Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: tomb at Zairan

17 The Impact of Indigenous Architecture and the Origin of Tomb Architecture in Indian Sub-Continent: A Case Study of the Tombs of Muhmmad B. Haroon, Saif-Ud-Daula Mahmud, Khalid Walid and Sultan Ghari; An Appraisal

Authors: Tauqeer Ahmad

Abstract:

A lot of literature have been produced addressing the problem of origin and development of tomb architecture in Pakistan and India. In this attempt, the author would address this problem in the Indian prospective. Particularly, the impact of indigenous architecture would be analyzed in this research paper. As we observe that on early Muslim tombs in Indian sub-continent, to large extent, were contributed in term of architecture by local masons. So far as the material used in these early tombs is concerned was also picked from Indian tradition according to the availability and the local traditions.

Keywords: Khitti Chor, tomb of Sultan Ghari, tomb at Zairan, Lasbela

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16 A Tomb Structure in Pursuit of Tradition in 2oth Century Turkey and Its Story; the Tomb of Haci Hâkim Kemal Onsun and His Wife

Authors: Yavuz Arat, Ugur Tuztasi, Mehmet Uysal

Abstract:

Anatolia has been the host of many civilizations and a site where architectural structures of many cultural layers were interpreted. Most significantly the Turks who settled in Central Asia brought their architectural dynamics and cultural accumulation to Anatolia after the 12th century. The tomb structures first observed in Central Asia under the influence of Islamic faith and Turkish cultural heritage has blossomed under Great Seljuk Empire and with the Anatolian Seljuk Empire these tombs changed both in size and form with rich and beautiful samples from Ahlat to Sivas to Kayseri and Konya. This tomb tradition which started during 13th century has continued during the Ottoman Empire period with some alterations of form and evolved into the rarely observed mausoleum type tombs. The Ottoman tradition of building tombs inside mosque gardens and their forms present the clues of an important burial tradition. However this understanding was abandoned in 20th century Turkey. This tradition was abandoned with regard to legal regulations and health conditions. This study investigates the vestiges of this tradition and its spatial reflections over a sample. The present sample is representative of a tradition that started in 1970s and the case of building tombs inside mosque gardens will be illustrated over the tomb of Hacı Kemal Onsun and his wife which is located in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuks. The building process of this tomb will be evaluated with regard to burial traditions and architectural stylization.

Keywords: tomb, language of architectural form, Anatolian Seljuk tombs, Ottoman tombs

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15 Departures from Anatolian Seljuk Building Complex with Iwan/Eyvan: The Tradition of Iwan Tombs

Authors: Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat, Uğur Tuztaşı

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As man constructed the spaces that he lived in he also designed spaces where their dead will stay according to their belief systems. These spaces are sometimes monumentalized by the means of a stone on the top of a mountain, sometimes signed by totems and sometimes became structures to protect graves and symbolize the person or make him unforgettable. Various grave monuments have been constructed from the earliest primitive societies to developed societies. Every belief system built structures for itself; Pyramids for pharaohs, grave monuments for kings and emperors, temples and tombs for important men of religion. These spaces are also architectural works like a school or a dwelling and have importance in history of architecture. After Turks embraced Islamism, examples of very beautiful tombs are built in Middle Asia during the Seljuk Period. By the time Seljuks came to Anatolia they built important tombs having peerless architectural characteristics firstly around Ahlat. After Anatolia Seljuks made Konya the capital city and Konya became administrative, cultural and scientific center, very important tombs were built in Konya. Different from the local tomb architecture, the architecture of tombs with half-open “eyvan/Iwan” is significant. Although iwan buildings is vastly used in Anatolian civil architecture and monumental buildings its best exmaples are observed in 13th century Medrese buildings. The iwan tomb tradition which was observed during the time period when this building typology was shaped and departed from the resident tradition in the form of iwan tombs are rarely represented. However, similar tombs were build in resemblance to this tradition. This study provides information on samples of iwan tombs (Gömeç Hatun Tomb, Emir Yavaştagel Tomb, and Beşparmak Tomb) and evaluates the departures from iwan building complexes in view of architectural language. This paper also gives information about iwan tombs among tombs having importance in Islamic Architectural Heritage.

