Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 204

Search results for: luxury brands

204 Factors Impacting Shopping Behavior for Luxury Fashion Brands: A Case of National Capital Region in India

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Preeti Goel

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National Capital Region of India is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. This region has residents from all the parts of India, and their shopping behaviors are quite different. The region also has the substantial population of people from other countries. Due to high purchasing power of a large number of people, NCR is one the major markets for luxury fashion brands. Marketers of luxury fashion brands keep on adding innovative features to their products to attract the buyers. This research is an attempt to understand the major factors which impact the brand selection for these brands and other buying decisions like purchasing time and location. The research is based on primary data collected from potential buyers of luxury fashion brands and the people involved in the marketing of these brands in various roles. The research has tried to identify the relative strength of various factors on the shopping behavior for these brands.

Keywords: luxury brands, fashion, shopping, National Capital Region (NCR)

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203 Luxury in Fashion: Visual Analysis on Bag Advertising

Authors: Lama Ajinah

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Luxury brands witnessed continuous growth which followed women’s desire towards individual distinctiveness and social glare. Bags are a woman’s best friend either for aesthetic or functional purposes when she leaves her home for leisure or work. One way of women constant aspiration for being distinguished while reflecting their wealth is through handbags. Subsequently, the demand and attraction by consumers towards the dazzle of luxurious brands for personal pleasure and social status have flourished. According to the literature review, a visual analysis on luxury brands has been explored yet a focus on bags was not discussed in details. Hence, a deep analysis will be dedicated on the two segments by showcasing examples of high-end bag advertising. The research is conducted to understand advertising strategies used in promoting for luxurious products. Furthermore, the paper explores the definition of the term luxury, the condition in which it is used in, and the visual language used along with the term. As luxury is an indicator of superior satisfaction, it is obtained on two levels: a personal and a social level. The examples of luxury brand ads are selected from the last five years to uncover the latest, most common strategies used to promote for luxurious brands. The methods employed in this paper consist of literature review, semiotic analysis, and content analysis. The researcher concludes with revealing the methods used in advertising while categorizing them into various themes.

Keywords: advertising, brands, fashion, graphic design, luxury, semiotic analysis, semiology, visual analysis, visual communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
202 A Theoretical Framework: The Influence of Luxury Companies' Corporate Social Activities on Consumer Purchase Intention

Authors: Kveta Olsanova, Gina Cook, Marija Zlatic

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This paper discusses the theoretical framework suggesting the dependencies between luxury brands’ CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) variables and the purchase intention of luxury shoppers. The framework is based on a literature review and in-depth individual interviews with a sample of luxury users and buyers. The measures of the model are based on existing research and the authors' qualitative research results. The model suggests that purchase intention in the luxury segment is dependent on the luxury values (symbolic, experiential, functional and social), individual sustainable dimension (composed of societal, environmental and economic variables) and awareness of the brand’s CSR, the last two relationships being potentially moderated by certain conditions such as demographics and general attitudes towards CSR and sustainability. The model’s output is in the formulation of several hypotheses, to be tested in an upcoming quantitative study. The qualitative phase indicated that the perceived symbolic, functional and experiential value dimensions of luxury brands were stronger drivers of purchase intention compared to the sustainable dimension. The contribution of the research consists of highlighting CSR’s impact on customer purchase intent as a potential implication for luxury brand management due to two aspects: (i) consumer awareness of the existing CSR activities of luxury brands is low, and this might be challenged by the demands of Gen Z entrants into the lux industry as they are known for their positive approach to CSR; (ii) the UN’s SDGs will bring CSR to the attention of all industries, including currently 'CSR silent' segments represented by luxury. Our research should contribute to incorporation of strategic CSR into the policies and strategies of the luxury segment by providing evidence that luxury customers do care.

