Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3555

Search results for: community empowerment

3555 Community Empowerment: The Contribution of Network Urbanism on Urban Poverty Reduction

Authors: Lucia Antonela Mitidieri

Abstract:

This research analyzes the application of a model of settlements management based on networks of territorial integration that advocates planning as a cyclical and participatory process that engages early on with civic society, the private sector and the state. Through qualitative methods such as participant observation, interviews with snowball technique and an active research on territories, concrete results of community empowerment are obtained from the promotion of productive enterprises and community spaces of encounter and exchange. Studying the cultural and organizational dimensions of empowerment allows building indicators such as increase of capacities or community cohesion that can lead to support local governments in achieving sustainable urban development for a reduction of urban poverty.

Keywords: community spaces, empowerment, network urbanism, participatory process

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3554 Promoting Community Food Security and Empowerment among Somali Bantu Refugees: A Case for Community Kitchen Gardens

Authors: Michelle D. Hand, Michelle L. Kaiser

Abstract:

African refugees are among the fastest-growing populations in the United States and nearly half of these refugees come from Somalia, many of whom are Somali Bantus, the most marginalized group in Somali society. Yet limited research is available on Somali Bantu refugees. In this paper, Empowerment Theory is used to guide an in-depth exploration of the potential benefits of using community kitchen gardens to increase community food security among Somali Bantu refugees. In addition, recommendations for future research, policy and practice are offered following existing scholarly and grey source literature guidelines as informed by an Empowerment perspective to best meet the needs of this under-researched and underserved yet growing population.

Keywords: community kitchen gardens, food insecurity, refugees, Somali Bantu

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3553 Community Education Leadership and Organizational Culture: Perceptions of Empowerment

Authors: Aisha M. Khairat

Abstract:

Community education in the Arab Republic of Egypt is a model that provides education to remote, underprivileged villages and hamlets where children have no access to public education. The community education model is based on the philosophy of transforming individuals to reach their full potential and on instilling the seeds of empowerment and citizenship to induce societal transformation. This research aims at investigating the degree to which the leadership style and organizational culture of the Egyptian community schools demonstrates an empowering approach. Nile Valley NGO, an Egyptian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) leading hundreds of Egyptian community schools was studied to investigate the perceptions of empowerment amongst its leadership. This in turn will have serious implications on the level of empowerment the communities managed by Nile Valley NGO are experiencing, and will serve as an indicator to the degree to which community schools are achieving their goals in transforming individuals and empowering communities and reforming Egyptian education – and not just a tool to reach literacy. This mixed-methods research utilized surveys and semi-structured interviews to capture the perceptions of empowerment in the views of a sample of 380 community schools facilitators (teachers) spanning 8 Egyptian governorates and Nile Valley NGO’s community education project team and leadership. The findings demonstrate interesting leadership approaches with traits from transformational and servant leadership theoretical models. The organizational culture at Nile Valley NGO reflects the universal dichotomy between market-oriented and humanitarian orientations. The perceptions of empowerment were positive, and several success stories were uncovered in spite of the many challenges faced on the national level and despite the scarcity or resources.

Keywords: community education, community schools in Egypt, empowerment, organizational culture, leadership

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3552 The Pitfalls of Empowerment Initiatives in India: Overcoming Male Resistance to Women Empowerment Through Community Outreach, TVET, and Improved Sanitation

Authors: Christopher Coley, Srividya Sheshadri, Rao R. Bhavani

Abstract:

Empowering marginalized populations, especially women, with greater economic, social, and other leadership roles has been shown to have a profound effect on entire communities. There are discernible links between sustainable development, poverty reduction, and skill training for empowerment; however, one of the major challenges with implementing empowerment programs is to establish an understanding within the community that investing in women’s education carries the potential of high return for everyone. Effective strategies that can both empower women, and overcome the complex social issues normally faced, need to be developed and shared across stakeholders. Amrita University’s AMMACHI Labs, a research lab engaged in women empowerment through Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), has launched a new initiative, WE: Sanitation, a project aiming to train women to build their own toilets and promote healthy sanitation practices in rural villages across India. While in some cases, the community has come together and toilets are being built, there has been resistance by the community, especially men, in many places. This paper will explore the experiences of field workers and the initial results of the WE: Sanitation project, including observations on the trends of community dynamics, raise important questions for the direction of development work in general, and especially for sanitation projects in rural India.

