Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1782

Search results for: micro grids

1782 Energy Trading for Cooperative Microgrids with Renewable Energy Resources

Authors: Ziaullah, Shah Wahab Ali


Micro-grid equipped with heterogeneous energy resources present the idea of small scale distributed energy management (DEM). DEM helps in minimizing the transmission and operation costs, power management and peak load demands. Micro-grids are collections of small, independent controllable power-generating units and renewable energy resources. Micro-grids also motivate to enable active customer participation by giving accessibility of real-time information and control to the customer. The capability of fast restoration against faulty situation, integration of renewable energy resources and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) make micro-grid as an ideal system for distributed power systems. Micro-grids can have a bank of energy storage devices. The energy management system of micro-grid can perform real-time energy forecasting of renewable resources, energy storage elements and controllable loads in making proper short-term scheduling to minimize total operating costs. We present a review of existing micro-grids optimization objectives/goals, constraints, solution approaches and tools used in micro-grids for energy management. Cost-benefit analysis of micro-grid reveals that cooperation among different micro-grids can play a vital role in the reduction of import energy cost and system stability. Cooperative micro-grids energy trading is an approach to electrical distribution energy resources that allows local energy demands more control over the optimization of power resources and uses. Cooperation among different micro-grids brings the interconnectivity and power trading issues. According to the literature, it shows that open area of research is available for cooperative micro-grids energy trading. In this paper, we proposed and formulated the efficient energy management/trading module for interconnected micro-grids. It is believed that this research will open new directions in future for energy trading in cooperative micro-grids/interconnected micro-grids.

Keywords: distributed energy management, information and communication technologies, microgrid, energy management

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1781 Micro Grids, Solution to Power Off-Grid Areas in Pakistan

Authors: M. Naveed Iqbal, Sheza Fatima, Noman Shabbir


In the presence of energy crisis in Pakistan, off-grid remote areas are not on priority list. The use of new large scale coal fired power plants will also make this situation worst. Therefore, the greatest challenge in our society is to explore new ways to power off grid remote areas with renewable energy sources. It is time for a sustainable energy policy which puts consumers, the environment, human health, and peace first. The renewable energy is one of the biggest growing sectors of the energy industry. Therefore, the large scale use of micro grid is thus described here with modeling, simulation, planning and operating of the micro grid. The goal of this research paper is to go into detail of a library of major components of micro grid. The introduction will go through the detail view of micro grid definition. Then, the simulation of Micro Grid in MATLAB/ Simulink including the Photo Voltaic Cell will be described with the detailed modeling. The simulation with the design and modeling will be introduced too.

Keywords: micro grids, distribution generation, PV, off-grid operations

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1780 Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Smart Micro-Grids and Decentralised Sector-Coupling

Authors: C. Trapp, A. Vijay, M. Khorasani


Decentralised micro-grids with sector coupling can combat the spatial and temporal intermittence of renewable energy by combining power, transportation and infrastructure sectors. Intelligent energy conversion concepts such as electrolysers, hydrogen engines and fuel cells combined with energy storage using intelligent batteries and hydrogen storage form the back-bone of such a system. This paper describes a micro-grid based on Photo-Voltaic cells, battery storage, innovative modular and scalable Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) electrolyzer with an efficiency of up to 73%, high-pressure hydrogen storage as well as cutting-edge combustion-engine based Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant with more than 85% efficiency at the university campus to address the challenges of decarbonization whilst eliminating the necessity for expensive high-voltage infrastructure.

Keywords: sector coupling, micro-grids, energy self-sufficiency, decarbonization, AEM electrolysis, hydrogen CHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1779 Enhancing the Dynamic Performance of Grid-Tied Inverters Using Manta Ray Foraging Algorithm

Authors: H. E. Keshta, A. A. Ali


Three phase grid-tied inverters are widely employed in micro-grids (MGs) as interphase between DC and AC systems. These inverters are usually controlled through standard decoupled d–q vector control strategy based on proportional integral (PI) controllers. Recently, advanced meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been used instead of deterministic methods to obtain optimum PI controller parameters. This paper provides a comparative study between the performance of the global Porcellio Scaber algorithm (GPSA) based PI controller and Manta Ray foraging optimization (MRFO) based PI controller.