Keywords: CSR, luxury shoppers, purchase intention, sustainability

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201 An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Luxury Brand Avoidance in India

Authors: Glyn Atwal, Douglas Bryson

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The rapid expansion of a consumer class in India has also coincided with an increasing awareness of social and environmental issues. The overall objective of this study explores to what extent Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can lead to luxury brand avoidance within an Indian context. In-depth interviews were conducted with luxury consumers in New Delhi. The demographic breakdown of those interviewed was 16 males and 9 females, aged between 21 and 44. Antecedents of brand avoidance could be sorted according to two main categories. The first category was consumer dissatisfaction due to poor product or service performance. Customer service, particularly within the hospitality sector, was identified as a defining source of brand avoidance. The second category was negative stereotypes of brand users. A salient finding was that no single participant explicitly identified CSR as a source of brand avoidance. However, the interviews revealed that luxury consumers are in fact concerned about CSR issues but assume that international luxury brands have a positive record on CSR performance. Interestingly, participants placed greater emphasis on the broader interpretation of ‘corporate reputation’ rather than specific social or environmental issues to determine the CSR performance of a luxury brand. The findings reported in this exploratory study suggest that Indian luxury consumers do value the overall CSR performance of luxury brands expressed as a brand responsibility or brand reputation, and this is a potential source of brand avoidance. International luxury brands need, therefore, consider developing but also communicating a positive CSR strategy in order to reduce the risk of customers forming negative opinions about the brand.

Keywords: brand avoidance, CSR, luxury

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200 Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Rashid Hussain Shah, Sumera Syed, Nida Mushtaq

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Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).

Keywords: social media marketing efforts (SMME), brand equity, preference, loyalty price premium, luxury brands, international

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199 Fast Fashion Parallel to Sustainable Fashion in India

Authors: Saurav Sharma, Deepshikha Sharma, Pratibha Sharma

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This paper includes fast fashion verses sustainable fashion or slow fashion Indian based consumers. The expression ‘Fast fashion’ is generally referred to low-cost clothing collections that considered first hand copy of luxury brands, sometime interchangeably used with ‘mass fashion’. Whereas slow fashion or limited fashion which are consider to be more organic or eco-friendly. "Sustainable fashion is ethical fashion and here the consumer is just not design conscious but also social-environment conscious". Paper will deal with desire of young Indian consumer towards such luxury brands present in India, and their understanding of sustainable fashion, how to maintain the equilibrium between never newer fashion, style, and fashion sustainability.

Keywords: fast fashion, sustainable fashion, sustainability, India

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198 Consumers Perception on 'Preloved' Luxury Goods in the Malaysian Context

Authors: Noor Shakila Shaari

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Though consumptions of luxury goods have had significant attention over the years, ‘preloved’ luxury goods remains a somewhat limited area of study especially in Asian countries such as Malaysia. This paper examines the relevancy of the framework for luxury goods in context to ‘preloved’ luxury goods and whether these two holds the same perception and purchase intention in the eyes of the consumer. A conceptualize framework was derived and findings show that self-expression, conspicuous behaviour and value-expressive and social-adjustive functions are key factors to consumers perception and buying intention of ‘preloved’ luxury goods.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, consumer perception, luxury goods, Malaysia, preloved luxury goods, purchase intention

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197 Examination of How Do Smart Watches Influence the Market of Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

