Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20067

Search results for: finite domain time difference

20067 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim


In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
20066 [Keynote Talk]: Analysis of One Dimensional Advection Diffusion Model Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Vijay Kumar Kukreja, Ravneet Kaur


In this paper, one dimensional advection diffusion model is analyzed using finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme. A practical problem of filter cake washing of chemical engineering is analyzed. The model is converted into dimensionless form. For the grid Ω × ω = [0, 1] × [0, T], the Crank-Nicolson spatial derivative scheme is used in space domain and forward difference scheme is used in time domain. The scheme is found to be unconditionally convergent, stable, first order accurate in time and second order accurate in space domain. For a test problem, numerical results are compared with the analytical ones for different values of parameter.

Keywords: Crank-Nicolson scheme, Lax-Richtmyer theorem, stability, consistency, Peclet number, Greschgorin circle

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
20065 Time-Domain Analysis of Pulse Parameters Effects on Crosstalk in High-Speed Circuits

Authors: Loubna Tani, Nabih Elouzzani


Crosstalk among interconnects and printed-circuit board (PCB) traces is a major limiting factor of signal quality in high-speed digital and communication equipments especially when fast data buses are involved. Such a bus is considered as a planar multiconductor transmission line. This paper will demonstrate how the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method provides an exact solution of the transmission-line equations to analyze the near end and the far end crosstalk. In addition, this study makes it possible to analyze the rise time effect on the near and far end voltages of the victim conductor. The paper also discusses a statistical analysis, based upon a set of several simulations. Such analysis leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon and yields useful information.

Keywords: multiconductor transmission line, crosstalk, finite difference time domain (FDTD), printed-circuit board (PCB), rise time, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
20064 Parallelizing the Hybrid Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain/Finite Difference Time Domain Algorithms for the Large-Scale Electromagnetic Simulations Using Massage Passing Interface Library

Authors: Donggun Lee, Q-Han Park


Due to its coarse grid, the Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain (PSTD) method has advantages against the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method in terms of memory requirement and operation time. However, since the efficiency of parallelization is much lower than that of FDTD, PSTD is not a useful method for a large-scale electromagnetic simulation in a parallel platform. In this paper, we propose the parallelization technique of the hybrid PSTD-FDTD (HPF) method which simultaneously possesses the efficient parallelizability of FDTD and the quick speed and low memory requirement of PSTD. Parallelization cost of the HPF method is exactly the same as the parallel FDTD, but still, it occupies much less memory space and has faster operation speed than the parallel FDTD. Experiments in distributed memory systems have shown that the parallel HPF method saves up to 96% of the operation time and reduces 84% of the memory requirement. Also, by combining the OpenMP library to the MPI library, we further reduced the operation time of the parallel HPF method by 50%.

Keywords: FDTD, hybrid, MPI, OpenMP, PSTD, parallelization

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
20063 Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element

Authors: Xiaofei Hu, Zhiyu Cai, Weian Yao


V-notch problem under dynamic loading condition is considered in this paper. In the time domain, the precise time domain expanding algorithm is employed, in which a self-adaptive technique is carried out to improve computing accuracy. By expanding variables in each time interval, the recursive finite element formulas are derived. In the space domain, a Symplectic Analytical Singular Element (SASE) for V-notch problem is constructed addressing the stress singularity of the notch tip. Combining with the conventional finite elements, the proposed SASE can be used to solve the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) in a simple way. Numerical results show that the proposed SASE for V-notch problem subjected to dynamic loading condition is effective and efficient.

Keywords: V-notch, dynamic stress intensity factor, finite element method, precise time domain expanding algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
20062 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller


In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
20061 Experimental Approach for Determining Hemi-Anechoic Characteristics of Engineering Acoustical Test Chambers

Authors: Santiago Montoya-Ospina, Raúl E. Jiménez-Mejía, Rosa Elvira Correa Gutiérrez


An experimental methodology is proposed for determining hemi-anechoic characteristics of an engineering acoustic room built at the facilities of Universidad Nacional de Colombia to evaluate the free-field conditions inside the chamber. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones in both, the source and the sound propagation inside the chamber. Acoustic source was modeled by using monopole radiation pattern from punctual sources and the image method was considered for dealing with the reflective plane of the room, that means, the floor without insulation. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was implemented to calculate the sound pressure value at every spatial point of the chamber. Comparison between theoretical and experimental data yields to minimum error, giving satisfactory results for the hemi-anechoic characterization of the chamber.

