Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Barthes

10 Structural Analysis of Kamaluddin Behzad's Works Based on Roland Barthes' Theory of Communication, 'Text and Image'

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani, Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand

Abstract:

Text and image have always been two important components in Iranian layout. The interactive connection between text and image has shaped the art of book design with multiple patterns. In this research, first the structure and visual elements in the research data were analyzed and then the position of the text element and the image element in relation to each other based on Roland Barthes theory on the three theories of text and image, were studied and analyzed and the results were compared, and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pattern of text and image in the works of Kamaluddin Behzad based on three Roland Barthes communication theories, 1. Descriptive communication, 2. Reference communication, 3. Matched communication. The questions of this research are what is the relationship between text and image in Behzad's works? And how is it defined according to Roland Barthes theory? The method of this research has been done with a structuralist approach with a descriptive-analytical method in a library collection method. The information has been collected in the form of documents (library) and is a tool for collecting online databases. Findings show that the dominant element in Behzad's drawings is with the image and has created a reference relationship in the layout of the drawings, but in some cases it achieves a different relationship that despite the preference of the image on the page, the text is dispersed proportionally on the page and plays a more active role, played within the image. The text and the image support each other equally on the page; Roland Barthes equates this connection.

Keywords: text, image, Kamaluddin Behzad, Roland Barthes, communication theory

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9 Toward a Methodology of Visual Rhetoric with Constant Reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s Concept of “Chronotope”: A Theoretical Proposal and Taiwan Case Study

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

Abstract:

This paper aims to elaborate methodology of visual rhetoric with constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope”. First, it attempts to outline Ronald Barthes, the most representative scholar of visual rhetoric and structuralism, perspective on visual rhetoric and its time-space category by referring to the concurrent word-image, the symbolic systematicity, the outer dialogicity. Second, an alternative approach is explored for grasping the dynamics and functions of visual rhetoric by articulating Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope.” Furthermore, that visual rhetorical consciousness could be identified as “the meaning parabola which projects from word to image,” “the symbolic system which proceeds from sequence to disorder,” “the ideological environment which struggles from the local to the global.” Last but not least, primary vision of the 2014 Taipei LGBT parade would be analyzed preliminarily to evaluate the effectiveness and persuasiveness embodied by specific visual rhetorical strategies. How Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope” to explain the potential or possible ideological struggle deployed by visual rhetoric might be interpreted empirically and extensively.

Keywords: barthes, chronotope, Mikhail Bakhtin, Taipei LGBT parade, visual rhetoric

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8 Structure Analysis of Text-Image Connection in Jalayrid Period Illustrated Manuscripts

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani

Abstract:

Text and image are two important elements in the field of Iranian art, the text component and the image component have always been manifested together. The image narrates the text and the text is the factor in the formation of the image and they are closely related to each other. The connection between text and image is an interactive and two-way connection in the tradition of Iranian manuscript arrangement. The interaction between the narrative description and the image scene is the result of a direct and close connection between the text and the image, which in addition to the decorative aspect, also has a descriptive aspect. In this article the connection between the text element and the image element and its adaptation to the theory of Roland Barthes, the structuralism theorist, in this regard will be discussed. This study tends to investigate the question of how the connection between text and image in illustrated manuscripts of the Jalayrid period is defined according to Barthes’ theory. And what kind of proportion has the artist created in the composition between text and image. Based on the results of reviewing the data of this study, it can be inferred that in the Jalayrid period, the image has a reference connection and although it is of major importance on the page, it also maintains a close connection with the text and is placed in a special proportion. It is not necessarily balanced and symmetrical and sometimes uses imbalance for composition. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method, which has been done by library collection method.

Keywords: structure, text, image, Jalayrid, painter

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7 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

Abstract:

It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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6 Costume Portrayal In K. Asif’s Mughal E Azam

Authors: Anketa Kumar, Rajantheran Al Muniandy, Rishabh Kumar

Abstract:

For centuries, Indian costumes are admired for their great aesthetics, functional and narrative qualities. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of costumes as visual narratives in Hindi Cinema as Filmmaking is simply one of the most recent manifestations of the human desire to tell stories in which costume acts as a tool to be read as an Intertext by the viewers watching the films. The problem that promoted this study arose when clothes become an interesting topic when examined within the social structures in which they are worn. It is this visual image of dress worn by the character that is investigated in this research through Hindi Cinema of the 1960s, which was a reflection of the society in the realistic form. This research intends to integrate the application of Roland Barthes Semiotic theory in analyzing main movie characters in the National Award-Winning Hindi movie Mughal e Azam (1960). The research helps in filling the gap between the singular level of interpretation and another level that offers a solution towards bridging the gap in viewers' manifold interpretation of a particular movie product. This study focuses on how visual appearance communicates for building up of perception and can relate to notions of realism, defining cultural identity and status in the society. The research methodology is subjected analytical technique that employs in this research is qualitative and descriptive in nature with the use of the Freeze frame technique. The portrayal of costumes is explained with Barthes' principles of Semiotics. The freeze-frame technique stops the motion of the film on a single frame and allows the chosen image to be read as a still photograph. The finding during this research into costume portrayal in the movie was that freezing the frame in midst of running the films attracted attention towards intricate costume details, leading to record the nuanced observations of this minutiae during the movie. Given that during the application of interpretation while watching K Asif’s Mughal e Azam focused on certain aspects of costumes of the king. On the same idea, further research can be employed to strengthen the relation between costumes and visual narration.