Keywords: micro-grids, optimization techniques, grid-tied inverter control, PI controller

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1778 Analysis of Energy Planning and Optimization with Microgrid System in Dawei Region

Authors: Hninn Thiri Naing


In Myanmar, there are many regions that are far away from the national grid. For these areas, isolated regional micro-grids are one of the solutions. The study area in this paper is also operating in such way. The main difficulty in such regions is the high cost of electrical energy. This paper will be approached to cost-effective or cost-optimization by energy planning with renewable energy resources and natural gas. Micro-grid will be set up for performance in the Dawei region since it is economic zone in lower Myanmar and so far from national grids. The required metrological and geographical data collections are done. Currently, the status is electric unit rate is higher than the other. For microgrid planning and optimization, Homer Pro-software is employed in this research.

Keywords: energy planning, renewable energy, homer pro, cost of energy

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1777 Evaluation of Short-Term Load Forecasting Techniques Applied for Smart Micro-Grids

Authors: Xiaolei Hu, Enrico Ferrera, Riccardo Tomasi, Claudio Pastrone


Load Forecasting plays a key role in making today's and future's Smart Energy Grids sustainable and reliable. Accurate power consumption prediction allows utilities to organize in advance their resources or to execute Demand Response strategies more effectively, which enables several features such as higher sustainability, better quality of service, and affordable electricity tariffs. It is easy yet effective to apply Load Forecasting at larger geographic scale, i.e. Smart Micro Grids, wherein the lower available grid flexibility makes accurate prediction more critical in Demand Response applications. This paper analyses the application of short-term load forecasting in a concrete scenario, proposed within the EU-funded GreenCom project, which collect load data from single loads and households belonging to a Smart Micro Grid. Three short-term load forecasting techniques, i.e. linear regression, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function network, are considered, compared, and evaluated through absolute forecast errors and training time. The influence of weather conditions in Load Forecasting is also evaluated. A new definition of Gain is introduced in this paper, which innovatively serves as an indicator of short-term prediction capabilities of time spam consistency. Two models, 24- and 1-hour-ahead forecasting, are built to comprehensively compare these three techniques.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, smart micro grid, linear regression, artificial neural networks, radial basis function network, gain

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1776 Investigation into Micro-Grids with Renewable Energy Sources for Use as High Reliability Electrical Power Supply in a Nuclear Facility

Authors: Gerard R. Lekhema, Willie A Cronje, Ian Korir


The objective of this research work is to investigate the use of a micro-grid system to improve the reliability and availability of emergency electrical power in a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a safety-critical application that requires reliable electrical power for safe startup, operation and normal or emergency shutdown conditions. The majority of the nuclear facilities around the world utilize diesel generators as emergency power supply during loss of offsite power events. This study proposes the micro-grid system with distributed energy sources and energy storage systems for use as emergency power supply. The systems analyzed include renewable energy sources, decay heat recovery system and large scale energy storage system. The configuration of the micro-grid system is realized with guidelines of nuclear safety standards and requirements. The investigation results presented include performance analysis of the micro-grid system in terms of reliability and availability.

Keywords: emergency power supply, micro-grid, nuclear facility, renewable energy sources

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1775 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu


The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: eccentricity, micro-channel, micro-grooves, superhydrophobic surface

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1774 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik


The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1773 Hierarchical Checkpoint Protocol in Data Grids

Authors: Rahma Souli-Jbali, Minyar Sassi Hidri, Rahma Ben Ayed


Grid of computing nodes has emerged as a representative means of connecting distributed computers or resources scattered all over the world for the purpose of computing and distributed storage. Since fault tolerance becomes complex due to the availability of resources in decentralized grid environment, it can be used in connection with replication in data grids. The objective of our work is to present fault tolerance in data grids with data replication-driven model based on clustering. The performance of the protocol is evaluated with Omnet++ simulator. The computational results show the efficiency of our protocol in terms of recovery time and the number of process in rollbacks.