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In our current society, there is no need to take a look at the wristwatch to know the exact time. Smartphones, the watch in the car or the computer watch, inform us about the time too. Over hundreds of years, luxury watches have held a fascination for human beings. Consumers buy watches that cost thousands of euros, although they could buy much cheaper watches which also fulfill the function to indicate the correct time. This shows that the functional value has got a minor meaning with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. For a few years, people have an increased demand to track data like their walking distance per day or to track their sleep for example. Smart watches enable consumers to get information about these data. There exists a trend that people intend to optimise parts of their social life, and thus they get the impression that they are able to optimise themselves as human beings. With the help of smart watches, they are able to optimise parts of their productivity and to realise their targets at the same time. These smart watches are also offered as luxury models, and the question is: how will customers of traditional luxury watches react? Therefore this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people are willing to spend an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches. The self-expression model, the relationship basis model, the functional benefit representation model and the means-end-theory are chosen as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches and luxury smart watches. This evaluative approach further discusses these strategies concerning for example if consumers buy luxury watches/smart watches to express the current self or the ideal self and if human beings make decisions on expected results. The research critically evaluates that relationships are compared on the basis of their advantages. Luxury brands offer socio-emotional advantages like social functions of identification and that the strong brand personality of luxury watches and luxury smart watches helps customers to structure and retrieve brand awareness which simplifies the process of decision-making. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they are produced in the same country and cost comparable prices. It is very obvious that the market for luxury watches especially for luxury smart watches is changing way faster than it has been in the past. Therefore the research examines the market changing parameters in detail.

Keywords: buying-behaviour, brand management, consumer, luxury watch, smart watch

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
196 Consumers of Counterfeit Goods and the Role of Context: A Behavioral Perspective of the Process

Authors: Carla S. C. da Silva, Cristiano Coelho, Junio Souza

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The universe of luxury has charmed and seduced consumers for centuries. Since the middle ages, their symbols are displayed as objects of power and status, arousing desire and provoking social covetousness. In this way, the counterfeit market is growing every day, offering a group of consumers the opportunity to enter into a distinct social position, where the beautiful and shiny brand logo signals an inclusion passport to everything this group wants. This work sought to investigate how the context and the social environment can influence consumers to choose products of symbolic brands even if they are not legitimate and how this behavior is accepted in society. The study proposed: a) to evaluate the measures of knowledge and quality of a set of marks presented in the manipulation of two contexts (luxury x academic) between buyers and non-buyers of forgeries, both for original products and their correspondence with counterfeit products; b) measure the effect of layout on the verbal responses of buyers and non-buyers in relation to their assessment of the behavior of buyers of counterfeits. The present study, in addition to measuring the level of knowledge and quality attributed to each brand investigated, also verified the willingness of consumers to pay for a falsified good of the brands of predilection compared to the original study. This data can serve as a parameter for luxury brand managers in their counterfeit coping strategies. The investigation into the frequency of purchase has shown that those who buy counterfeit goods do so regularly, and there is a propensity to repeat the purchase. It was noted that a significant majority of buyers of counterfeits are prone to invest in illegality to meet their expectations of being in line with the standards of their interest groups.

Keywords: luxury, consumers, counterfeits, context, behaviorism

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195 Explicitation as a Non-Professional Translation Universal: Evidence from the Translation of Promotional Material

Authors: Julieta Alos

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Following the explicitation hypothesis, it has been proposed that explicitation is a translation universal, i.e., one of those features that characterize translated texts, and cannot be traced back to interference from a particular language. The explicitation hypothesis has been enthusiastically endorsed by some scholars, and firmly rejected by others. Focusing on the translation of promotional material from English into Arabic, specifically in the luxury goods market, the aims of this study are twofold: First, to contribute to the debate regarding the notion of explicitation in order to advance our understanding of what has become a contentious concept. Second, to add to the growing body of literature on non-professional translation by shedding light on this particular aspect of it. To this end, our study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore a corpus of brochures pertaining to the luxury industry, translated into Arabic at the local marketing agencies promoting the brands in question, by bilingual employees who have no translation training. Our data reveals a preference to avoid creative language choices in favor of more direct advertising messages, suggestive of a general tendency towards explicitation in non-professional translation, beyond what is dictated by the grammatical and stylistic constraints of Arabic. We argue, further, that this translation approach is at odds with the principles of luxury advertising, which emphasize implicitness and ambiguity, and view language as an extension of the creative process involved in the production of the luxury item.