Keywords: Seljuk Building Complex, Eyvan/Iwan, Anatolia, Islamic Architectural Heritage, tomb

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14 Analysis of a Faience Enema Found in the Assasif Tomb No. -28- of the Vizier Amenhotep Huy: Contributions to the Study of the Mummification Ritual Practiced in the Theban Necropolis

Authors: Alberto Abello Moreno-Cid

Abstract:

Mummification was the process through which immortality was granted to the deceased, so it was of extreme importance to the Egyptians. The techniques of embalming had evolved over the centuries, and specialists created increasingly sophisticated tools. However, due to its eminently religious nature, knowledge about everything related to this practice was jealously preserved, and the testimonies that have survived to our time are scarce. For this reason, embalming instruments found in archaeological excavations are uncommon. The tomb of the Vizier Amenhotep Huy (AT No. -28-), located in the el-Assasif necropolis that is being excavated since 2009 by the team of the Institute of Ancient Egyptian Studies, has been the scene of some discoveries of this type that evidences the existence of mummification practices in this place after the New Kingdom. The clysters or enemas are the fundamental tools in the second type of mummification described by the historian Herodotus to introduce caustic solutions inside the body of the deceased. Nevertheless, such objects only have been found in three locations: the tomb of Ankh-Hor in Luxor, where a copper enema belonged to the prophet of Ammon Uah-ib-Ra came to light; the excavation of the tomb of Menekh-ib-Nekau in Abusir, where was also found one made of copper; and the excavations in the Bucheum, where two more artifacts were discovered, also made of copper but in different shapes and sizes. Both of them were used for the mummification of sacred animals and this is the reason they vary significantly. Therefore, the object found in the tomb No. -28-, is the first known made of faience of all these peculiar tools and the oldest known until now, dated in the Third Intermediate Period (circa 1070-650 B.C.). This paper bases its investigation on the study of those parallelisms, the material, the current archaeological context and the full analysis and reconstruction of the object in question. The key point is the use of faience in the production of this item: creating a device intended to be in constant use seems to be a first illogical compared to other samples made of copper. Faience around the area of Deir el-Bahari had a strong religious component, associated with solar myths and principles of the resurrection, connected to the Osirian that characterises the mummification procedure. The study allows to refute some of the premises which are held unalterable in Egyptology, verifying the utilization of these sort of pieces, understanding its way of use and showing that this type of mummification was also applied to the highest social stratum, in which case the tools were thought out of an exceptional quality and religious symbolism.

Keywords: clyster, el-Assasif, embalming, faience enema mummification, Theban necropolis

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13 Diversity of Dermatophytes and Keratinophilic Fungi from Inernational Tourist Spots, City of Taj Mahal

Authors: Harison Masih, Jyotsna Kiran Peter, Sundara Singh, Geetha Singh

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The present investigation deals with diversity of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi from different tourist spots such as Agra Fort, Akbar tomb, It-Mat-Ud-Daulah, Mariam tomb, Radha Swami Bagh, and Taj Mahal of Agra City. These fungi are medically important which causes various infections and diseases in humans and animals. The main reservoir of these pathogens are the keratinous substances that increases due to birds and animal activities in the vicinity of monuments, where thousands (5413266) annual visitors from all over the world are visiting. The soil samples were subjected to isolate the pathogenic fungi through bait technique (buffalo skin, chicken feathers, human hair and goat tail hair). Baits were spread over the soil samples and incubated at room temperature for 30-35 days and pure culture isolates were maintained in SDA medium, stored at 4°C. Highest number of visitors were (3906453) from Taj Mahal, minimum 10785 at Mariam tomb annually, the total 271 isolates were encountered from soil samples out of these 18 genera and 38 species were found in different season. Highest incidence was 4.79% frequency shown by Chrysosporium keratinophilum while least 738% frequency occurrence by Trichophyton simii in soil samples. From the present study it was concluded that the incidence of pathogenic fungal isolates were the common in tourists soil that are etiological agents of superficial mycosis. Thus, both human and animal activity seemed to play an important role in occurrence and distribution of keratinophilic and related dermatophytes at various tourist places of Agra city.