Keywords: acoustic impedance, finite-difference time-domain, hemi-anechoic characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
20060 A 2D Numerical Model of Viscous Flow-Cylinder Interaction

Authors: Bang-Fuh Chen, Chih-Chun Chu


The flow induced cylinder vibration or earthquake-induced cylinder motion are moving in an arbitrary direction with time. The phenomenon of flow across cylinder is highly nonlinear and a linear-superposition of flow pattern across separated oscillating direction of cylinder motion is not valid to obtain the flow pattern across a cylinder oscillating in multiple directions. A novel finite difference scheme is developed to simulate the viscous flow across an arbitrary moving circular cylinder and we call this a complete 2D (two-dimensional) flow-cylinder interaction. That is, the cylinder is simultaneously oscillating in x- and y- directions. The time-dependent domain and meshes associated with the moving cylinder are mapped to a fixed computational domain and meshes, which are time independent. The numerical results are validated by several bench mark studies. Several examples are introduced including flow across steam-wise, transverse oscillating cylinder and flow across rotating cylinder and flow across arbitrary moving cylinder. The Morison’s formula can not describe the complex interaction phenomenon between cross flow and oscillating circular cylinder. And the completed 2D computational fluid dynamic analysis should be made to obtain the correct hydrodynamic force acting on the cylinder.

Keywords: 2D cylinder, finite-difference method, flow-cylinder interaction, flow induced vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
20059 Quality Evaluation of Backfill Grout in Tunnel Boring Machine Tail Void Using Impact-Echo (IE): Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) Numerical Analysis

Authors: Ju-Young Choi, Ki-Il Song, Kyoung-Yul Kim


During Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) tunnel excavation, backfill grout should be injected after the installation of segment lining to ensure the stability of the tunnel and to minimize ground deformation. If grouting is not sufficient to fill the gap between the segments and rock mass, hydraulic pressures occur in the void, which can negatively influence the stability of the tunnel. Recently the tendency to use TBM tunnelling method to replace the drill and blast(NATM) method is increasing. However, there are only a few studies of evaluation of backfill grout. This study evaluates the TBM tunnel backfill state using Impact-Echo(IE). 3-layers, segment-grout-rock mass, are simulated by FLAC 2D, FDM-based software. The signals obtained from numerical analysis and IE test are analyzed by Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT) in time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain. The result of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of backfill grouting in tail void.

Keywords: tunnel boring machine, backfill grout, impact-echo method, time-frequency domain analysis, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
20058 Coupling of Two Discretization Schemes for the Lattice Boltzmann Equation

Authors: Tobias Horstmann, Thomas Le Garrec, Daniel-Ciprian Mincu, Emmanuel Lévêque


Despite the efficiency and low dissipation of the stream-collide formulation of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm, which is nowadays implemented in many commercial LBM solvers, there are certain situations, e.g. mesh transition, in which a classical finite-volume or finite-difference formulation of the LB algorithm still bear advantages. In this paper, we present an algorithm that combines the node-based streaming of the distribution functions with a second-order finite volume discretization of the advection term of the BGK-LB equation on a uniform D2Q9 lattice. It is shown that such a coupling is possible for a multi-domain approach as long as the overlap, or buffer zone, between two domains, is achieved on at least 2Δx. This also implies that a direct coupling (without buffer zone) of a stream-collide and finite-volume LB algorithm on a single grid is not stable. The critical parameter in the coupling is the CFL number equal to 1 that is imposed by the stream-collide algorithm. Nevertheless, an explicit filtering step on the finite-volume domain can stabilize the solution. In a further investigation, we demonstrate how such a coupling can be used for mesh transition, resulting in an intrinsic conservation of mass over the interface.