Keywords: English-Arabic translation, explicitation, non-professional translation, promotional texts

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194 Consumer Complicity toward Luxury in Developing Countries

Authors: Marisa Hakim

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After all, collectivism moderate is one of the biggest issues that drive complicit behavior toward luxury in Indonesia and Thailand. The nature of collectivism that we find on this research would probably break the problems of the gap about the nature of complicit behavior. Precisely, we could probably drive to the further research about: 'Is there any pattern to describe consumer behavior toward counterfeit luxury goods among market in developing countries? Furthermore, is there any possibility to manipulate that pattern and bring the new concept of local/traditional luxury teste toward consumers in developing countries?'

Keywords: complicity, consumer complicity, counterfeit, consumer behavior, luxury goods, marketing, Indonesia, Thailand

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193 Customers' Prescription of Foreign versus Local Brands in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Saira Tajdar, Sajad Ahmad

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The pharmaceutical market of Pakistan showed a mixed trend since 1947. In these six decades various local and foreign pharmaceutical companies entered the market with their highly researched based formulas and brands for various diseases. It also created a very competitive market between local and foreign companies and brands. But this intense competition does not clear the picture that whether the customers (Doctors) are preferring/prescribing foreign or local brands more frequently. Previous research has been done in various markets for different brands that whether the customers in that industry prefer foreign or local brands. However, the pharmaceutical industry in this regard has been ignored by the researchers. Generally people don't know that for prescription brands of medicines what the preferences of customers (Doctors) are. Therefore, this study is conducted in two departments of Pharmaceutical industry by selecting the top recommended formulas in those departments that for those formulas whether the customers (Doctors) are prescribing either foreign brands or local brands. Secondary data has been collected from previous studies on the country of origin (COO), ethnocentrism and factors influencing brands preferences from authentic sources. Primary data was also collected through 100 self administered questionnaires from top five hospitals of Peshawar. The results of the study were analyzed through SPSS which shows that in some categories of pharmaceutical products the COO is very important but not for all.

Keywords: customer prescription, country of origin, empirical study, foreign versus local brands, pharmaceutical industry, Pakistan

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192 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.

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Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

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191 Sensory Gap Analysis on Port Wine Promotion and Perceptions

Authors: José Manue Carvalho Vieira, Mariana Magalhães, Elizabeth Serra

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The Port Wine industry is essential to Portugal because it carries a tangible cultural heritage and for social and economic reasons. Positioned as a luxury product, brands need to pay more attention to the new generation's habits, preferences, languages, and sensory perceptions. Healthy lifestyles, anti-alcohol campaigns, and digitalisation of their buying decision process need to be better understood to understand the wine market in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the sensory perception gap between Port Wine descriptors promotion and the new generation's perceptions to help wineries to align their strategies. Based on the interpretivist approach - multiple methods and techniques (mixed-methods), different world views and different assumptions, and different data collection methods and analysis, this research integrated qualitative semi-structured interviews, Port Wine promotion contents, and social media perceptions mined by Sentiment Analysis Enginius algorithm. Findings confirm that Port Wine CEOs' strategies, brands' promotional content, and social perceptions are not sufficiently aligned. The central insight for Port Wine brands' managers is that there is a long and continuous work of understanding and associating their descriptors with the most relevant perceptual values and criteria of their targets to reposition (when necessary) and sustainably revitalise their brands. Finally, this study hypothesised a sensory gap that leads to a decrease in consumption, trying to find recommendations on how to transform it into an advantage for a better attraction towards the young age group (18-25).

Keywords: port wine, consumer habits, sensory gap analysis, wine marketing

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190 An Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Strong Brand Questionnaire in Sport

Authors: Mona Rezaei, Habib Honari, Mehrzad Hamidi, Fatemeh Kiani

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Make strong brands has become a priority for many organizations in marketing. Brand is an important indicator of marketing status. Brand Strength is in kept customer, profit, brand development and gain competitive advantage and In fact it is a concept that was created from a consumer perspective. It is assumed that the creation of a strong brand is creating numerous marketing benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire the most strong sports brands in the consumer society. Questionnaire was conducted to a sample of 340 customers of sports brands. Psychometric parameters were determined by using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the factor analysis and Varimax rotation revealed five factors of strong brands. The results confirms that questionnaire structure have acceptable associated to the data and confirmed all indicators of the model. Reliability (859/0) was satisfactory. According to calculated psychometric indices, this questionnaire could be appropriate to assess the most strong sports brands.