Keywords: dermatophytic fungal diversity, bait technique, visitors at tourist spots, human and animal activities, soil samples

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12 Pilgrimage: Between Culture and Religion Case study of Pilgrimage in Shia tradition in Indonesia, Traditional Philosophy approach of Seyyed Hosein Nasr and Religious Experience of William James

Authors: Ma'ruf

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Pilgrimage has a universal value, founded in every religion. No exception to Islam, has a ritual value, and became part of the religion, as well as the procession of a social culture in nature. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia, rooted in the society, because the Islam that entered into the archipelago through Sufism (tasawuf). In the Sufi tradition, the interconnecty of the human spirit (ruh) to the spirit (ruh) of God, must go through a guardian (wasilah) appointed by God himself ,the prophet Muhammad and wali. In the process of pilgrimage rituals usually by reading the prayer to praise God, the prophet and wali, then convey intent (hajat). In the pilgrimage procession, usually not only done in the house, but aslo completed the process by direct pilgrimage visiting the tombs of saints. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia continues to be maintained, and still attached to the traditions in Nahdiyin (NU followers). The relationship with God manifested in wasilah prayer to God, the prophet Muhammad, the best companions of the Prophet and Nine wali (Songo), who had been influential in spreading Islam in Java. The tradition of pilgrimage in Indonesia is also linked to the Shia community in Indonesia, along with a growing number of followers of the Shia in Indonesia, especially after the Islamic revolution of Iran after the 1979. Pilgrimage in the Shia community, Likewise NU members also pray with supplication of tawasul to the Prophet and Shia Imams. If NU members to make improvements pilgrimage to visit the tomb wali Songo in Java, residents Shia pilgrimage rituals abroad, usually one package with umrah trip, with a pilgrimage to the tomb of the prophet, proceed to the tomb of the Imam Shia, in Iran and Iraq. Trends of pilgrimage as a ritual in the Indonesian Shia tradition, together with the growing number of Shia residents increased, followed by increasing the awareness (syi’isme) - bond with the Imam, Shia. In every certain months (arbaeen, asyuro) Shia pilgrims routinely perform pilgrimage, along with increasing number spiritual travel.

Keywords: traditional approach, religious experience, culture, religion, pilgrimage, Syria

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11 Significance of Monumental Heritage in India: A Case Study of Humayun Tomb

Authors: Bhawna Shivan

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Indian monuments have been spoken of as for variety, extent, completeness and beauty unsurpassed perhaps unequaled in world. India’s monumental heritage is a part and parcel of India today. The underlying issue with the monumental heritage in contemporary times is that these monuments suffered many times with various degrees of threats/ pressures which hampered their beauty. In the current situation, the urbanization policies for sustainable development and tourism management pay no attention to the basic point of conservation and protection of these cultural heritages rather they focus more on profit earned from these sites. Many times rich heritage is found balancing between conflicting pressures of conservation of heritage elements with sustainability and local economic development. There is a need of a new attitude to India’s independent and democratic ideology. The paper will enquire about the historical perspective by analyzing and understanding the importance of Mughal Architecture while focusing on Humayun Tomb while assessing the value and sentiment people attach to these monuments. It will also put the focus on the future of these monuments in the era of globalization and urbanization. The role of public and private authorities for conservation and sustainable development of these monuments. As well as assessing other facilities like toilets, parking, eatery joint, Museum with Display of structural representation and display of books, and a mobile shop. The research will be helpful in assessing the importance of heritage buildings whether they are a tool of enhancing ‘Tourism Industry’ for Central and State Government or really there is still some future of these monuments. Can we still consider these heritage sites as the integral part of our society in this urbanized world? The study will also analyze the attitude of the central and state government towards a building when it declared as a ‘World Heritage Site’. The study will also examine how the Youth and other aged generations append their sentimental values towards them, say (what is their purpose of coming to a heritage site, what makes them coming here, how they view this particular monument) Apart from this, probing the factors such as rapid growth of cities and its population, increasing value of urban land and effect of globalization on urban growth pattern that are capable of producing a variety of threats and pressures on any monument for instance Humayun Tomb.

Keywords: globalization, monuments, tourism, urban heritage

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10 Morphological Transformations and Variations in Architectural Language from Tombs to Mausoleums: From Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic

Authors: Uğur Tuztaşi, Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat

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The tomb (grave) structures that have influenced the architectural culture from the Seljuk times to the Ottoman throughout Anatolia are members of a continuing building tradition in terms of monumental expression and styles. This building typology which has religious and cultural permeability in view of spatial traces and structural formations follows the entire trajectory of the respect to death and the deceased from the Seljuks to the Ottomans and also the changing burial traditions epitomised in the form of mausoleums in the Turkish Republic. Although the cultural layers have the same contents with regards to the cult of monument this architectural tradition which evolved from tombs to mausoleums changed in both typological formation and structural size. In short, the tomb tradition with unique examples of architectural functions and typological formations has been encountered from 13th century onwards and continued during the Ottoman period with changes in form and has transformed to mausoleums during the 20th century. This study analyses the process of transformation from complex structures to simple structures and then to monumental graves in terms of architectural expression. Moreover, the study interrogates the architectural language of Anatolian Seljuk tombs to Ottoman tombs and monumental graves built during the republican period in terms of spatial and structural contexts.