Keywords: community-based development, gender dynamics, Indian sanitation, women empowerment, TVET

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3551 Women Empowerment and Sustainable Community Development: Understanding the Challenges for Responsive Action

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Ankama G. Rosecana, Micheal Solomon

Abstract:

Every citizen has rights that must be respected by others in the community. Ironically however, women in most communities are not accorded some of those rights as the male folks. This has not only facilitated their disempowerment but inhibited them from being treated with equal dignity that they deserve as their male counterpart; despite their valuable contribution to the society. Those forces against women empowerment are not limited to socio-cultural practices alone, but the character and nature of the state in Nigeria point to indicators of systemic and structural exclusion embedded in its framework. The consequence of this is that the vital contributions of women to sustainable community development have eluded many communities in Nigeria with adverse tell-tell signs on the environment. It is for this reason that the objective of this study is not only to highlight the causes and challenges associated with women disempowerment, but also to draw attention to the need to correct those anomaly against women in order to genuinely empower them to contribute to sustainable community development in Nigeria.

Keywords: capacity development, community, social sustainability, sustainable development, women empowerment

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3550 A Preliminary Study on the Tagal Eco-Tourism and Empowerment for Local Community

Authors: Christiana Jonut

Abstract:

The study addresses tagal as an ecotourism product that is uniquely for Sabah. It is a community based tourism venture that is influenced by the Dusun ethic’s traditional law. The traditional principle of tagal is focused primarily on individual exploitation of riverine resources and it was transformed into a community participation in the riverine conservation to foster the growth or survival of ecotourism. It manages a river into a sustainable manner. A smart partnership system between the community and the authority particularly the Department of Fisheries Sabah, tagal has successfully become an instrument to protect, revive and manage the river fish resources. In 2015, Sabah Fisheries Department added 536 tagal sites. Most tagal sites were turned into a community based tourism venture. They generate income through jobs creation for the purpose of uplifting the local’s economic level. Tagal ecotourism sites also increase environmental awareness of the local people to love their culture, tradition and environment. This venture also promotes the sustainability of the eco-tourism. The objective of this study is to explore the issues and contexts of empowerment of the local people in managing a successful tagal ecotourism. This study further explains how community capacity building is the major influence of empowerment of the local community. The methodology approach used is qualitative where interview is chosen as the data collection method. This is a literature review of exploring empowerment of the local community through various community capacity building initiatives that would motivate the local people to be actively involved in the tagal.

Keywords: capacity building, Tagal, ecotourism, empowerment, Sabah

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3549 Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla

Authors: Marco Antonio Lara De la Calleja, María Catalina Ovando Chico, Eduardo Lopez Ruiz

Abstract:

Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.

Keywords: community empowerment, food security, model, systemic approach

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3548 Annual August Meetings as a Stimulator for Female Empowerment: Case Study Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka Evelyn Udeh

Abstract:

Women’s economic participation and empowerment are fundamental to strengthening women’s rights and enabling women to have control over their lives and exert influence in the society. The economic empowerment of women is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the achievement of all the millennium development Goals (MDGs). For women to be in development they need to be empowered morally, socially, economically, and financially and this is why women in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria meet every August, the eighth month of the year to discuss matters relating to the pursuit of women empowerment, community welfare, and national development. This exploratory study depicts how annual august meetings serve as a stimulator for female empowerment with a case study Udi Local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The paper finds that ‘August Meeting’ is a regular annual occurrence in Udi Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria particularly for married women and is designed to better the lot of women, the child, family, the church, and the Community. Through this forum, with its seminars and workshops, women have the opportunity to learn everything about womanhood and how to chart new courses of action and sources of empowerment. The gathering gives women the opportunity to be integrated into their community development projects, and having women as stakeholders and not mere observers helps guarantee a speedy and steady community and overall national development progress. Funds are raised for community development projects through annual dues, levies, donations, fines, sales, income from money-yielding ventures, endowment and investiture. Annual August meeting also known as ‘Mothers Summit’ is indeed a powerful stimulator for female empowerment. Support and invigoration of this women initiative is essential for sustainable emancipation of female gender, not just in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria but globally.

Keywords: women empowerment, annual august meeting, Udi Lga, mothers' summit, stimulator, emancipation, sustainability, community welfare, national development, millennium development goal

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3547 Public-Private Partnership for Community Empowerment and Sustainability: Exploring Save the Children’s 'School Me' Project in West Africa

Authors: Gae Hee Song

Abstract:

This paper aims to address the evolution of public-private partnerships for mainstreaming an evaluation approach in the community-based education project. It examines the distinctive features of Save the Children’s School Me project in terms of empowerment evaluation principles introduced by David M. Fetterman, especially community ownership, capacity building, and organizational learning. School Me is a Save the Children Korea funded-project, having been implemented in Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone since 2016. The objective of this project is to reduce gender-based disparities in school completion and learning outcomes by creating an empowering learning environment for girls and boys. Both quasi-experimental and experimental methods for impact evaluation have been used to explore changes in learning outcomes, gender attitudes, and learning environments. To locate School Me in the public-private partnership framework for community empowerment and sustainability, the data have been collected from School Me progress/final reports, baseline, and endline reports, fieldwork observations, inter-rater reliability of baseline and endline data collected from a total of 75 schools in Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone. The findings of this study show that School Me project has a significant evaluation component, including qualitative exploratory research, participatory monitoring, and impact evaluation. It strongly encourages key actors, girls, boys, parents, teachers, community leaders, and local education authorities, to participate in the collection and interpretation of data. For example, 45 community volunteers collected baseline data in Cote d’Ivoire; on the other hand, three local government officers and fourteen enumerators participated in the follow-up data collection of Sierra Leone. Not only does this public-private partnership improve local government and community members’ knowledge and skills of monitoring and evaluation, but the evaluative findings also help them find their own problems and solutions with a strong sense of community ownership. Such community empowerment enables Save the Children country offices and member offices to gain invaluable experiences and lessons learned. As a result, empowerment evaluation leads to community-oriented governance and the sustainability of the School Me project.

Keywords: community empowerment, Cote d’Ivoire, empowerment evaluation, public-private partnership, save the children, school me, Sierra Leone, sustainability

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3546 Mechanism of Religion on Community Movement for Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sophaphan Intahphuak, Narong Pamala, Boonyaporn Yodkhong, Samuhavitayaa

Abstract:

The amount of solid waste increases each year as a result of population growth, urbanization and economic expansion; however, there was little public cooperation in the segregation of solid waste due to the lack of awareness. This study aims to encourage all sectors in the community to participate in the development of a suitable model to reduce environmental waste by emerging the cultural context that bares a close relationship with Buddhism through faith and merit-making. The monks, involving stakeholder in the entire waste management system, help publicize the campaign on Buddhist holy days, religious ceremonies and they also teach people to be responsible for the garbage problem in the community. As for the garbage brought for merit-making, they are sold and the money is used to help build the pavilion. It was found that people can separate recycled garbage and the amount of solid waste slightly decrease. The results obtained suggest that the religion is not only the moral center of the community, it is also the center of community empowerment to consciousness in waste management.

Keywords: community empowerment, religion’s role, waste management, recycled garbage

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3545 Development of People's Participation in Environmental Development in Pathumthani Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

Study on the development of people's participation in environmental development was a qualitative research method. Data were collected by participant observation, in-depth interview and discussion group in Pathumthani province. The study indicated that 1) People should be aware of environmental information from government agencies. 2) People in the community should be able to brainstorm information, exchange information about community environment development. 3) People should have a role with community leaders. 4) People in the community should have a role to play in the implementation of projects and activities in the development of the environment and 5) citizens, community leaders, village committee have directed the development of the area. Maintaining a community environment with a shared decision. By emphasizing the process of participation, self-reliance, mutual help, and responsibility for one's own community. Community empowerment strengthens the sustainable spatial development of the environment.

Keywords: people, participation, community, environment

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3544 Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamileke Region of Cameroon

Authors: Ngono Mindzeng Terencia

Abstract:

Community based tourism, as a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development among local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries: this driving force is “place revitalization”. This paper seeks to assess the relevance of “place revitalization” to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effectively this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.

Keywords: awareness, empowerment, local communities, mentoring, place revitalization, third world countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3543 Relationship of Organizational Culture, Teacher Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Universities in Bangkalan District

Authors: Iqbal Abd. Muhbir Hadi Anam

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship between organizational culture, teacher psychological empowerment, and organizational citizenship behavior at the University of Bangkalan District. The data was obtained using a survey of 100 respondents tested for validity and reliability. The analytical technique used is a hierarchical regression test. The results showed that the organizational culture of the university had a strong influence on the psychological empowerment of teachers and the psychological empowerment of teachers and that the organizational culture and psychological empowerment of teachers provided effective predictions of the psychological empowerment of the university. In addition, organizational culture directly or indirectly influences teachers' organizational citizenship behavior through psychological empowerment. Given these results, universities need to build an organizational culture that reflects the nature of the university.