Keywords: reliability, strong brand, sport brands, psychometric

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189 Service Delivery Process in the Luxury Hotel Industry in Dubai: A Hoteliers’ Perspective

Authors: Veronique Gregorec, Prakash Vel, Collins A. Brobbey

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Service delivery process in the face of ever changing customer expectations could not have been more important in glamorous Dubai luxury hotel service sector. Based on in-depth discussions with Dubai luxury hotel service pioneers, customer expectations, service processes, customer complaining behavior, and service recovery strategies in the luxury hotel industry are evaluated from the perspectives of service providers. Findings are in agreement with the statement that in the service industry the customer is not always right, and that hotel service providers have acknowledged the need to take extra measures towards individualized and personal service experience delivery. Ultimately, hoteliers set highest standards at all stages of the service delivery process in order to achieve positive and high customer ratings in all customer evaluation areas.

Keywords: luxury hotels, Dubai hotels, Dubai hospitality industry, guest service process

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188 Examination of the Self-Expression Model with Reference to Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

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Human beings are intrigued by luxury watches for decades. It is fascinating that customers pay an enormous amount of money for specific wristwatch models. It is fascinating that customers of the luxury watch industry accept a yearly price increase. This behavior increases their desirability even more. Luxury watches are perceived as status symbols, but they are additionally accepted as a currency without the disadvantage of currency fluctuations. It is obvious that the symbolic value is more important as the functional value with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. Nowadays human beings do not need a wristwatch to read the time. Tablets, notebooks, smartphones, the watch in the car and watches on public places are used to inform people about the current time. This is one of the reasons why there is a trend that people do not wear wristwatches anymore. Due to these facts, this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people invest an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches and why those watches are seen as a status symbol. The study examines why the luxury watch industry records significant growth rates. The self-expression model is used as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches. This evaluative approach further discusses if human beings are aware of their current self and their ideal self and how they express them. Furthermore, the research critically evaluates the people’s social self and their ideal social self. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they have the same quality and cost comparable prices.

Keywords: luxury watch, brand awareness, buying-behaviour, consumer, self-expression

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187 Estimation of Cholesterol Level in Different Brands of Vegetable Oils in Iraq

Authors: Mohammed Idaan Hassan Al-Majidi

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An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Babylon Iraq, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heart diseases, leibermann-burchard, cholesterol

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186 Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran

Authors: Soheil Sobhanardakani, Seyed Vali Hosseini, Lima Tayebi

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The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.

Keywords: heavy metals, essential metals, canned fish, food security

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185 Being Funny is a Serious Business for Feminine Brands

Authors: Mohammed Murtuza Soofi

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Purpose: Marketers and Researchers alike have simultaneously, yet in mutually exclusive instances, promote the use of humour by brands in their communication and gendering of brands, as both enhance brand equity and can generate positive attitudinal responses from customers. However, the gendering of brands comes with associated gendered stereotypical expectations. The current paper consolidates the long standing literature on gender role/stereotype theory and brand gender theories establishing a theoretical framework for understanding how gender-based stereotypes about humour can influence consumers’ attitudinal responses towards brands. Design/methodology/approach: Using parallel constrain satisfaction theory as domain theory to explain the highhandedness of stereotypes and gender stereotype theories (particularly around feminine use of humour), we explain why gender based stereotypes could constrain brand behaviors, and in turn, feminine brands get penalised for using witty, aggressive and self-enhancing humor. Findings: Extension of gender stereotypes to anthropomorphised brands will lead consumers to judge the use of negative humour by a feminine brand as less appropriate, which will trigger the causal chain of reduced sense of communal appropriateness and brand warmth which will result in a negative attitude towards the brand. Originality/value: Brand gendering being susceptible to gender based stereotypes, has very little attention in the literature and hence use of negative humour (stereotypical male behaviour), has never been studied in the context of gendered brands. It also helps understand to what extent stereotypes will impact attitudinal responses to the brand. Our work can help understand when heavily gendered brands can optimise the use of humour and when they can avoid it.