Keywords: death and space in Turks, monumental graves, language of architectural style, morphological transformations

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9 A Method against Obsolescence of Three-Dimensional Archaeological Collection. Two Cases of Study from Qubbet El-Hawa Necropolis, Aswan, Egypt

Authors: L. Serrano-Lara, J.M Alba-Gómez

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Qubbet el–Hawa Project has been documented archaeological artifacts as 3d models by laser scanning technique since 2015. Currently, research has obtained the right methodology to develop a high accuracy photographic texture for each geometrical 3D model. Furthermore, the right methodology to attach the complete digital surrogate into a 3DPDF document has been obtained; it is used as a catalogue worksheet that brings archaeological data and, at the same time, allows us to obtain precise measurements, volume calculations and cross-section mapping of each scanned artifact. This validated archaeological documentation is the first step for dissemination, application as Qubbet el-Hawa Virtual Museum, and, moreover, multi-sensory experience through 3D print archaeological artifacts. Material culture from four funerary complexes constructed in West Aswan has become physical replicas opening the archaeological research process itself and offering creative possibilities on museology or educational projects. This paper shares a method of acquiring texture for scanning´s output product in order to achieve a 3DPDF archaeological cataloguing, and, on the other hand, to allow the colorfully 3D printing of singular archaeological artifacts. The proposed method has undergone two concrete cases, a polychrome wooden ushabti, and, a cartonnage mask belonging to a lady, bought recovered on intact tomb QH34aa. Both 3D model results have been implemented on three main applications, archaeological 3D catalogue, public dissemination activities, and the 3D artifact model in a bachelor education program. Due to those three already mentioned applications, productive interaction among spectator and three-dimensional artifact have been increased; moreover, functionality as archaeological documentation has been consolidated. Finding the right methodology to assign a specific color to each vector on the geometric 3D model, we had been achieved two essential archaeological applications. Firstly, 3DPDF as a display document for an archaeological catalogue, secondly, the possibility to obtain a colored 3d printed object to be displayed in public exhibitions. Obsolescences 3D models have become updated archaeological documentation of QH43aa tomb cultural material. Therefore, Qubbet el-Hawa Project has been actualized the educational potential of its results thanks to a multi-sensory experience that arose from 3d scanned´s archaeological artifacts.

Keywords: 3D printed, 3D scanner, Middle Kingdom, Qubbet el-Hawa necropolis, virtual archaeology

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8 Common Used Non-Medical Practice and Perceived Benefits in Couples with Fertility Problems in Turkey