Keywords: algorithm coupling, finite volume formulation, grid refinement, Lattice Boltzmann method

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
20057 Fractional Euler Method and Finite Difference Formula Using Conformable Fractional Derivative

Authors: Ramzi B. Albadarneh


In this paper, we use the new definition of fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative to derive some finite difference formulas and its error terms which are used to solve fractional differential equations and fractional partial differential equations, also to derive fractional Euler method and its error terms which can be applied to solve fractional differential equations. To provide the contribution of our work some applications on finite difference formulas and Euler Method are given.

Keywords: conformable fractional derivative, finite difference formula, fractional derivative, finite difference formula

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
20056 Modal FDTD Method for Wave Propagation Modeling Customized for Parallel Computing

Authors: H. Samadiyeh, R. Khajavi


A new FD-based procedure, modal finite difference method (MFDM), is proposed for seismic wave propagation modeling, in which simulation is dealt with in the modal space. The method employs eigenvalues of a characteristic matrix formed by appropriate time-space FD stencils. Since MFD runs for different modes are totally independent of each other, MFDM can easily be parallelized while considerable simplicity in parallel-algorithm is also achieved. There is no requirement to any domain-decomposition procedure and inter-core data exchange. More important is the possibility to skip processing of less-significant modes, which enables one to adjust the procedure up to the level of accuracy needed. Thus, in addition to considerable ease of parallel programming, computation and storage costs are significantly reduced. The method is qualified for its efficiency by some numerical examples.

Keywords: Finite Difference Method, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), Message Passing Interface (MPI), Modal, Wave propagation

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20055 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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20054 Cardio Autonomic Response during Mental Stress in the Wards of Normal and Hypertensive Parents

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, Rekha D. Kini, Amrutha Mary


Objective: To assess and compare the cardiac autonomic activity after mental stress among the wards of normal and hypertensive parents. Methods: The study included 67 subjects, 30 of them had a parental history of hypertension and rest 37 had normotensive parents. Subjects were divided into control group (wards of normotensive parents) and Study group (wards of hypertensive parents). The height, weight were noted, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was also calculated. The mental stress test was carried out. Blood pressure (BP) and electro cardiogram (ECG) was recorded during normal breathing and after mental stress test. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was done by time domain method HRV was recorded and analyzed by the time-domain method. Analysis of HRV in the time-domain was done using the software version 1.1 AIIMS, New Delhi. The data obtained was analyzed using student’s t-test followed by Mann-Whitney U-test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between study group and control group following mental stress. In the time domain analysis, the mean value of pNN50 and RMSSD of the study group was not significantly different from the control group after the mental stress test. Conclusion: The study thus concluded that there was no significant difference in HRV between study group and control group following mental stress.

Keywords: heart rate variability, time domain analysis, mental stress, hypertensive

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20053 Comparison of Frequency-Domain Contention Schemes in Wireless LANs

Authors: Li Feng


In IEEE 802.11 networks, it is well known that the traditional time-domain contention often leads to low channel utilization. The first frequency-domain contention scheme, the time to frequency (T2F), has recently been proposed to improve the channel utilization and has attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, we survey the latest research progress on the weighed frequency-domain contention. We present the basic ideas, work principles of these related schemes and point out their differences. This paper is very useful for further study on frequency-domain contention.

Keywords: 802.11, wireless LANs, frequency-domain contention, T2F

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20052 Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation

Authors: Akif Kutlu, Merve Ermis, Nihal Eratlı, Mehmet H. Omurtag


The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.

Keywords: curved beam, dynamic analysis, elastic foundation, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
20051 Detection of Parkinsonian Freezing of Gait

Authors: Sang-Hoon Park, Yeji Ho, Gwang-Moon Eom


Fast and accurate detection of Freezing of Gait (FOG) is desirable for appropriate application of cueing which has been shown to ameliorate FOG. Utilization of frequency spectrum of leg acceleration to derive the freeze index requires much calculation and it would lead to delayed cueing. We hypothesized that FOG can be reasonably detected from the time domain amplitude of foot acceleration. A time instant was recognized as FOG if the mean amplitude of the acceleration in the time window surrounding the time instant was in the specific FOG range. Parameters required in the FOG detection was optimized by simulated annealing. The suggested time domain methods showed performances comparable to those of frequency domain methods.