Keywords: organizational behavior, teacher psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behavior, universities

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3542 Child Homicide Victimization and Community Context: A Research Note

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

Among serious crimes, child homicide is a rather rare event. However, the killing of children stirs up a special type of emotion in society that pales other criminal acts. This study examines the relevancy of three possible community-level explanations for child homicide: social deprivation, female empowerment, and social isolation. The social deprivation hypothesis posits that child homicide results from lack of resources in communities. The female empowerment hypothesis argues that a higher female status translates into a higher level of capability to prevent child homicide. Finally, the social isolation hypothesis regards child homicide as a result of lack of social connectivity. Child homicide data, aggregated by US postal ZIP codes in California from 1990 to 1999, were analyzed with a negative binomial regression. The results of the negative binomial analysis demonstrate that social deprivation is the most salient and consistent predictor among all other factors in explaining child homicide victimization at the ZIP-code level. Both social isolation and female labor force participation are weak predictors of child homicide victimization across communities. Further, results from the negative binomial regression show that it is the communities with a higher, not lower, degree of female labor force participation that are associated with a higher count of child homicide. It is possible that poor communities with a higher level of female employment have a lesser capacity to provide the necessary care and protection for the children. Policies aiming at reducing social deprivation and strengthening female empowerment possess the potential to reduce child homicide in the community.

Keywords: child homicide, deprivation, empowerment, isolation

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3541 Factors Determining the Women Empowerment through Microfinance: An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Y. Rathiranee, D. M. Semasinghe

Abstract:

This study attempts to identify the factors influencing on women empowerment of rural area in Sri Lanka through micro finance services. Data were collected from one hundred (100) rural women involving self employment activities through a questionnaire using direct personal interviews. Judgment and Convenience Random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from three Divisional Secretariat divisions of Kandawalai, Poonakari and Karachchi in Kilinochchi District. The factor analysis was performed on fourteen (14) variables for screening and reducing the variables to identify the influencing factors on empowerment. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between the three empowerment factors and the impact of micro-finance on overall empowerment of rural women. The result of this study summarized the variables into three factors namely decision making, freedom to mobility and family support and which are positively associated with empowerment. In addition to this the value of adjusted R2 is 0.248 indicates that all the variables extracted can be explained 24.8% of the variation in the women empowerment through microfinance. Independent variables of these three factors have a positive correlation with women empowerment as well as significant values at 5 percent level.

Keywords: influencing factors, micro finance, rural women, women empowerment

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3540 The Nexus between Social Entrepreneurship and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Aaron G. Laylo

Abstract:

This paper mainly assumes that social entrepreneurship contributes significantly to youth empowerment i.e., work and community engagement. Two questions are thus raised in order to establish this hypothesis: 1) First, how does social entrepreneurship contribute to youth empowerment?; and 2) secondly, why is social entrpreneurship significantly incremental to youth empowerment? This research aims a) to investigate on the social aspect of entrepreneurship; b) to explore challenges in youth empowerment particularly in respect to work and community engagement; and c) to inquire into whether social enterprises have truly served as a catalyst for, thus an effective response to, youth empowerment. It must be emphasized that young people, which comprise 1.8 billion in a world of seven billion are an asset; Apparently, how to maximize that potential is crucial. By utilizing exploratory research design, the paper endeavors to generate new ideas in regards to both components, develop tentative theories on social entrepreneurship, and refine certain issues that are under observation and seek scholarly attention— a rather emerging phenomenon vis a vis the challenge to empower a significant cluster of the society. Case studies will be utilized as an approach in order to comparatively analyze youth-driven social enterprises in the Philippines that have been widely recognized as successful insofar as social impact is concerned. As most scholars attested, social entrepreneurship is still at its infancy stage. Youth empowerment, meanwhile, is yet a vast area to explore insofar as academic research is concerned. Programs and projects that advocate the pursuit of these components abound. However, academic research is yet to be undertaken to see and understand their social and economic relevance. This research is also an opportunity for scholars to explore, understand, and make sense of the promise that lies in social entrepreneurship research and how it can serve as a catalyst for youth empowerment. Youth-driven social enterprises can be an influential tool in sustaining development across the globe as they intend to provide opportunities for optimal economic productivity that recognizes social inclusion. Ultimately, this study should be able to contribute to both research and development-in-practice communities for the greater good of the society. By establishing the nexus between these two components, the research may contribute to fostering greater exploration of the benefits that both may yield to human progress as well as the gaps that have to be filled in by various policy stakeholders relevant to these units.