Keywords: brand femininity, brand gender, gender stereotypes, humour

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184 Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Ali A. Mutair

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The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.

Keywords: iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, tobacco, Yemeni cigarette brands, atomic absorption spectrometry

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183 The Benefits of Regional Brand for Companies

Authors: H. Starzyczna, M. Stoklasa, K. Matusinska

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This article deals with the benefits of regional brands for companies in the Czech Republic. Research was focused on finding out the expected and actual benefits of regional brands for companies. The data were obtained by questionnaire survey and analysed by IBM SPSS. Representative sample of 204 companies was created. The research analysis disclosed the expected benefits that the regional brand should bring to companies. But the actual benefits are much worse. The statistical testing of hypotheses revealed that the benefits depend on the region of origin, which surprised both us and the regional coordinators.

Keywords: Brand, regional brands, product protective branding programs, brand benefits

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182 Dimensions of Guest Experience in Themed Hotels

Authors: Katalin Juhasz-Dora

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Several studies have shown that physical environments, milieu, atmosphere and service space play a significant role in the consumer experience. In the case of themed servicescapes, different tangible assets (design, decoration, facilities, amenities), intangible assets (service, activities) contribute to the luxury guest experience. This current study summarizes the literature related to the guest experience in the case of luxury hotels. Based on the results of a case study, additional dimensions of guest experience are explored. The research findings contribute to the extension of literature by providing a conceptual framework in specific themed luxury hotels. Understanding the elements of themed servicescape and dimensions of guest experience play a significant role in consumer behavior. Implications for management and future research directions are presented.

Keywords: atmosphere, guest experience, luxury service, themed hotel

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181 The Role of Media Relations in the Brand Image: Case Study in Three Brands of the Automobile Industry

Authors: Rosa Sobreira, Paula Arriscado

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Marketers are aware that media relations is an important touch point, which is also cheaper, to bring their products and their brands to the consumer. They recognize the role of journalists as moderators and transformers of public opinion, and they realize their influence on brand image. And also, they know that readers, listeners, viewers and internet users "believe" more what they read, hear and see in the news than in an advertisement. The study is focused on the automotive industry and analyses the news published about three brands that share industrial facilities and components. We wanted to understand the role of the information created by the brand`s media team in the journalists’ work, and the impact on management, activation and differentiation of brands and their products` attributes and benefits. Based on a qualitative methodology, the analysis focused on press news, making comparison between media coverage and their “narratives” about the three cars from different brands. The results point to the fact that journalists easily integrate speech from the marks on their products. In the case of this study, we found that apart from the description of the many similarities between the three cars, the average speech also "struggled" for revealing the attributes that differentiate them. This interpretation of the results helps us to understand the "marriage" between branding and media. We believe also this paper let us to understand how journalists, through news, join the speech of the brands.