Authors: S. Fata, M. A. Tokat, N. Bagardi, B. Yilmaz

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Nowadays, various traditional practices are used throughout the world with aim to improve fertility. Various traditional remedies, acupuncture, religious practices such as sacrifice are frequently used. Studies often evaluate the traditional practices used by the women. But the use of this non-medical practice by couples and specific application reasons of this methods has been less investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the common used non-medical practices and determine perceived benefits by couples with fertility problems in Turkey. This is a descriptive study. Research data were collected between May-July 2016, in Izmir Ege Birth Education and Research Hospital Assisted Reproduction Clinic, from 151 couples with fertility problem. Personal Information Form and Non-Medical Practices Used for Fertility Evaluation Form was used. Number 'GOA 2649' permission letter from Dokuz Eylul University Non-Invasive Research Ethics Board, permission letter from the institution and the written consent from participants has been received to carry out the study. In the evaluation of the data, frequencies and proportions analysis were used. The average age of women participating in the study was 32.87, the 35.8% were high school graduates, 60.3% were housewife and the 58.9% lived in city. The 30.5% of husbands were high school graduates, the 96.7% were employed and the 60.9% lived in city. The 78.1% of couples lived as a nuclear family, the average marriage year was 7.58, in 33.8% the fertility problem stems from women, 42.4% of them received a diagnosis for 1-2 years, 35.1% were being treated for 1-2 years. The 35.8% of women reported use of non-medical applications. The 24.4% of women used figs, onion cure, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk, the 18.2% used herbs, the 13.1% vowed, the 12.1% went to the tomb, the 10.1% did not bath a few days after the embryo transfer, the 9.1% used thermal water baths, the 5.0% manually corrected the womb, the 5.0% printed amulets by Hodja, the 3.0% went to the Hodja/pilgrims. Among the perceived benefits of using non-medical practices; facilitate pregnancy and implantation, improve oocyte quality were the most recently expressed. Women said that they often used herbs to develop follicles, did not bath after embryo transfer with aim to provide implantation, and used thermal waters to get rid of the infection. Compared to women, only the 25.8% of men used the non-medical practice. The 52.1% reported that they used peanuts, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk, the 14.9% used herbs, the 12.8% vowed, the 10.1% went to the tomb, the 10.1% used thermal water baths. Improve sperm number, motility and quality were the most expected benefits. Men said that they often used herbs to improve sperm number, used peanuts, hacemat, locust, bee-pollen milk to improve sperm motility and quality. Couples in Turkey often use non-medical practices to deal with fertility problems. Some of the practices considered as useful can adversely affect health. Healthcare providers should evaluate the use of non-medical practices and should inform if the application is known adverse effects on health.

Keywords: fertility, couples, non-medical practice, perceived benefit

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7 Tourism Potential Investment Opportunities in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Khalil Ahmad Khosa

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Pakistan is such a diverse region, it is the center of various religions and settlements long before the creation of the nation that exists today. The country's attraction range from the ruin of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially K2.[4] The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalash people community. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary, Punjab province has the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan. However, till this date, the government has not be able to take the tourism market seriously within Pakistan. Pakistan is home to a diverse number of tourist attractions which have not been funded or protected due to the government giving the tourism market a low priority.

Keywords: architecture, Pakistan, tourism, turist

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6 Tutankhamen’s Shrines (Naoses): Scientific Identification of Wood Species and Technology

Authors: Medhat Abdallah, Ahmed Abdrabou

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Tutankhamen tomb was discovered on November 1922 by Howard carter, the grave was relatively intact and crammed full of the most beautiful burial items and furniture, the black shrine-shaped boxes on sleds studied here founded in treasury chamber. This study aims to identify the wood species used in making those shrines, illustrate technology of manufacture. Optical Microscope (OM), 3D software and Imaging Processes including; Visible light, Raking light and Visible-induced infrared luminescence were effective in illustrating wooden joints and techniques of manufacture. The results revealed that cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani and sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus had been used for making the shrines’ boards and sleds while tamarisk Tamarix sp., Turkey Oak Quercus cerris L., and Sidder (nabk) Zizyphus spina christi used for making dowels. The wooden joint of mortise and tenon was used to connect the body of the shrine to the sled, while wooden pegs used to connect roof and cornice to the shrine body.

Keywords: Tutankhamen, wood species, optical microscope, Cedrus libani, Ficus sycomorus

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5 Investigating the Relationship between Place Attachment and Sustainable Development of Urban Spaces

Authors: Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Ali Akbar Heidari, Soleiman Mohammadi Doust

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This study has examined the relationship between place attachment and sustainable development of urban spaces. To perform this, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place attachment and social bonding which totally constitute the output of place attachment, by means of the standardized questionnaire measure place attachment in three domains of (cognitive) the place identity, (affective) emotional attachment and (behavioral) place attachment and social bonding. To measure sustainable development, three components of sustainable development, including society, economy and environment has been considered. The study is descriptive. The assessment instrument is the standard questionnaire of Safarnia which has been used to measure the variable of place attachment and to measure the variable of sustainable development, a questionnaire has been made by the researcher and been based on the combined theoretical framework. The statistical population of this research has been the city of Shiraz. The statistical sample has been Hafeziyeh. SPSS software has been used to analyze the data and examined the results of both descriptive and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to examine the hypotheses. In this study, the variable of place attachment is high and sustainable development is also in a high level. These results suggest a positive relationship between attachment to place and sustainable development.