Keywords: social entpreneurship, youth, empowerment, social inclusion

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3539 One-Stop Culture Workshop Concept as a Way to Raise the Potential of Indonesia Culture in AEC 2015: Case Study in Saung Angklung Udjo

Authors: Meiliana, Achmad Eko Prabowo, Muhammad Fathan Mubina

Abstract:

AFTA agreement in 2015 will bring a significant impact on Indonesian society. Indonesia’s people will face competition both in the economic, political, and cultural regionally among ten countries in ASEAN. Indonesia is a rich country in culture and has a large enough demographic bonus when compared to other ASEAN countries. Indonesia also has a lot of cultural enrichment in every its region. It’s mean, the role of society and culture of Indonesia's abundant if combined properly it will help Indonesia in the face of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. This paper will discuss the role of one-stop culture workshop (OSCW) concept at Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU), a cultural tourist area of Angklung which is located in Bandung. OSCW is a concept that implemented a cultural tour in SAU that invites the visitor to engage in the cultural empowerment. In this research, we will answer how the concepts are applied by SAU can be an alternative to re-discover the potential of Indonesia in the face of the AEC 2015. Units of analysis that we used is among the programs, outcomes, and community empowerment. This study used a qualitative approach with in-depth interviews and observation. The finding of this study prove that OSCW concept is an opportunity for Indonesia to encourage a culture to go international. The concept of OSCW can really be used other communities to develop cultures of Indonesia so that later institutionalized culture that not only can be used as a tourist attraction but also as an educational laboratory for the community.

Keywords: OSCW concept, citizen empowerment, cultural tour, AEC 2015

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3538 How Digital Empowerment Affects Dissolution of Segmentation Effect and Construction of Opinion Leaders in Isolated Communities: Ethnographic Investigation of Leprosy Rehabilitation Groups

Authors: Lin Zhang

Abstract:

The fear of leprosy has been longstanding throughout the human history. In an era where isolation is practiced as a means of epidemic prevention, the leprosy rehabilitation group has itself become an isolated community with an entrenched metaphor. In the process of new mediatization of the leprosy isolation community, what are the relations among media literacy, the leprosy internalized stigma and social support? To address the question, the “portrait” of leprosy rehabilitation group is re-delineated through two field studies in the “post-leprosy age” in 2012 and 2020, respectively. Taking an isolation community on Si’an Leprosy Island in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China as the study object, it is found that new media promotes the dissolution of segregation effect of the leprosy isolation community and the cultivation of opinion leaders by breaking spatial, psychological and social segregation and by building a community of village affairs and public space in the following way: the cured patients with high new media literacy, especially those who use WeChat and other applications and largely rely on new media for information, have a low level of leprosy internalized stigma and a high level of social support, and they are often the opinion leaders inside their community; on the contrary, the cured patients with low new media literacy, a high level of leprosy internalized stigma and a low level of social support are often the followers inside their community. Such effects of dissolution and construction are reflected not only in the vertical differentiation of the same individual at different times, but also in the horizontal differentiation between different individuals at the same time.

Keywords: segregation, the leprosy rehabilitation group, new mediatization, digital empowerment, opinion leaders

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3537 Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Idris Idris, Dr. Said Saeed Saeed

Abstract:

Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to question the authority of the government. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates to explore building community resilience against terrorism and empowering community members and implement strategies for strengthening community resilience. For data collection a mixed methods methodology will be used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis will be employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings of the study will be interpreted and recommendations will be furnished accordingly. Study results will be disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after the completion, the project team will be in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience.

Keywords: Violent Extremism, community Role, community resilience, community empowerment, Leadership role

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3536 A Case Study: Community Forestry in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges

Authors: Bhmika Raiu

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The community forestry programme in Nepal officially started in the late 1970s. Since then concerning movement has been evolving to involve local communities in the management and utilization of forests. The policy of the government was originally intended to meet the basic forest products required by the communities through active participation in forest development and management. Later, it was expanded to include the mobilization and empowerment of the members of community forest user groups in the development of their local communities. It was observed that the trend of forest degradation has decreased since the handing over of national forests to local communities, but a number of unintended social anomalies have also cropped up. Such anomalies essentially constitute of the inequity and unfairness in the local and national level and in terms of long-term sustainability of forest resources. This paper provides an overview of various issues of community forestry, especially focusing on the major achievements made in community forestry. It calls for rethinking the community forestry programme in order to face the present day challenges of linking community forestry with livelihood promotion, good governance, and sustainable forest management. It also lays out strategies for reforms in community forestry.

Keywords: community forest, livelihood promotion, challenges, achievements

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3535 The Effect of Psychological Capital and Psychological Empowerment on Employees' Commitment to Change

Authors: Muthmainah Mufidah, Wustari L. H. Mangundjaya

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Organizations nowadays have to change and adjust themselves to the changing external environment in order to survive the globalization era. However, not all the organizational change had been succeeded. Commitment to change is one important factor why the change process often failed. Even so, this commitment to change cannot be separated with the individual’s characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify the role of psychological capital and psychological empowerment as the individual’s positive characteristic on commitment to change. This research was conducted on Indonesian employees who have or are currently experiencing a change in their organization. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. The results showed that both psychological capital and psychological empowerment have a positive and significant influence on commitment to change.