Keywords: brand management, media relations, differentiation, positioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
180 Intergenerational Influences on Automobile Brand Preferences in Pakistan

Authors: Amena Sibghatullah

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The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of Inter-generational Influence (IGI) between two successive generations in the selection of automobile brands. IGI was examined between mother-daughter dyads and father-son dyads. A total sample of 320 respondents (80 fathers and their 80 sons, 80 mothers, and their 80 daughters) from the upper-middle class was selected. Three important findings from this study are; (a) the difference in proportion of agreements Brand-In-Use versus Brand-In-Mind appeared to be statistically significant in the Automobile product category. Thus agreements Brand-In-Use situation between parent and child has more agreements than Brand-In-Mind situation; (b) the difference in proportions between women and men (women means mother-daughter dyad agreement, and men means father-son dyad agreement) is statistically significant in automobile brand preferences. This means that mother-daughter dyad brand preferences, both brand-in-mind and brand-in-use are more significant than that of a father-son dyad, and (c) dominance of the top three brands has been exhibited in automobiles both Brand-In-Use and Brand-In-Mind. These three brands hold more than 57% of auto brand preferences. This means that the three brands occupy distinct and strong positions in the minds of consumers. These results reflect that there is significant evidence of IGI presence between parent and adult child. Marketers of auto brands need to understand this sort of influence on their target consumers.

Keywords: autombile brands, branding, intergenerational influence, preferences

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179 Determination of Heavy Metals in Canned Dry-Milk and Fish from Supermarkets in Addis Ababa

Authors: Kefyalew Muleta, Tetemke Mehari

Abstract:

Background: Human being require metallic elements such as copper and zinc up to certain limits that could cause problems if found in excess. Other metallic elements like cadmium and lead can be harmful to health if foodstuffs containing them are consumed regularly. Canned dry-milk and fish contain these metals in the journey from farm to fork. Objective: This study was designed to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in four brands of canned dry-milk and fish from supermarkets in Addis Ababa. Methods: Laboratory based cross-sectional study design was used to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in four different brands of canned dry-milk and fish imported from different country from February to March 2013. The foods brands were sampled by simple random sampling method from eight supermarkets in Addis Ababa and coded. Wet oxidation using HNO3 and H2O2 was used to extract the heavy metals from the foods samples and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that the level of Cadmium and Copper residues in canned dry-milk significantly vary among brands; and the levels of copper residue significantly vary among brands of canned fish at 95 % level. The AM milk brand from Ethiopia was safe in cadmium level. The cadmium and lead level in the NF fish brands from Indonesia packed in vegetables oil, and the lead level in DF brand packed in brine are safe.

Keywords: AAS, canned dry milk, canned fish, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn

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178 The Effect of Advertising on Brand Choices of Z Generation Children and Their Social Media Consumption Habits

Authors: Hüseyin Altubaş, Hasret Aktaş, A. Mücahid Zengin

Abstract:

Children determine the direction of the power of consumption. They affect the decisions of their parents but they also reached to a significant purchasing power themselves. Children, who are turning interactive behavior to normal behavior are becoming the decision makers in a company’s survival. Companies that analyze this effective target audience can communicate successfully with children. Children, who are interactive individuals, are closer to advertising. They are almost talking better with advertising. They are not afraid to express their likings, as well as their dislikes. Children have an interactive lifestyle and they were exposed to the vast changes in technology after year 2000. They do not know a life without internet, they spend mobile life in internet. This Z generation is the new determinants of brands. Z generation finds it appropriate to be brand ambassadors and they completely changed traditional media and traditional consumer behavior. These children live social reality with virtual reality and they feed brands differently. Brands that interact with Z generation are affected by this feeding positively, while brands that keep interaction in traditional levels are affected negatively. In this research we examine the communication, advertising and brand behaviors of Z generation. We especially analyze this generation’s interaction with social media brands and their interactive attitudes.

