Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1334

Search results for: seismic waves

1334 Analysis of Seismic Waves Generated by Blasting Operations and their Response on Buildings

Authors: S. Ziaran, M. Musil, M. Cekan, O. Chlebo


The paper analyzes the response of buildings and industrially structures on seismic waves (low frequency mechanical vibration) generated by blasting operations. The principles of seismic analysis can be applied for different kinds of excitation such as: earthquakes, wind, explosions, random excitation from local transportation, periodic excitation from large rotating and/or machines with reciprocating motion, metal forming processes such as forging, shearing and stamping, chemical reactions, construction and earth moving work, and other strong deterministic and random energy sources caused by human activities. The article deals with the response of seismic, low frequency, mechanical vibrations generated by nearby blasting operations on a residential home. The goal was to determine the fundamental natural frequencies of the measured structure; therefore it is important to determine the resonant frequencies to design a suitable modal damping. The article also analyzes the package of seismic waves generated by blasting (Primary waves – P-waves and Secondary waves S-waves) and investigated the transfer regions. For the detection of seismic waves resulting from an explosion, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and modal analysis, in the frequency domain, is used and the signal was acquired and analyzed also in the time domain. In the conclusions the measured results of seismic waves caused by blasting in a nearby quarry and its effect on a nearby structure (house) is analyzed. The response on the house, including the fundamental natural frequency and possible fatigue damage is also assessed.

Keywords: building structure, seismic waves, spectral analysis, structural response

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1333 Analyzing Time Lag in Seismic Waves and Its Effects on Isolated Structures

Authors: Faizan Ahmad, Jenna Wong


Time lag between peak values of horizontal and vertical seismic waves is a well-known phenomenon. Horizontal and vertical seismic waves, secondary and primary waves in nature respectively, travel through different layers of soil and the travel time is dependent upon the medium of wave transmission. In seismic analysis, many standardized codes do not require the actual vertical acceleration to be part of the analysis procedure. Instead, a factor load addition for a particular site is used to capture strength demands in case of vertical excitation. This study reviews the effects of vertical accelerations to analyze the behavior of a linearly rubber isolated structure in different time lag situations and frequency content by application of historical and simulated ground motions using SAP2000. The response of the structure is reviewed under multiple sets of ground motions and trends based on time lag and frequency variations are drawn. The accuracy of these results is discussed and evaluated to provide reasoning for use of real vertical excitations in seismic analysis procedures, especially for isolated structures.

Keywords: seismic analysis, vertical accelerations, time lag, isolated structures

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1332 Discussion on Dispersion Curves of Non-penetrable Soils from in-Situ Seismic Dilatometer Measurements

Authors: Angelo Aloisio Dag, Pasquale Pasca, Massimo Fragiacomo, Ferdinando Totani, Gianfranco Totani


The estimate of the velocity of shear waves (Vs) is essential in seismic engineering to characterize the dynamic response of soils. There are various direct methods to estimate the Vs. The authors report the results of site characterization in Macerata, where they measured the Vs using the seismic dilatometer in a 100m deep borehole. The standard Vs estimation originates from the cross-correlation between the signals acquired by two geophones at increasing depths. This paper focuses on the estimate of the dependence of Vs on the wavenumber. The dispersion curves reveal an unexpected hyperbolic dispersion curve typical of Lamb waves. Interestingly, the contribution of Lamb waves may be notable up to 100m depth. The amplitude of surface waves decrease rapidly with depth: still, their influence may be essential up to depths considered unusual for standard geotechnical investigations, where their effect is generally neglected. Accordingly, these waves may bias the outcomes of the standard Vs estimations, which ignore frequency-dependent phenomena. The paper proposes an enhancement of the accepted procedure to estimate Vs and addresses the importance of Lamb waves in soil characterization.

Keywords: dispersion curve, seismic dilatometer, shear wave, soil mechanics

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1331 Dynamic Test and Numerical Analysis of Twin Tunnel

Authors: Changwon Kwak, Innjoon Park, Dongin Jang


Seismic load affects the behavior of underground structure like tunnel broadly. Seismic soil-structure interaction can play an important role in the dynamic behavior of tunnel. In this research, twin tunnel with flexible joint was physically modeled and the dynamic centrifuge test was performed to investigate seismic behavior of twin tunnel. Seismic waves have different frequency were exerted and the characteristics of response were obtained from the test. Test results demonstrated the amplification of peak acceleration in the longitudinal direction in seismic waves. The effect of the flexible joint was also verified. Additionally, 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis was conducted and the analysis results exhibited good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis, dynamic centrifuge test, flexible joint, seismic soil-structure interaction

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1330 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi


The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

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1329 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

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1328 Application of the Shallow Seismic Refraction Technique to Characterize the Foundation Rocks at the Proposed Tushka New City Site, South Egypt