Keywords: commitment to change, psychological capital, psychological empowerment, organizational change

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3534 Department of Social Development/Japan International Cooperation Agency's Journey from South African Community to Southern African Region

Authors: Daisuke Sagiya, Ren Kamioka

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South Africa has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) on 30th November 2007. In line with this, the Department of Social Development (DSD) revised the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (WPRPD), and the Cabinet approved it on 9th December 2015. The South African government is striving towards the elimination of poverty and inequality in line with UNCRPD and WPRPD. However, there are minimal programmes and services that have been provided to persons with disabilities in the rural community. In order to address current discriminative practices, disunity and limited self-representation in rural community, DSD in cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is implementing the 'Project for the Promotion of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities and Disability Mainstreaming' from May 2016 to May 2020. The project is targeting rural community as the project sites, namely 1) Collins Chabane municipality, Vhembe district, Limpopo and 2) Maluti-a-Phofung municipality, Thabo Mofutsanyana district, Free State. The project aims at developing good practices on Community-Based Inclusive Development (CBID) at the project sites which will be documented as a guideline and applied in other provinces in South Africa and neighbouring countries (Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique). In cooperation with provincial and district DSD and local government, the project is currently implementing various community activities, for example: Establishment of Self-Help Group (SHG) of persons with disabilities and Peer Counselling in the villages, and will conduct Disability Equality Training (DET) and accessibility workshop in order to enhance the CBID in the project sites. In order to universalise good practices on CBID, the authors will explain lessons learned from the project by utilising the theories of disability and development studies and community psychology such as social model of disability, twin-track approach, empowerment theory, sense of community, helper therapy principle, etc. And the authors conclude that in order to realise social participation of persons with disabilities in rural community, CBID is a strong tool and persons with disabilities must play central roles in all spheres of CBID activities.

Keywords: community-based inclusive development, disability mainstreaming, empowerment of persons with disabilities, self-help group

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3533 Teacher Professional Development –Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

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This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provides directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development

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3532 How to Empower People to Provide Good Nutrition to Children: Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrition Workshop)

Authors: Anggun Yuliana Putri, Melisa Rahmadini

Abstract:

The Ministry of National Development Planning in Indonesia has reported that more than eight million Indonesian children are still malnourished. Based on national statistics, and a recent ranking from NGO Save the Children, Indonesia is one of 15 countries making the fastest gains in cutting child malnutrition among 165 developing countries. According to a United Nations Children’s Fund, at least 7.6 million Indonesian children under the age of 5 or one out of every three suffer from stunted growth, a primary manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood, the report ranked Indonesia as having the fifth largest number of children under 5 suffering from stunted growth worldwide. Addressing the problem of malnutrition in Indonesia, Aksi Cepat Tanggap (ACT) Foundation, a humanitarian organization working with Carrefour, acts as donor and pursues several solutions to the problem, especially of malnourished children and infants in South Tangerang area, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to examine the community empowerment driven by ACT Foundation in order to maintain the good status continuity of child and toddler after the children malnutrition recovered. Research was conducted using qualitative approach through in-depth interview and observation to find out how the Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrion Workshop) programs make people empowered. Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (BGT) is divided into 3 sequences of activities, there were: integrated malnutrition rehabilitation; provision of health education to mothers of infants and young children; and family economic empowerment to head of household. Results showed that after empowerment process has been done through training and provision of knowledge to the mothers and families about the important of nutrition and health, there were 30 of 100 mothers who participated actively. Then, there were 45 of 100 heads of household who participated in business training were able to open a business on their own which provided and controlled by ACT as stakeholder in this program. The further findings revealed that BGT programs are able to form community health workers and provide employment opportunities to community. This study believes that integrated nutrition workshop program is the solution to maintain good nutrition among children in South Tangerang, through empowerment of parents and community members, via education and business training program. Both programs prepared parents with economic sustenance and necessary information, a pre-requisite to end malnutrition in children.