Keywords: data grids, fault tolerance, clustering, chandy-lamport

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1772 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian


People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: micro architecture, sustainability, human activity, city

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1771 Longitudinal Vibration of a Micro-Beam in a Micro-Scale Fluid Media

Authors: M. Ghanbari, S. Hossainpour, G. Rezazadeh


In this paper, longitudinal vibration of a micro-beam in micro-scale fluid media has been investigated. The proposed mathematical model for this study is made up of a micro-beam and a micro-plate at its free end. An AC voltage is applied to the pair of piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam in order to actuate it longitudinally. The whole structure is bounded between two fixed plates on its upper and lower surfaces. The micro-gap between the structure and the fixed plates is filled with fluid. Fluids behave differently in micro-scale than macro, so the fluid field in the gap has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. The coupled governing equations of motion of the micro-beam and the micro-scale fluid field have been derived. Due to having non-homogenous boundary conditions, derived equations have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Using Galerkin-based reduced order model, the enhanced equations have been discretized over the beam and fluid domains and solve simultaneously in order to obtain force response of the micro-beam. Effects of micro-polar parameters of the fluid as characteristic length scale, coupling parameter and surface parameter on the response of the micro-beam have been studied.

Keywords: micro-polar theory, Galerkin method, MEMS, micro-fluid

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1770 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Fouad, M. A. Badr, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi, M. M. Ibrahim


Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, micro-grid system, modeling and simulation, on/off grid system, environmental impacts

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1769 Challenges with Synchrophasor Technology Deployments in Electric Power Grids

Authors: Emmanuel U. Oleka, Anil Khanal, Gary L. Lebby, Ali R. Osareh


Synchrophasor technology is fast being deployed in electric power grids all over the world and is fast changing the way the grids are managed. This trend is to continue until the entire power grids are fully connected so they can be monitored and controlled in real-time. Much achievement has been made in the synchrophasor technology development and deployment, and much more are yet to be achieved. Real-time power grid control and protection potentials of synchrophasor are yet to be explored. It is of necessity that researchers keep in view the various challenges that still need to be overcome in expanding the frontiers of synchrophasor technology. This paper outlines the major challenges that should be dealt with in order to achieve the goal of total power grid visualization, monitoring and control using synchrophasor technology.

Keywords: electric power grid, grid visualization, phasor measurement unit, synchrophasor

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1768 Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (µEDM): Effect of the Electrochemical Etching Parameters on the Fabrication of Cylindrical Tungsten Micro-Tools

Authors: Asmae Tafraouti, Yasmina Layouni


The fabrication of cylindrical Tungsten micro-tools with a high aspect ratio is a real challenge because of several constraints that come into during their manufacture. In this paper, we will describe the process used to fabricate these micro-tools. It consists of using electrochemical etching. We will also present the optimal protocol that makes it possible to fabricate micro-tools with a high aspect ratio in a reproducible way. Next, we will show the limit of the experimental parameters chosen to manufacture micro-tools from a wire with an initial diameter of Φ_0=250µm. The protocol used allows obtaining an average diameter of Φ=88µm ±1 µm over a length of L=3.5mm.

Keywords: drop-off effect, electrochemical etching, micro-electrical discharge machining, tungsten micro-tools

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1767 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard


Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and bio-sensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434. In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: flow length, micro cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication

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1766 Micro Waqf Banks as an Alternative Financing Micro Business in Indonesia

Authors: Achmad Muchaddam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana


For rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs, access to formal financial institutions is very difficult. So, borrowing to moneylenders is the most possible way to fulfill their needs. But actually it does not solve their problems, precisely their problems are increasing because they have to pay at very high-interest rates. For this reason, microfinance institution is very important as a solution for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs who need loans to fulfill their needs. This paper aims to describe the role of micro waqf banks in Indonesia as an alternative funding for rural communities and micro-entrepreneurs. This research is descriptive using a qualitative approach. The interview technique was also carried out with key informants who understood sharia microfinance institutions. The results of the study revealed that the micro waqf bank is Islamic microfinance institutions which targeted the micro business sector by channeling small financing with a maximum financing of Rp1 million. The funding of this micro waqf bank comes from donors who donate funds through the Amil Zakat institution. The margins imposed on borrowers are as high as 3 percent per year, with payment schemes in installments every week, so it is made easier for borrower. In addition, financing is followed by training and mentoring so that borrower is able to utilize the loan for productive business activities. In the end, it is hoped that this micro waqf bank can become an incubator for micro businesses in Indonesia.

