management of critically ill trauma patients is established, there is little known about the long-term quality of life of these patients. Facial closure rate after damage control laparotomy is reported to be 20-70 percent. Abdominal wall reconstruction in those who failed to achieve facial closure is challenging and can potentially affect quality of life of these patients. Methodology: We conducted retrospective matched cohort study. Adult patients who underwent damage control laparotomy from Jan 2007 till Jun 2013 were identified through medical record. Patients who had concomitant disabling brain injury or limb injuries requiring amputation were excluded. Age, gender and presentation time matched non exposure group of patients who underwent laparotomy for trauma but no damage control were identified for each damage control laparotomy patient. Quality of life assessment was done via telephonic interview at least one year after the operation, using Urdu version of EuroQol Group Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire EQ5D after permission. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare QOL scores and McNemar test was used to compare individual parameters of QOL questionnaire. Study was approved by institutional ethical review committee. Results: Out of 32 patients who underwent damage control laparotomy during study period, 20 fulfilled the selection criteria for which 20 matched controls were selected. Median age of patients (IQ Range) was 33 (26-40) years. Facial closure rate in damage control laparotomy group was 40% (8/20). One third of those who did not achieve facial closure (4/12) underwent abdominal wall reconstruction. Self-reported QOL score of damage control laparotomy patients was significantly worse than non-damage control group (p = 0.032). There was no statistically significant difference in two groups regarding individual QOL measures. Significantly, more patients in damage control group were requiring use of abdominal binder, and more patients in damage control group had to either change their job or had limitations in continuing previous job. Our study was not adequately powered to detect factors responsible for worse QOL in damage control group. Conclusion: Quality of life of damage control patients is worse than their age and gender matched patients who underwent trauma laparotomy but not damage control. Adequately powered studies need to be conducted to explore factors responsible for this finding for potential improvement.

Keywords: damage control laparotomy, laparostomy, quality of life

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3 Finite Element Analysis of Layered Composite Plate with Elastic Pin Under Uniaxial Load Using ANSYS

Authors: R. M. Shabbir Ahmed, Mohamed Haneef, A. R. Anwar Khan

Abstract:

Analysis of stresses plays important role in the optimization of structures. Prior stress estimation helps in better design of the products. Composites find wide usage in the industrial and home applications due to its strength to weight ratio. Especially in the air craft industry, the usage of composites is more due to its advantages over the conventional materials. Composites are mainly made of orthotropic materials having unequal strength in the different directions. Composite materials have the drawback of delamination and debonding due to the weaker bond materials compared to the parent materials. So proper analysis should be done to the composite joints before using it in the practical conditions. In the present work, a composite plate with elastic pin is considered for analysis using finite element software Ansys. Basically the geometry is built using Ansys software using top down approach with different Boolean operations. The modelled object is meshed with three dimensional layered element solid46 for composite plate and solid element (Solid45) for pin material. Various combinations are considered to find the strength of the composite joint under uniaxial loading conditions. Due to symmetry of the problem, only quarter geometry is built and results are presented for full model using Ansys expansion options. The results show effect of pin diameter on the joint strength. Here the deflection and load sharing of the pin are increasing and other parameters like overall stress, pin stress and contact pressure are reducing due to lesser load on the plate material. Further material effect shows, higher young modulus material has little deflection, but other parameters are increasing. Interference analysis shows increasing of overall stress, pin stress, contact stress along with pin bearing load. This increase should be understood properly for increasing the load carrying capacity of the joint. Generally every structure is preloaded to increase the compressive stress in the joint to increase the load carrying capacity. But the stress increase should be properly analysed for composite due to its delamination and debonding effects due to failure of the bond materials. When results for an isotropic combination is compared with composite joint, isotropic joint shows uniformity of the results with lesser values for all parameters. This is mainly due to applied layer angle combinations. All the results are represented with necessasary pictorial plots.