Keywords: community, empowerment, malnutrition, training

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3531 Community Development and Empowerment

Authors: Shahin Marjan Nanaje

Abstract:

The present century is the time that social worker faced complicated issues in the area of their work. All the focus are on bringing change in the life of those that they live in margin or live in poverty became the cause that we have forgotten to look at ourselves and start to bring change in the way we address issues. It seems that there is new area of needs that social worker should response to that. In need of dialogue and collaboration, to address the issues and needs of community both individually and as a group we need to have new method of dialogue as tools to reach to collaboration. The social worker as link between community, organization and government play multiple roles. They need to focus in the area of communication with new ability, to transfer all the narration of the community to those organization and government and vice versa. It is not relate only in language but it is about changing dialogue. Migration for survival by job seeker to the big cities created its own issues and difficulty and therefore created new need. Collaboration is not only requiring between government sector and non-government sectors but also it could be in new way between government, non-government and communities. To reach to this collaboration we need healthy, productive and meaningful dialogue. In this new collaboration there will not be any hierarchy between members. The methodology that selected by researcher were focusing on observation at the first place, and used questionnaire in the second place. Duration of the research was three months and included home visits, group discussion and using communal narrations which helped to bring enough evidence to understand real need of community. The sample selected randomly was included 70 immigrant families which work as sweepers in the slum community in Bangalore, Karnataka. The result reveals that there is a gap between what a community is and what organizations, government and members of society apart from this community think about them. Consequently, it is learnt that to supply any service or bring any change to slum community, we need to apply new skill to have dialogue and understand each other before providing any services. Also to bring change in the life of those marginal groups at large we need to have collaboration as their challenges are collective and need to address by different group and collaboration will be necessary. The outcome of research helped researcher to see the area of need for new method of dialogue and collaboration as well as a framework for collaboration and dialogue that were main focus of the paper. The researcher used observation experience out of ten NGO’s and their activities to create framework for dialogue and collaboration.

Keywords: collaboration, dialogue, community development, empowerment

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3530 A Model of Empowerment Evaluation of Knowledge Management in Private Banks Using Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Nazanin Pilevari, Kamyar Mahmoodi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to provide a model based on fuzzy inference system for evaluating empowerment of Knowledge management. The first prototype of the research was developed based on the study of literature. In the next step, experts were provided with these models and after implementing consensus-based reform, the views of Fuzzy Delphi experts and techniques, components and Index research model were finalized. Culture, structure, IT and leadership were considered as dimensions of empowerment. Then, In order to collect and extract data for fuzzy inference system based on knowledge and Experience, the experts were interviewed. The values obtained from designed fuzzy inference system, made review and assessment of the organization's empowerment of Knowledge management possible. After the design and validation of systems to measure indexes ,empowerment of Knowledge management and inputs into fuzzy inference) in the AYANDEH Bank, a questionnaire was used. In the case of this bank, the system output indicates that the status of empowerment of Knowledge management, culture, organizational structure and leadership are at the moderate level and information technology empowerment are relatively high. Based on these results, the status of knowledge management empowerment in AYANDE Bank, was moderate. Eventually, some suggestions for improving the current situation of banks were provided. According to studies of research history, the use of powerful tools in Fuzzy Inference System for assessment of Knowledge management and knowledge management empowerment such an assessment in the field of banking, are the innovation of this Research.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management empowerment, fuzzy inference system, fuzzy Delphi

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3529 Reducing Tobacco Consumption in a Rural Village of Sri Lanka Though a Community Based Health Promotion Intervention

Authors: B. A. N. Madubashini, S. Anojan, S. Thurka, N. M. C. J. Nawasinghe, G. A. S. Milanga, W. M. I. S. Weerakoon, I. D. N. Ihalahewage

Abstract:

Evidence-based health promotional approaches are known to be successful ways of reducing tobacco consumption in a rural village. Hence tobacco prevention is essential in improving lives of people, and community-based approaches are considered as effective. This community-based health promotion intervention implemented to reduce high consumption of tobacco in a rural area in Sri Lanka. This intervention was conducted in a rural village of Sri Lanka. In the beginning, facilitation discussions conducted with community members to identify determinants leading to tobacco consumption among villagers. Intervention was planed based on those determinants. Community actions through small active groups to demote smoking were generated. Children groups displayed cigarette buds collected around common places such as temple to community gatherings including funeral welfare society elaborating the cost and the money spent on cigarettes. A till (expenditure box) was introduced, and smokers in family were encouraged to put money on a cigarette to it when they decide to smoke instead. This way they could monitor potential savings if quit. Children groups introduced a tool 'Engalanthe puthata (for overseas son)' to shops. Shop owners agreed to add a pebble to a box whenever they sell a cigarette. The money spent on cigarettes in that shop was calculated regularly, and that was considered as money sent to tobacco company overseas, so to the son of the company owner. This was useful to encourage quitting and to stop selling cigarette in the shops. All four shops in the community volunteered to stop selling cigarettes. Eleven percent of users quitted smoking and 37% users reduced smoking. Child empowerment was high, and 60% of children had shown their disapproval on smoking publicly at least once. Similar community-based health promotion intervention can be used to generate community actions leading to reduction of tobacco consumption.