Keywords: micro business, micro waqf banks, micro-entrepreneurs, Amil Zakat institution

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1765 Feasibility Study to Enhance the Heat Transfer in a Typical Pressurized Water Reactor by Ribbed Spacer Grids

Authors: A. Ghadbane, M. N. Bouaziz, S. Hanini, B. Baggoura, M. Abbaci


The spacer grids are used to fix the rods bundle in a nuclear reactor core also act as turbulence-enhancing devices to improve the heat transfer from the hot surfaces of the rods to the surrounding coolant stream. Therefore, the investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics inside the rod bundles is important for optima design and safety operation of a nuclear reactor power plant. This contribution presents a feasibility study to use the ribbed spacer grids as mixing devices. The present study evaluates the effects of different ribbed spacer grids configurations on flow pattern and heat transfer in the downstream of the mixing devices in a 2 x 2 rod bundle array. This is done by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity and the heat transfer coefficient using a three-dimensional CFD analysis. Numerical calculations are performed by employing K-ε turbulent model. The computational results obtained are promising and the comparison with standard spacer grids shows a clear difference which required the experimental approach to validate.

Keywords: PWR fuel assembly, spacer grid, mixing vane, swirl flow, turbulent heat transfer, CFD

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1764 Sustainability: Effect of Earthquake in Micro Hydro Sector, a Case Study of Micro Hydro Projects in Northern Part of Kavre District, Nepal

Authors: Ram Bikram Thapa, Ganesh Lama


The Micro Hydro is one of the successful technology in Rural Nepal. Kavre is one of the pioneer district of sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. A total of 30 Micro Hydro projects have been constructed with producing 700 KW of energy in northern side of the Kavre district. This study shows that 67% of projects have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May, 2015. Out of them 23% are completely damaged. Most of the structures are failure like Penstock 71%, forebay 21%, powerhouse 7% have been completely damaged and 91% Canal & 44% Intake structures have been partially damaged by the earthquake. This paper empathizes that the engineering design is the vital component for sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. This paper recommended that technicians should be considered the safety factor of earthquake and provision of disaster recovery fund during design of Micro Hydro Projects.

Keywords: micro hydro, earthquake, structural failure, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1763 Prospects for Building Mobile Micro-Hydro Powerplants with Information Management Systems

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, P. T.Kharitonov, L. Sh. Balgabayeva, O. V. Kisseleva, T. S. Kartbayev


This article analyzes the applicability of known renewable energy technical means as mobile power sources under the field and extreme conditions. The requirements are determined for the parameters of mobile micro-HPP. The application prospectively of the mobile micro-HPP with intelligent control systems is proved for this purpose. Variants of low-speed electric generators for micro HPP are given. Variants of designs for mobile micro HPP are presented with the direct (gearless) transfer of torque from the hydraulic drive to the rotor of the electric generator. Variant of the hydraulic drive for micro HPP is described workable at low water flows. A general structure of the micro HPP intelligent system control is offered that implements the principle of maximum energy efficiency. The legitimacy of construction and application of mobile micro HPP is proved as electrical power sources for life safety of people under the field and extreme conditions.