Authors: Abdelnasser Mohamed, R. Fat-Helbary, H. El Khashab, K. EL Faragawy


Tushka New City is one of the proposed new cities in South Egypt. It is located in the eastern part of the western Desert of Egypt between latitude 22.878º and 22.909º N and longitude 31.525º and 31.635º E, about 60 kilometers far from Abu Simble City. The main target of the present study is the investigation of the shallow subsurface structure conditions and the dynamic characteristics of subsurface rocks using the shallow seismic refraction technique. Forty seismic profiles were conducted to calculate the P- and S-waves velocity at the study area. P- and SH-waves velocities can be used to obtain the geotechnical parameters and also SH-wave can be used to study the vibration characteristics of the near surface layers, which are important for earthquakes resistant structure design. The output results of the current study indicated that the P-waves velocity ranged from 450 to 1800 m/sec and from 1550 to 3000 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The SH-waves velocity ranged from 300 to 1100 m/sec and from 1000 to 1800 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The thickness of the surface layer and the depth to the bedrock layer were determined along each profile. The bulk density ρ of soil layers that used in this study was calculated for all layers at each profile in the study area. In conclusion, the area is mainly composed of compacted sandstone with high wave velocities, which is considered as a good foundation rock. The south western part of the study area has minimum values of the computed P- and SH-waves velocities, minimum values of the bulk density and the maximum value of the mean thickness of the surface layer.

Keywords: seismic refraction, Tushak new city, P-waves, SH-waves

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1327 Moho Undulations beneath South of Egypt, Using the Seismic Waves Generated by Tele Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny, Haroon Elshaikh, Gaber Hassib, Yassin Ali


The Moho discontinuity undulations beneath the southern part of Egypt have been defined using the seismic waves generated by tele earthquakes. These earthquakes have been recorded by the Aswan seismic network, which consists of 10 seismic stations established around the lake of Nasser. An additional seismic station was located towards the east of the Lake of Nasser by about ~ 150 km. Receiver functions and H-k stacking methods were used for obtaining the depths of Moho discontinuity and the Vp/Vs ratios beneath each seismic station. Our results revealed that, the depths of Moho discontinuity beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser range from 36 to 39 km, with an average value of 37.5 km. These results are consistent with the previous works done on the same area. The obtained Vp/Vs ratios for the crust of this area were ranged from 1.73 to 1.86, with an average value of 1.79. While beneath the station located towards the east, the Moho discontinuity was detected at a shallowest depth of 27 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.82. The difference in the Moho depths beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser and the station located to the east revealed the boundary position between the Saharan Metacraton to the west and the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east. This structural boundary delineates the position of the old collision of the Oceanic crust of the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east with the Continental crust of the Saharan Metacraton to the west.

Keywords: Moho undulations, south of Egypt, seismic waves, earthquakes

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1326 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

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1325 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani


This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

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1324 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen


The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

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1323 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong


Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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1322 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang


One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

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1321 The Magnitude Scale Evaluation of Cross-Platform Internet Public Opinion

Authors: Yi Wang, Xun Liang


This paper introduces a model of internet public opinion waves, which describes the message propagation and measures the influence of a detected event. We collect data on public opinion propagation from different platforms on the internet, including micro-blogs and news. Then, we compare the spread of public opinion to the seismic waves and correspondently define the P-wave and S-wave and other essential attributes and characteristics in the process. Further, a model is established to evaluate the magnitude scale of the events. In the end, a practical example is used to analyze the influence of network public opinion and test the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed model.

Keywords: internet public opinion waves (IPOW), magnitude scale, cross-platform, information propagation

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1320 Implementation of Integrated Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves and Waveform Inversion Techniques for Seismic Hazard Estimation with Emphasis on Associated Uncertainty: A Case Study at Zafarana Wind Turbine Towers Farm, Egypt

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal, Yuji Yagi, Heba Kamal


In this study, an integrated multi-channel analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique is applied to explore the geotechnical parameters of subsurface layers at the Zafarana wind farm. Moreover, a seismic hazard procedure based on the extended deterministic technique is used to estimate the seismic hazard load for the investigated area. The study area includes many active fault systems along the Gulf of Suez that cause many moderate and large earthquakes. Overall, the seismic activity of the area has recently become better understood following the use of new waveform inversion methods and software to develop accurate focal mechanism solutions for recent recorded earthquakes around the studied area. These earthquakes resulted in major stress-drops in the Eastern desert and the Gulf of Suez area. These findings have helped to reshape the understanding of the seismotectonic environment of the Gulf of Suez area, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on the collected new information and data, this study uses an extended deterministic approach to re-examine the seismic hazard for the Gulf of Suez region, particularly the wind turbine towers at Zafarana Wind Farm and its vicinity. Alternate seismic source and magnitude-frequency relationships were combined with various indigenous attenuation relationships, adapted within a logic tree formulation, to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. We select two desired exceedance probabilities (10 and 20%) that any of the applied scenarios may exceed the largest median ground acceleration. The ground motion was calculated at 50th, 84th percentile levels.