Keywords: character portrayal, costumes, Indian cinema, semiotics, visual significance

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5 The Presence of Anglicisms in Italian Fashion Magazines and Fashion Blogs

Authors: Vivian Orsi

Abstract:

The present research investigates the lexicon of a fashion magazine, whose universe is very receptive to lexical loans, especially those from English, called Anglicisms. Specifically, we intend to discuss the presence of English items and expressions in the Vogue Italia fashion magazine. Besides, we aim to study the anglicisms used in an Italian fashion blog called The Blonde Salad. Within the discussion of fashion blogs and their contributions to scientific studies, we adopt the theories of Lexicology / Lexicography to define Anglicism (BIDERMAN, 2001), and the observation of its prestige in the Italian Language (ROGATO, 2008; BISETTO, 2003). According to the theoretical basis mentioned, we intend to make a brief analysis of the Anglicisms collected from posts of the first year of existence of such fashion blog, emphasizing also the keywords that have the role to encapsulate the content of the text, allowing the reader to retrieve information from the post of the blog. About the use of English in Italian magazines and blogs, we can affirm that it seems to represent sophistication, assuming the value of prerequisite to participate in the fashion centers of the world. Besides, we believe, as Barthes says (1990, p. 215), that “Fashion does not evolve, it changes: its lexicon is new each year, like that of a language which always keeps the same system but suddenly and regularly ‘changes’ the currency of its words”. Fashion is a mode of communication: it is present in man's interaction with the world, which means that such lexical universe is represented according to the particularities of each culture.

Keywords: anglicism, lexicology, magazines, blogs, fashion

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4 Metaphorical Devices in Political Cartoons with Reference to Political Confrontation in Pakistan after Panama Leaks

Authors: Ayesha Ashfaq, Muhammad Ajmal Ashfaq

Abstract:

It has been assumed that metaphorical and symbolic contests are waged with metaphors, captions, and signs in political cartoons that play a significant role in image construction of political actors, situations or events in the political arena. This paper is an effort to explore the metaphorical devices in political cartoons related to the political confrontation in Pakistan between the ruling party Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and opposition parties especially after Panama leaks. For this purpose, political cartoons sketched by five renowned political cartoonists on the basis of their belongings to the most highly circulated mainstream English newspapers of Pakistan and their professional experiences in their genre, were selected. The cartoons were analyzed through the Barthes’s model of Semiotics under the umbrella of the first level of agenda setting theory ‘framing’. It was observed that metaphorical devices in political cartoons are one of the key weapons of cartoonists’ armory. These devices are used to attack the candidates and contribute to the image and character building. It was found that all the selected political cartoonists used different forms of metaphors including situational metaphors and embodying metaphors. Not only the physical stature but also the debates and their activities were depicted metaphorically in the cartoons that create the scenario of comparison between the cartoons and their real political confrontation. It was examined that both forms of metaphors shed light on cartoonist’s perception and newspaper’s policy about political candidates, political parties and particular events. In addition, it was found that zoomorphic metaphors and metaphors of diminishments were also predominantly used to depict the conflict between two said political actors.

Keywords: metaphor, Panama leaks, political cartoons, political communication

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3 Discourse Analysis and Semiotic Researches: Using Michael Halliday's Sociosemiotic Theory

Authors: Deyu Yuan

Abstract:

Discourse analysis as an interdisciplinary approach has more than 60-years-history since it was first named by Zellig Harris in 'Discourse Analysis' on Language in 1952. Ferdinand de Saussure differentiated the 'parole' from the 'langue' that established the principle of focusing on language but not speech. So the rising of discourse analysis can be seen as a discursive turn for the entire language research that closely related to the theory of Speech act. Critical discourse analysis becomes the mainstream of contemporary language research through drawing upon M. A. K. Halliday's socio-semiotic theory and Foucault, Barthes, Bourdieu's views on the sign, discourse, and ideology. So in contrast to general semiotics, social semiotics mainly focuses on parole and the application of semiotic theories to some applicable fields. The article attempts to discuss this applicable sociosemiotics and show the features of it that differ from the Saussurian and Peircian semiotics in four aspects: 1) the sign system is about meaning-generation resource in the social context; 2) the sign system conforms to social and cultural changes with the form of metaphor and connotation; 3) sociosemiotics concerns about five applicable principles including the personal authority principle, non-personal authority principle, consistency principle, model demonstration principle, the expertise principle to deepen specific communication; 4) the study of symbolic functions is targeted to the characteristics of ideational, interpersonal and interactional function in social communication process. Then the paper describes six features which characterize this sociosemiotics as applicable semiotics: social, systematic, usable interdisciplinary, dynamic, and multi-modal characteristics. Thirdly, the paper explores the multi-modal choices of sociosemiotics in the respects of genre, discourse, and style. Finally, the paper discusses the relationship between theory and practice in social semiotics and proposes a relatively comprehensive theoretical framework for social semiotics as applicable semiotics.