Keywords: cigarette, community, empowerment, health promotion, intervention

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3528 Measuring the Economic Empowerment of Women Using an Index: An Application to Small-Scale Fisheries and Agriculture in Sebaste, Antique

Authors: Ritchie Ann Dionela, Jorilyn Tabuena

Abstract:

This study measured the economic empowerment of women from small-scale fisheries and agriculture sector of Sebaste, Antique. There were a total of 199 respondents selected using stratified random sampling. The Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) Index was used in measuring the economic empowerment of study participants. Through this composite index, it was determined how women scored in the five domains of empowerment, namely production, resources, income, leadership, and time. The result of the study shows that women fishers are more economically empowered than women farmers. The two sectors showed high disparity in their scores on input in productive decision; autonomy in production; ownership of assets; control over use of income; group member; speaking in public; workload; and leisure. Group member indicator contributed largely to the disempowered population in both sectors. Although income of women farmers is higher than that of women fishers, the latter are still economically empowered which suggests that economic empowerment is not dependent on income alone. The study recommends that fisheries and agriculture organization for women should be established so that their needs and concerns will be heard and addressed. It is further recommended that government projects focused on enhancing women empowerment should also give importance on other factors such as organization and leisure and not just income to totally promote of women empowerment. Further studies on measuring women’s empowerment using other methods should be pursued to provide more information on women’s well-being.

Keywords: agriculture, composite index, fisheries, women economic empowerment

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3527 Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits, Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of Region 5

Authors: Alireza Ladan Moghaddam, Hadi Rezghi Shirsavar, Panteha Pirayandeh

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits (Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of region 5). To achieve this objective, a descriptive research in correlation type has been used. The statistical population of this research includes all teachers and administrators in Tehran Public Schools of region 5. In this study, a five factor model of personality and a 49-item questionnaire to measure empowerment of teachers have been used to assess personality traits of administrators and the teachers' empowerment, respectively. The research hypotheses test has been done using SPSS and LISREL software. The results show that in general there is no significant relationship between personality traits of administrators and teachers' empowerment, and among the 5 dimensions of personality, there is only significant relationship between the characteristic of administrators' agreeableness and teachers' empowerment. The results suggested a way to improve knowledge and skills of teachers a top priority administrator consider. In addition, the performance of teachers affected by the performance of the executive directors, so it is necessary to improve their yield towering notice.

Keywords: personality traits, five factor model of personality, teacher, empowerment

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3526 Community Communications and Micro-Level Shifts: The Case of Video Volunteers’ IndiaUnheard Program

Authors: Pooja Ichplani, Archna Kumar, Jessica Mayberry

Abstract:

Community Video (CV) is a participatory medium that has immense potential to strengthen community communications and amplify the voice of people for their empowerment. By building capacities especially of marginalized community groups and providing a platform to freely voice their ideas, CV endeavours to bring about shifts towards more participatory, bottom up development processes and greater power in the hands of the people, especially the disadvantaged. In various parts of the world, among marginalized community groups, community video initiatives have become instrumental in facilitating micro-level, yet significant changes in communities. Video Volunteers (VV) is an organization that promotes community media and works towards providing disadvantaged communities with journalistic, critical thinking and creative skills they need for catalysing change in their communities. Working since 2002, VV has evolved a unique community media model fostering locally-owned and managed media production, as well as building people’s capacities to articulate and share their perspectives on the issues that matter to them – on a local and a global scale. Further, by integrating a livelihood aspect within its model, VV has actively involved people from poor marginalized communities and provided them a new tool for serving their communities whilst keeping their identities intact. This paper, based on a qualitative research, seeks to map the range of VV impacts in communities and provide an in-depth analysis of factors contributing to VV impacting change in communities. Study tools included content analysis of a longitudinal sample of impact videos produced, narratives of community correspondents using the Most Significant Change Technique (MSCT) and interviews with key informants. Using a multi-fold analysis, the paper seeks to gain holistic insights. At the first level, the paper profiles the Community Correspondents (CCs), spearheading change, and maps their personal and social context and their perceptions about VV in their personal lives. Secondly, at an organizational level, the paper maps the significance of impacts brought about in the CCs communities and their association, challenges and achievements while working with VV. Lastly, at the community level, it consists of analysis of the nature of impacts achieved and aspects influencing the same. Finally, the study critiques the functioning of Video Volunteers as a community media initiative using the tipping point theory emphasizing on the power of context that is constituted by their socio-cultural environment. It concludes how empowerment of its Community Correspondents, multifarious activities during pre and post video production, and other innovative mechanisms have enabled in center staging issues of marginalized communities and snowballing processes of change in communities.

Keywords: community media, empowerment, participatory communication, social change

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