Keywords: bearing force, frictional force, finite element analysis, ANSYS

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2 Effect of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria on Yield and Seed Quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under Drought Stress

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Chaudhry, Fahim Nawaz, Rana Nauman Shabbir

Abstract:

New strategies aimed at increasing the resilience of crop plants to the negative effects of climate change represent important research priorities of plant scientists. The use of soil microorganisms to alleviate abiotic stresses like drought has gained particular importance in recent past. A field experiment was planned to investigate the effect of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria on yield and seed quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under water deficit conditions. The study was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, during 4th week of November, 2013. The available seeds of Camelina sativa were inoculated with two bacterial strains (pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.) and grown under various water stress levels i.e. D0, (four irrigations), D3 (three irrigation), D2 (two irrigations), and D1 (one irrigation). The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduced the plant growth and yield, consequently reducing protein contents and oil concentration in camelina. The exposure to drought stress decreased plant height (16%), plant population (27%), number of fertile branches (41-59%), number of pods per plant (35%) and seed per pod (33%). Drought stress also exerted a negative impact on yield characteristics by reducing the 1000-seed weight (65%), final seed yield (52%), biological yield (22%) and harvest index (39%) of camelina. However, the inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. promoted the plant growth characterized by increased plant height and enhanced plant population. It was noted that inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas resulted in the maximum plant population (113.4 cm), primary branches (19 plant-1), and number of pods (664 plant-1), whereas Bacillus inoculation resulted in maximum plant height (113.4 cm), seeds per pod (15.9), 1000-seed weight (1.85 g), and seed yield (3378.8 kg ha-1). Moreover, the inoculation with Bacillus also significantly improved the quality attributes of camelina and gave 3.5% and 2.1% higher oil contents than Pseudomonas and control (no-inoculation), respectively. Similarly, the same strain also resulted in maximum protein contents (33.3%). Our results confirmed the hypothesis that inoculation of seeds with phosphorous solubilizing bacterial strains is an effective, viable and environment-friendly approach to improve yield and quality of camelina under water deficit conditions. However, further studies are suggested to investigate the physiological and molecular processes, stimulated by bacterial strains, for increasing drought tolerance in food crops.

Keywords: Camelina, drought stress, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, seed quality

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1 A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Communication Practices among Doctors at a University Hospital in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Waqas Baqai, Noman Shahzad, Rehman Alvi

Abstract:

Communication among health care givers is the essence of quality patient care and any compromise results in errors and inefficiency leading to cumbersome outcomes. The use of smartphone among health professionals has increased tremendously. Almost every health professional carries it and majority of them uses a third party communication software called whatsApp for work related communications. It gives instant access to the person responsible for any particular query and therefore helps in efficient and timely decision making. It is also an easy way of sharing medical documents, multimedia and provides platform for consensual decision making through group discussions. However clinical communication through whatsApp has some demerits too including reduction in verbal communication, worsening professional relations, unprofessional behavior, risk of confidentiality breach and threats from cyber-attacks. On the other hand the traditional pager device being used in many health care systems is a unidirectional communication that lacks the ability to convey any information other than the number to which the receiver has to respond. Our study focused on these two widely used modalities of communication among doctors of the largest tertiary care center of Pakistan i.e. The Aga Khan University Hospital. Our aim was to note which modality is considered better and has fewer threats to medical data. Approval from ethical review committee of the institute was taken prior to conduction of this study. We submitted an online survey form to all the interns and residents working at our institute and collected their response in a month’s time. 162 submissions were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only 20% of them were comfortable with using pagers exclusively, 52% with whatsApp and 28% with both. 65% think that whatsApp is time-saving and quicker than pager. 54% of them considered whatsApp to be causing nuisance from work related notifications in their off-work hours. 60% think that they are more likely to miss information through pager system because of the unidirectional nature. Almost all (96%) of residents and interns found whatsApp to be useful in terms of saving information for future reference. For urgent issues, majority (70%) preferred pager over whatsApp and also pager was considered more valid in terms of hospital policies and legal issues. Among major advantages of whatsApp as listed by them were; easy mass communication, sharing of clinical pictures, universal access and no need of carrying additional device. However the major drawback of using whatsApp for clinical communication that everyone shared was threat to patients’ confidentiality as clinicians usually share pictures of wounds, clinical documents etc. Lastly we asked them if they think there is a need of a separate application for instant communication dedicated to clinical communication only and 90% responded positively. Therefore, we concluded that both modalities have their merits and demerits but the greatest drawback with whatsApp is the risk of breach in patients’ confidentiality and off-work disturbance. Hence, we recommend a more secure, institute-run application for all intra hospital communications where they can share documents, pictures etc. easily under a controlled environment.

Keywords: WhatsApp, pager, clinical communication, confidentiality

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