Keywords: discourse analysis, sociosemiotics, pragmatics, ideology

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2 Selfie: Redefining Culture of Narcissism

Authors: Junali Deka

Abstract:

“Pictures speak more than a thousand words”. It is the power of image which can have multiple meanings the way it is read by the viewers. This research article is an outcome of the extensive study of the phenomenon of‘selfie culture’ and dire need of self-constructed virtual identity among youths. In the recent times, there has been a revolutionary change in the concept of photography in terms of both techniques and applications. The popularity of ‘self-portraits’ mainly depend on the temporal space and time created on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram. With reference to Stuart’s Hall encoding and decoding process, the article studies the behavior of the users who post photographs online. The photographic messages (Roland Barthes) are interpreted differently by different viewers. The notion of ‘self’, ‘self-love and practice of looking (Marita Sturken) and ways of seeing (John Berger) got new definition and dimensional together. After Oscars Night, show host Ellen DeGeneres’s selfie created the most buzz and hype in the social media. The term was judged the word of 2013, and has earned its place in the dictionary. “In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time an Australian origin. The present study was carried to understand the concept of ‘selfie-bug’ and the phenomenon it has created among youth (especially students) at large in developing a pseudo-image of its own. The topic was relevant and gave a platform to discuss about the cultural, psychological and sociological implications of selfie in the age of digital technology. At the first level, content analysis of the primary and secondary sources including newspapers articles and online resources was carried out followed by a small online survey conducted with the help of questionnaire to find out the student’s view on selfie and its social and psychological effects. The newspapers reports and online resources confirmed that selfie is a new trend in the digital media and it has redefined the notion of beauty and self-love. The Facebook and Instagram are the major platforms used to express one-self and creation of virtual identity. The findings clearly reflected the active participation of female students in comparison to male students. The study of the photographs of few selected respondents revealed the difference of attitude and image building among male and female users. The study underlines some basic questions about the desire of reconstruction of identity among young generation, such as - are they becoming culturally narcissist; responsible factors for cultural, social and moral changes in the society, psychological and technological effects caused by Smartphone as well, culminating into a big question mark whether the selfie is a social signifier of identity construction.

Keywords: Culture, Narcissist, Photographs, Selfie

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1 Renegotiating the Filipino Bakla Culture: A Semiotic Analysis of Drag Performance in Eat Bulaga’s Kalye Serye

Authors: Ruepert Jiel Cao

Abstract:

This study explores the renegotiation of bakla culture in Philippine media in the context of Kalye Serye segment of the popular Filipino noontime variety show Eat Bulaga. Although the term “bakla” is usually translated to “gay” or “homosexual male” in English, they do not mean the same. The western notion of a gay refers to a male person attracted to another male person but still retains the masculine physical attributes. However, the bakla embodies loudness, femininity, and transvestitism. Hence, a bakla is a gay man aspiring to be a woman by assuming feminine actions and appearance, a definition much closer to a transgender. The Philippine media usually employs the bakla culture in comedy programs. The bakla nowadays is usually associated with the people of lower economic strata and carries a pathological connotation. The Filipino television program Eat Bulaga, which has been airing for more than 36 years, is fond of using bakla in comedy. However, the recently launched segment entitled Kalye Serye (literally “Street [Television] Series”), while still employing drag performance to incorporate bakla culture in comedy, renegotiates the bakla culture by deviating from the stereotypical notion of bakla. In this study, this researcher asks: (1) How does Kalye Serye renegotiate the Filipino concept of bakla in terms of economic aspirations and social norms? (2) How does Kalye Serye reappropriate the bakla culture to fit non-comedic performances? The study examines 15 purposively selected Kalye Serye episodes. Seven were selected from the Thursday episodes, seven from Saturday episodes, and the Lenten special episode. These were selected to cover as many characters and different character roles as possible. Data was constructed by identifying and coding the roles, physical appearance and gestures, and key dialogs of the characters. A total of six female characters played by three different male actors were examined. Semiotic analysis using semiotics of Roland Barthes was performed to produce a reading of the characters. Findings show that through physical appearance, the characters associate bakla with the economic affluence through the use of expensive-looking clothes, jewelries, cars, and elaborate gestures. This represents a new economic but old western aspiration of the bakla. In terms of social norms, the characters try to revive the traditional concepts of femininity, courtship, and respect, values which are touted to be lost in the current generation of Filipinos. This is quite ironic because while there is a seemingly tolerant attitude towards all forms of queerness, the bakla is considered immoral and yet, the bakla is used to teach about morality and values. Finally, the characters break the traditional association of the bakla with slapstick comedy and their roles are reappropriated to suit dramatic roles. By refraining from portraying the bakla in ridiculous manner (physically and in terms of roles), the bakla lends itself well in the performance of dramatic roles and their ridiculous and pathological associations removed. Future research may include other Filipino or Asian portrayals of queerness to get a better understanding of how queerness is incorporated in contemporary popular culture.

Keywords: bakla, drag performance, popular culture, queer representation

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