Keywords: social media, Z generation, children, advertising, brand choice

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177 The Influence of Brands in E-Sports Spectators

Authors: Rene Kasper, Hyago Ribeiro, Marcelo Curth

Abstract:

Electronic sports, or just e-sports, boast an exponential growth in the interest of the public and large investors. The e-sports teams are equal to classic sports teams, like football, since in their structure they have, besides the athletes, administrators, coaches and even doctors. The concept of team games arises with a very strong social interaction, as it is perceived that users interact with real peers rather than competing with intelligent software. In this sense, electronic games are established as a sociocultural phenomenon and as multidimensional media. Thus, the research aims to identify the profile of users and the importance of brands in the Brazilian electronic sports scene, as well as the relationship of consumers (called fans) with the products and services that occupy the media spaces of the transmissions of sports championships. The research used descriptive quantitative methodology, applied in different e-sports communities, with 160 respondents. The data collection instrument was a survey containing seven questions, which addressed the profile of the participants and their perception on the proposed theme in research. Regarding the profile, the age ranged from 17 to 31 years, of which 93.3% were male and 6.7% female. It was found that 93.3% of the participants had contact with the Brazilian electronic sports scene for at least 2 years, of which 26.7% played between 6 and 12 hours a week and 46.7% played more than 12 hours a week. In addition, it was noticed that income was not a deciding factor to enjoy electronic sports games, because the percentage distribution of participants ranged from 1 to 3 minimum wages (33.3%) and greater than 6 salaries (46.7 %). Regarding the brands, 85.6% emphasized that brands should support the scenario through sponsorship and publicity and 28.6% are attracted to consume brands that advertise in e-sports championships.

Keywords: brands, consumer behavior, e-sports, virtual games

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176 In Vitro Dissolution Profile of Different Brands of Low Solubility Drugs Available in the Nigerian and Brazilian Pharmaceutical Market

Authors: Ezeagu Henry Ifeanyi, Issa Michele Georges, Ofoefule Sabinus Ifeanyi, Ferraz Humberto Gomes

Abstract:

The present work describes the dissolution profiles of different brands of furosemide, glibenclamide, albendazole, ibuprofen, carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide tablets available in the Nigerian and Brazilian pharmaceutical markets. The dissolution test was performed by following the recommendation of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), FDA and developed method (carvedilol). A filter selection test was done for the drugs; the results obtained indicated that cannula filter was ideal for all the drugs with the exception of carvedilol which was centrifuged. The ANOVA of the filter selection showed no significant retention of drug with cannula filter (p > 0.05), with the exception of carvedilol (p< 0.05). The data obtained from the dissolution test was subjected to statistical analysis in a Microsoft excel and Minitab 17 (USA). Dissolution efficiency (%DE) was calculated for the formulations to evaluate their in vitro biopharmaceutical features. Tukey grouping, ANOVA and confidence interval (CI) were obtained for the comparison of the results. The ANOVA of the results indicated that the brands of (albendazole, ibuprofen, furosemide, glibenclamide, & carvedilol) were statistically different (p< 0.05). Hydrochlorothiazide brands were pharmaceutical equivalents (p > 0.05). A comparison of the results showed that 94.1% and 58.8% of the Brazilian and Nigerian brands passed respectively.

Keywords: dissolution profile, dissolution test, low solubility drugs, tablets

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175 Exploring the Factors That Influence the Choices of Senior on Sporting Goods and Brands: A Case Study of Wufeng District, Taichung City

Authors: Ting Hsiang Chang, Cheng Zuo Tsai

Abstract:

In recent years, sports culture dominated in Taiwan, which spurred the rapid development of the sports industry. More innovative and high-tech sporting goods were developed to provide choices for consumers. Nowadays, Taiwan has gradually entered the aging society where people pay more attention to health promotion, delay of aging and other related issues among senior. However, it is an undeniable fact that moderate exercise is a great help to delay aging. Therefore, how senior select the appropriate sporting goods, including sports shoes, sportswear, sports equipment, and even the sports brands when engaged in various kinds of sports, are explored in this research. Therefore, this study sets the reference indicators by exploring the brands of sporting goods, that senior aged 50-70 choose in a fog peak district, the Taichung City, as the subjects of study by answering a questionnaire. Also, this study offers recommendations in terms of the design, marketing or selling of sporting goods for the senior, and how owners of sports brands or related sports industries should target them.

Keywords: senior, aging, sporting goods, sports brand

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