Keywords: freezing of gait, detection, Parkinson's disease, time-domain method

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
20050 3-D Modeling of Particle Size Reduction from Micro to Nano Scale Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Himanshu Singh, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya


This paper adopts a top-down approach for mathematical modeling to predict the size reduction from micro to nano-scale through persistent etching. The process is simulated using a finite difference approach. Previously, various researchers have simulated the etching process for 1-D and 2-D substrates. It consists of two processes: 1) Convection-Diffusion in the etchant domain; 2) Chemical reaction at the surface of the particle. Since the process requires analysis along moving boundary, partial differential equations involved cannot be solved using conventional methods. In 1-D, this problem is very similar to Stefan's problem of moving ice-water boundary. A fixed grid method using finite volume method is very popular for modelling of etching on a one and two dimensional substrate. Other popular approaches include moving grid method and level set method. In this method, finite difference method was used to discretize the spherical diffusion equation. Due to symmetrical distribution of etchant, the angular terms in the equation can be neglected. Concentration is assumed to be constant at the outer boundary. At the particle boundary, the concentration of the etchant is assumed to be zero since the rate of reaction is much faster than rate of diffusion. The rate of reaction is proportional to the velocity of the moving boundary of the particle. Modelling of the above reaction was carried out using Matlab. The initial particle size was taken to be 50 microns. The density, molecular weight and diffusion coefficient of the substrate were taken as 2.1 gm/cm3, 60 and 10-5 cm2/s respectively. The etch-rate was found to decline initially and it gradually became constant at 0.02µ/s (1.2µ/min). The concentration profile was plotted along with space at different time intervals. Initially, a sudden drop is observed at the particle boundary due to high-etch rate. This change becomes more gradual with time due to declination of etch rate.

Keywords: particle size reduction, micromixer, FDM modelling, wet etching

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
20049 Parametric Analysis of Lumped Devices Modeling Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain

Authors: Felipe M. de Freitas, Icaro V. Soares, Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Úrsula D. C. Resende


The SPICE-based simulators are quite robust and widely used for simulation of electronic circuits, their algorithms support linear and non-linear lumped components and they can manipulate an expressive amount of encapsulated elements. Despite the great potential of these simulators based on SPICE in the analysis of quasi-static electromagnetic field interaction, that is, at low frequency, these simulators are limited when applied to microwave hybrid circuits in which there are both lumped and distributed elements. Usually the spatial discretization of the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is done according to the actual size of the element under analysis. After spatial discretization, the Courant Stability Criterion calculates the maximum temporal discretization accepted for such spatial discretization and for the propagation velocity of the wave. This criterion guarantees the stability conditions for the leapfrogging of the Yee algorithm; however, it is known that for the field update, the stability of the complete FDTD procedure depends on factors other than just the stability of the Yee algorithm, because the FDTD program needs other algorithms in order to be useful in engineering problems. Examples of these algorithms are Absorbent Boundary Conditions (ABCs), excitation sources, subcellular techniques, grouped elements, and non-uniform or non-orthogonal meshes. In this work, the influence of the stability of the FDTD method in the modeling of concentrated elements such as resistive sources, resistors, capacitors, inductors and diode will be evaluated. In this paper is proposed, therefore, the electromagnetic modeling of electronic components in order to create models that satisfy the needs for simulations of circuits in ultra-wide frequencies. The models of the resistive source, the resistor, the capacitor, the inductor, and the diode will be evaluated, among the mathematical models for lumped components in the LE-FDTD method (Lumped-Element Finite-Difference Time-Domain), through the parametric analysis of Yee cells size which discretizes the lumped components. In this way, it is sought to find an ideal cell size so that the analysis in FDTD environment is in greater agreement with the expected circuit behavior, maintaining the stability conditions of this method. Based on the mathematical models and the theoretical basis of the required extensions of the FDTD method, the computational implementation of the models in Matlab® environment is carried out. The boundary condition Mur is used as the absorbing boundary of the FDTD method. The validation of the model is done through the comparison between the obtained results by the FDTD method through the electric field values and the currents in the components, and the analytical results using circuit parameters.