Keywords: MASW, seismic hazard, wind turbine towers, Zafarana wind farm

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1319 Propagation of Weak Non-Linear Waves in Non-Equilibrium Flow

Authors: J. Jena, Monica Saxena


In this paper, the propagation of weak nonlinear waves in non-equilibrium flow has been studied in detail using the perturbation method. The expansive action of receding piston undergoing infinite acceleration has been discussed. Central expansion fan, compression waves and shock fronts have been discussed and the solutions up to the first order in the characteristic plane and physical plane have been obtained.

Keywords: Characteristic wave front, weak non-linear waves, central expansion fan, compression waves

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1318 Characterization of the Upper Crust in Botswana Using Vp/Vs and Poisson's Ratios from Body Waves

Authors: Rapelang E. Simon, Thebeetsile A. Olebetse, Joseph R. Maritinkole, Ruth O. Moleleke


The P and S wave seismic velocity ratios (Vp/Vs) of some aftershocks are investigated using the method ofWadati diagrams. These aftershocks occurred after the 3rdApril 2017 Botswana’s Mw 6.5 earthquake and were recorded by the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Botswana temporary network deployed from 2013 to 2018. In this paper, P and S wave data with good signal-to-noise ratiofrom twenty events of local magnitude greater or equal to 4.0are analysed with the Seisan software and used to infer properties of the upper crust in Botswana. The Vp/Vsratiosare determined from the travel-times of body waves and then converted to Poisson’s ratio, which is useful in determining the physical state of the subsurface materials. The Vp/Vs ratios of the upper crust in Botswana show regional variations from 1.70 to 1.77, with an average of 1.73. The Poisson’s ratios range from 0.24to 0.27 with an average of 0.25 and correlate well with the geological structures in Botswana.

Keywords: Botswana, earthquake, poisson's ratio, seismic velocity, Vp/Vs ratio

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1317 Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements

Authors: Zsolt Szilvágyi, Jakub Panuska, Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Ákos Wolf, Péter Tildy, Richard P. Ray


Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.

Keywords: MASW, resonant column test, SCPT, site response analysis, torsional shear test

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1316 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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1315 Assessment of Seismic Behavior of Masonry Minarets by Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


Mosques and minarets can be severely damaged as a result of earthquakes. Non-linear behavior of minarets of Mihrimah Sultan and Süleymaniye Mosques and the minaret of St. Sophia are analyzed to investigate seismic response, damage and failure mechanisms of minarets during earthquake. Selected minarets have different height and diameter. Discrete elements method was used to create the numerical minaret models. Analyses were performed using sine waves. Two parameters were used for evaluating the results: the maximum relative dislocation of adjacent drums and the maximum displacement at the top of the minaret. Both parameters were normalized by the drum diameter. The effects of minaret geometry on seismic behavior were evaluated by comparing the results of analyses.

Keywords: discrete element method, earthquake safety, nonlinear analysis, masonry structures

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1314 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang


The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

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1313 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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1312 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang


Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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1311 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan


We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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1310 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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1309 On an Experimental Method for Investigating the Dynamic Parameters of Multi-Story Buildings at Vibrating Seismic Loadings

Authors: Shakir Mamedov, Tukezban Hasanova


Research of dynamic properties of various materials and elements of structures at shock affecting and on the waves so many scientific works of the Azerbaijani scientists are devoted. However, Experimental definition of dynamic parameters of fluctuations of constructions and buildings while carries estimated character. The purpose of the present experimental researches is definition of parameters of fluctuations of installation of observations. In this case, a mockup of four floor buildings and sixteen floor skeleton-type buildings built in the Baku with the stiffening diaphragm at natural vibrating seismic affectings.

Keywords: fluctuations, seismoreceivers, dynamic experiments, acceleration

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1308 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

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1307 Study of Effects of 3D Semi-Spheriacl Basin-Shape-Ratio on the Frequency Content and Spectral Amplitudes of the Basin-Generated Surface Waves

Authors: Kamal, J. P. Narayan


In the present wok the effects of basin-shape-ratio on the frequency content and spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the associated spatial variation of ground motion amplification and differential ground motion in a 3D semi-spherical basin has been studied. A recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on the parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of the 3D viscoelastic wave equations was used to estimate seismic responses. The simulated results demonstrated the increase of both the frequency content and the spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the duration of ground motion in the basin with the increase of shape-ratio of semi-spherical basin. An increase of the average spectral amplification (ASA), differential ground motion (DGM) and the average aggravation factor (AAF) towards the centre of the semi-spherical basin was obtained.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, basin-shape-ratio effects, average spectral amplification, aggravation factors and differential ground motion

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1306 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

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1305 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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