Keywords: mobile micro-hydro powerplants, information management systems, hydraulic drive, computer science

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1762 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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1761 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi


This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: micro-grid, optimization, genetic algorithm, MG

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1760 Micro-Oscillator: Passive Production and Manipulation of Microdrops

Authors: Khelfaoui Rachid, Chekifi Tawfiq, Dennai Brahim, Maazouzi A. Hak


A numerical and experimental studies of passive micro drops production have been presented. This paper focuses on the modeling of micro-oscillators systems which are composed by passive amplifier without moving part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design that is based on a bistable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about 35 microns of depth. The numerical results indicate that the production and manipulation of microdrops are possible with passive device within a typical oscillators chamber of 2.25 mm diameter and 0.20 mm length when the Reynolds number is Re = 490. The novel micro drops method that is presented in this study provides a simple solution about the production of microdrops problems in micro system. We undertake an experimental step. The first part is based on the realisation of sample oscillator; the second part is consisted of visualization, production and manipulation of microdrops.

Keywords: modelling, miscible, micro drops, production, oscillator sample, capillary

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1759 Superordinated Control for Increasing Feed-in Capacity and Improving Power Quality in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

Authors: Markus Meyer, Bastian Maucher, Rolf Witzmann


The ever increasing amount of distributed generation in low voltage distribution grids (mainly PV and micro-CHP) can lead to reverse load flows from low to medium/high voltage levels at times of high feed-in. Reverse load flow leads to rising voltages that may even exceed the limits specified in the grid codes. Furthermore, the share of electrical loads connected to low voltage distribution grids via switched power supplies continuously increases. In combination with inverter-based feed-in, this results in high harmonic levels reducing overall power quality. Especially high levels of third-order harmonic currents can lead to neutral conductor overload, which is even more critical if lines with reduced neutral conductor section areas are used. This paper illustrates a possible concept for smart grids in order to increase the feed-in capacity, improve power quality and to ensure safe operation of low voltage distribution grids at all times. The key feature of the concept is a hierarchically structured control strategy that is run on a superordinated controller, which is connected to several distributed grid analyzers and inverters via broad band powerline (BPL). The strategy is devised to ensure both quick response time as well as the technically and economically reasonable use of the available inverters in the grid (PV-inverters, batteries, stepless line voltage regulators). These inverters are provided with standard features for voltage control, e.g. voltage dependent reactive power control. In addition they can receive reactive power set points transmitted by the superordinated controller. To further improve power quality, the inverters are capable of active harmonic filtering, as well as voltage balancing, whereas the latter is primarily done by the stepless line voltage regulators. By additionally connecting the superordinated controller to the control center of the grid operator, supervisory control and data acquisition capabilities for the low voltage distribution grid are enabled, which allows easy monitoring and manual input. Such a low voltage distribution grid can also be used as a virtual power plant.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution grid, power quality, smart grid, virtual power plant, voltage control

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1758 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long


In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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1757 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani


The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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1756 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timoshenko Microcantilever Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour


Micro cantilevers are one of the components used in the manufacture of micro-electromechanical systems. Epoxy microcantilevers have a variety of applications in the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-actuators. In this paper, the Timoshenko Micro cantilever was statically and dynamically analyzed using the finite element method. First, all boundary conditions and initial conditions governing micro cantilevers were considered. The effect of size on the deflection, angle of rotation, natural frequencies, and mode shapes were then analyzed and evaluated under different frequencies. It was observed that an increased micro cantilever thickness reduces the deflection, rotation, and resonant frequency. A good agreement was observed between our results and those obtained by the couple stress theory, the classical theory, and the strain gradient elasticity theory.

Keywords: microcantilever, microsensor; epoxy, dynamic behavior, static behavior, finite element method

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1755 System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids

Authors: Yiyang Su, Jörg Neumann, Jan Wetzlich, Florian Thiel


Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows of energy have been brought to the power gird. In order to achieve efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric power more and more information and communication technologies are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids. Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased and has converged into several standards which will be presented here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in existing grids on it’s dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and it’s performance in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this, integration of security measures into measurement architectures of smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.

Keywords: cyber security, performance, protocols, security standards, smart grid

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1754 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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1753 Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

Authors: Imen Aouini, Lamia Ben Azzouz


The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of Smart Grids. In this paper, we present security issues of the Smart Grid architecture and we highlight open issues that will make the Smart Grid security a challenging research area in the future.

Keywords: smart grids, smart meters, home area network, neighbor area network

Procedia PDF Downloads 346