Keywords: hybrid circuits, LE-FDTD, lumped element, parametric analysis

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20048 Basic Calibration and Normalization Techniques for Time Domain Reflectometry Measurements

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum


The study of dielectric properties in a binary mixture of liquids is very useful to understand the liquid structure, molecular interaction, dynamics, and kinematics of the mixture. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is a powerful tool for studying the cooperation and molecular dynamics of the H-bonded system. In this paper, we discuss the basic calibration and normalization procedure for time-domain reflectometry measurements. Our approach is to explain the different types of error occur during TDR measurements and how these errors can be eliminated or minimized.

Keywords: time domain reflectometry measurement techinque, cable and connector loss, oscilloscope loss, and normalization technique

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20047 Improvement of the 3D Finite Element Analysis of High Voltage Power Transformer Defects in Time Domain

Authors: M. Rashid Hussain, Shady S. Refaat


The high voltage power transformer is the most essential part of the electrical power utilities. Reliability on the transformers is the utmost concern, and any failure of the transformers can lead to catastrophic losses in electric power utility. The causes of transformer failure include insulation failure by partial discharge, core and tank failure, cooling unit failure, current transformer failure, etc. For the study of power transformer defects, finite element analysis (FEA) can provide valuable information on the severity of defects. FEA provides a more accurate representation of complex geometries because they consider thermal, electrical, and environmental influences on the insulation models to obtain basic characteristics of the insulation system during normal and partial discharge conditions. The purpose of this paper is the time domain analysis of defects 3D model of high voltage power transformer using FEA to study the electric field distribution at different points on the defects.

Keywords: power transformer, finite element analysis, dielectric response, partial discharge, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
20046 Design of an Ultra High Frequency Rectifier for Wireless Power Systems by Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain

Authors: Felipe M. de Freitas, Ícaro V. Soares, Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Úrsula D. C. Resende


There is a dispersed energy in Radio Frequencies (RF) that can be reused to power electronics circuits such as: sensors, actuators, identification devices, among other systems, without wire connections or a battery supply requirement. In this context, there are different types of energy harvesting systems, including rectennas, coil systems, graphene and new materials. A secondary step of an energy harvesting system is the rectification of the collected signal which may be carried out, for example, by the combination of one or more Schottky diodes connected in series or shunt. In the case of a rectenna-based system, for instance, the diode used must be able to receive low power signals at ultra-high frequencies. Therefore, it is required low values of series resistance, junction capacitance and potential barrier voltage. Due to this low-power condition, voltage multiplier configurations are used such as voltage doublers or modified bridge converters. Lowpass filter (LPF) at the input, DC output filter, and a resistive load are also commonly used in the rectifier design. The electronic circuits projects are commonly analyzed through simulation in SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) environment. Despite the remarkable potential of SPICE-based simulators for complex circuit modeling and analysis of quasi-static electromagnetic fields interaction, i.e., at low frequency, these simulators are limited and they cannot model properly applications of microwave hybrid circuits in which there are both, lumped elements as well as distributed elements. This work proposes, therefore, the electromagnetic modelling of electronic components in order to create models that satisfy the needs for simulations of circuits in ultra-high frequencies, with application in rectifiers coupled to antennas, as in energy harvesting systems, that is, in rectennas. For this purpose, the numerical method FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) is applied and SPICE computational tools are used for comparison. In the present work, initially the Ampere-Maxwell equation is applied to the equations of current density and electric field within the FDTD method and its circuital relation with the voltage drop in the modeled component for the case of lumped parameter using the FDTD (Lumped-Element Finite-Difference Time-Domain) proposed in for the passive components and the one proposed in for the diode. Next, a rectifier is built with the essential requirements for operating rectenna energy harvesting systems and the FDTD results are compared with experimental measurements.

Keywords: energy harvesting system, LE-FDTD, rectenna, rectifier, wireless power systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
20045 A Non-Standard Finite Difference Scheme for the Solution of Laplace Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

Authors: Khaled Moaddy


In this paper, we present a fast and accurate numerical scheme for the solution of a Laplace equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The non-standard finite difference scheme (NSFD) is applied to construct the numerical solutions of a Laplace equation with two different Dirichlet boundary conditions. The solutions obtained using NSFD are compared with the solutions obtained using the standard finite difference scheme (SFD). The NSFD scheme is demonstrated to be reliable and efficient.