Keywords: place attachment, sustainable development, economy-society-environment, Hafez's tomb

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4 Tamukkana, Ancient Achaemenids City near the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ghulamhossein Nezami

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Civilizations based in Iran, especially in the south, have always realized the all-around importance of the Persian Sea and for various reasons, have paid full attention to it. The first of these was the pre-Aryan government, Ilam in the coastal province of Sharihum and the city of Lian (now the port of Bushehr) in terms of trade, defense and religion. With the establishment of the Achaemenids on the entire plateau of Iran to the center of Persia, they created several communication routes from Parseh to the shores of the Persian Gulf, which ended in the present Bushehr province. This coastal area was extended by a road in the coastal plain to the more southern parts of the ports of Ausinze - according to Ptolemy the port of Siraf before the Sassanids - and Epstane and Hormozia in the present-day Strait of Hormuz. Meanwhile, the ancient city of Temukknana, whose new historical documents testify to its extraordinary importance in the Achaemenid period, especially Darius I of the Achaemenids, from a strategic position with the coastal areas, the coasts and on the other hand with the gamers, the political center. - Achaemenid administration, had. New archeological evidence, research, and excavations show that both the famous Achaemenid kings and courtiers paid special attention to Tamukknana. The discovery of a tomb and three Achaemenid palaces from before the reign of Cyrus to Xerxes in this region showed the importance of the strategic, security-defense and commercial position of this region, extraordinary for the Achaemenids. Therefore, the city of Temukkana in the Dashtestan region of present-day Bushehr province became an important Achaemenid center on the Persian Gulf coast and became the political-economic center of gravity of the Achaemenids and the regulator of communication networks on the Persian Gulf coast. This event showed that the Achaemenids attached importance to their economic goals and oversight of their vast territory by the Persian Gulf. Methods: Book resources and field study.

Keywords: Achaemenids, Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Tamukkana

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3 The Textual Criticism on the Age of ‘Wan Li’ Shipwreck Porcelain and Its Comparison with ‘Whitte Leeuw’ and Hatcher Shipwreck Porcelain

Authors: Yang Liu, Dongliang Lyu

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After the Wan li shipwreck was discovered 60 miles off the east coast of Tan jong Jara in Malaysia, numerous marvelous ceramic shards have been salvaged from the seabed. Remarkable pieces of Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelain recovered from the site represent the essential part of the fascinating research. The porcelain cargo of Wan li shipwreck is significant to the studies on exported porcelains and Jing dezhen porcelain manufacture industry of Late-Ming dynasty. Using the ceramic shards categorization and the study of the Chinese and Western historical documents as a research strategy, the paper wants to shed new light on the Wan li shipwreck wares classification with Jingdezhen kiln ceramic as its main focus. The article is also discussing Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelains from the perspective of domestic versus export markets and further proceeding to the systematization and analyses of Wan li shipwreck porcelain which bears witness to the forms, styles, and types of decoration that were being traded in this period. The porcelain data from two other shipwrecked projects -White Leeuw and Hatcher- were chosen as comparative case studies and Wan li shipwreck Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelain is being reinterpreted in the context of art history and archeology of the region. The marine archaeologist Sten Sjostrand named the ship ‘Wanli shipwreck’ because its porcelain cargoes are typical of those made during the reign of Emperor Wan li of Ming dynasty. Though some scholars question the appropriateness of the name, the final verdict of the history is still to be made. Based on previous historical argumentation, the article uses a comparative approach to review the Wan li shipwreck blue-and-white porcelains on the grounds of the porcelains unearthed from the tomb or abandoned in the towns and carrying the time-specific reign mark. All these materials provide a very strong evidence which suggests that the porcelain recovered from Wan li ship can be dated to as early as the second year of Tianqi era (1622) and early Chongzhen reign. Lastly, some blue-and-white porcelain intended for the domestic market and some bowls of blue-and-white porcelain from Jing dezhen kilns recovered from the Wan li shipwreck all carry at the bottom the specific residue from the firing process. The author makes the corresponding analysis for these two interesting phenomena.