Keywords: standard finite difference schemes, non-standard schemes, Laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
20044 A TFETI Domain Decompositon Solver for von Mises Elastoplasticity Model with Combination of Linear Isotropic-Kinematic Hardening

Authors: Martin Cermak, Stanislav Sysala


In this paper we present the efficient parallel implementation of elastoplastic problems based on the TFETI (Total Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting) domain decomposition method. This approach allow us to use parallel solution and compute this nonlinear problem on the supercomputers and decrease the solution time and compute problems with millions of DOFs. In our approach we consider an associated elastoplastic model with the von Mises plastic criterion and the combination of linear isotropic-kinematic hardening law. This model is discretized by the implicit Euler method in time and by the finite element method in space. We consider the system of nonlinear equations with a strongly semismooth and strongly monotone operator. The semismooth Newton method is applied to solve this nonlinear system. Corresponding linearized problems arising in the Newton iterations are solved in parallel by the above mentioned TFETI. The implementation of this problem is realized in our in-house MatSol packages developed in MATLAB.

Keywords: isotropic-kinematic hardening, TFETI, domain decomposition, parallel solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
20043 A Hyperexponential Approximation to Finite-Time and Infinite-Time Ruin Probabilities of Compound Poisson Processes

Authors: Amir T. Payandeh Najafabadi


This article considers the problem of evaluating infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability under a given compound Poisson surplus process by approximating the claim size distribution by a finite mixture exponential, say Hyperexponential, distribution. It restates the infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability as a solvable ordinary differential equation (or a partial differential equation). Application of our findings has been given through a simulation study.

Keywords: ruin probability, compound poisson processes, mixture exponential (hyperexponential) distribution, heavy-tailed distributions

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20042 The Lubrication Regimes Recognition of a Pressure-Fed Journal Bearing by Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals

Authors: S. Hosseini, M. Ahmadi Najafabadi, M. Akhlaghi


The health of the journal bearings is very important in preventing unforeseen breakdowns in rotary machines, and poor lubrication is one of the most important factors for producing the bearing failures. Hydrodynamic lubrication (HL), mixed lubrication (ML), and boundary lubrication (BL) are three regimes of a journal bearing lubrication. This paper uses acoustic emission (AE) measurement technique to correlate features of the AE signals to the three lubrication regimes. The transitions from HL to ML based on operating factors such as rotating speed, load, inlet oil pressure by time domain and time-frequency domain signal analysis techniques are detected, and then metal-to-metal contacts between sliding surfaces of the journal and bearing are identified. It is found that there is a significant difference between theoretical and experimental operating values that are obtained for defining the lubrication regions.

Keywords: acoustic emission technique, pressure fed journal bearing, time and frequency signal analysis, metal-to-metal contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
20041 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos


A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: layered structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element

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20040 The Bernstein Expansion for Exponentials in Taylor Functions: Approximation of Fixed Points

Authors: Tareq Hamadneh, Jochen Merker, Hassan Al-Zoubi


Bernstein's expansion for exponentials in Taylor functions provides lower and upper optimization values for the range of its original function. these values converge to the original functions if the degree is elevated or the domain subdivided. Taylor polynomial can be applied so that the exponential is a polynomial of finite degree over a given domain. Bernstein's basis has two main properties: its sum equals 1, and positive for all x 2 (0; 1). In this work, we prove the existence of fixed points for exponential functions in a given domain using the optimization values of Bernstein. The Bernstein basis of finite degree T over a domain D is defined non-negatively. Any polynomial p of degree t can be expanded into the Bernstein form of maximum degree t ≤ T, where we only need to compute the coefficients of Bernstein in order to optimize the original polynomial. The main property is that p(x) is approximated by the minimum and maximum Bernstein coefficients (Bernstein bound). If the bound is contained in the given domain, then we say that p(x) has fixed points in the same domain.

Keywords: Bernstein polynomials, Stability of control functions, numerical optimization, Taylor function

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20039 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas


The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: collocation method, cubic trigonometric B-spline, finite difference, wave equation

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20038 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde


The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Keywords: excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, and time domain reflectometry technique

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