Keywords: blue-and-white porcelain, Ming dynasty, Jing dezhen kiln, Wan li shipwreck

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2 The Geometrical Cosmology: The Projective Cast of the Collective Subjectivity of the Chinese Traditional Architectural Drawings

Authors: Lina Sun

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Chinese traditional drawings related to buildings and construction apply a unique geometry differentiating with western Euclidean geometry and embrace a collection of special terminologies, under the category of tu (the Chinese character for drawing). This paper will on one side etymologically analysis the terminologies of Chinese traditional architectural drawing, and on the other side geometrically deconstruct the composition of tu and locate the visual narrative language of tu in the pictorial tradition. The geometrical analysis will center on selected series of Yang-shi-lei tu of the construction of emperors’ mausoleums in Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), and will also draw out the earlier architectural drawings and the architectural paintings such as the jiehua, and paintings on religious frescoes and tomb frescoes as the comparison. By doing these, this research will reveal that both the terminologies corresponding to different geometrical forms respectively indicate associations between architectural drawing and the philosophy of Chinese cosmology, and the arrangement of the geometrical forms in the visual picture plane facilitates expressions of the concepts of space and position in the geometrical cosmology. These associations and expressions are the collective intentions of architectural drawing evolving in the thousands of years’ tradition without breakage and irrelevant to the individual authorship. Moreover, the architectural tu itself as an entity, not only functions as the representation of the buildings but also express intentions and strengthen them by using the Chinese unique geometrical language flexibly and intentionally. These collective cosmological spatial intentions and the corresponding geometrical words and languages reveal that the Chinese traditional architectural drawing functions as a unique architectural site with subjectivity which exists parallel with buildings and express intentions and meanings by itself. The methodology and the findings of this research will, therefore, challenge the previous researches which treat architectural drawings just as the representation of buildings and understand the drawings more than just using them as the evidence to reconstruct the information of buildings. Furthermore, this research will situate architectural drawing in between the researches of Chinese technological tu and artistic painting, bridging the two academic areas which usually treated the partial features of architectural drawing separately. Beyond this research, the collective subjectivity of the Chinese traditional drawings will facilitate the revealing of the transitional experience from traditions to drawing modernity, where the individual subjective identities and intentions of architects arise. This research will root for the understanding both the ambivalence and affinity of the drawing modernity encountering the traditions.

Keywords: Chinese traditional architectural drawing (tu), etymology of tu, collective subjectivity of tu, geometrical cosmology in tu, geometry and composition of tu, Yang-shi-lei tu

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1 The Enlightenment Project in the Arab World: Saudi Arabia as a Case Study in Modern Islamic Thought

Authors: Khawla Almulla

Abstract:

It is noticed that many Arab intellectuals have called to the need and the importance of enlightenment and its application in their communities, such as Saudi Arabia. To every Islamic state, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents a strategic cornerstone, since it is considered the cradle of Islam. It is the Land of the Two Holy Mosques: the Holy Mosque in Makkah surrounding the Kaaba, towards which all Muslims around the world turn while performing daily prayers and even travel to if possible in order to perform the Hajj (Pilgrimage). It also has the Prophet'ـ‘s Holy Mosque in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, which contains the tomb of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Therefore, Saudi Arabia occupies an eminent position among Arab and Islamic countries on a religious level. Saudi Arabia has become the most influential country in the Arab world, since it has one-third of the oil resources outside Central Asia, China and Russia .It is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. Discovering oil in Saudi Arabia converted it from an important country for Muslims-only to an important country for the major industrial countries and also the developing countries, as well. For various reasons, the diversity of intellectual currents can play a significant role in each community by way of cultural improvement, the development of civilization and the education of people until they become accustomed to accepting or rejecting opinions or ideas which differ from or oppose their own. In addition, the intellectual pluralism and cultural diversity can play a variety of roles. This helps promote dialogue and understanding between different groups or schools of thought. It can also develop cognitive skills, by exchanging ideas and views between different schools and intellectual currents. However, in Saudi Arabia there is much to oppose this plurality. The situation today shows that having a variety of ideologies and differences of cultures are not considered a reasonable way to develop intellectually as an individual or as a country. Rather the opposite is recommended, such that the ideologies of different groups are enough to bring out intellectual conflict and then to the segregation of society. As a consequence, extremism of thought from the different currents in Saudi Arabia has become apparent. This research is of great importance in its exploration of two significant themes. First, it highlights the Saudi Arabian background, in particular the historical, religious and social contexts, in order to understand the background of each religious or liberal movement and find the core of the intellectual differences between them. In addition, the aim of this research is to show the importance of moderation in Islamic thought in Saudi Arabia by tracing the thoughts and views of Dr Salman Al-Odah, whom he has considered to be the most important moderate thinker in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, intellectual movements, religious movements, extremism, moderation, Salafism, liberalism, Salman Al-Odah

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