Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1436

Search results for: reasons

1436 The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior

Authors: Yu Du, Jian-Guo Wang


Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.

Keywords: green product, attitude-behavior gap, behavior reasoning theory, green consumption, SEM

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1435 An Explanatory Practice Example: The Reasons of Students Not Doing Any Extra Work

Authors: Özge Özsoy


Teachers usually complain that their students do not study enough to further practice the subjects they have covered in class. Teachers tend to focus on how often and hard they should study rather than finding out the main reasons why most students avoid doing any extra work to improve their skills. In this study, with the use of exploratory practice method, 40 English preparatory class students at Anadolu University will discuss this puzzle through an in-class discussion and create posters describing the reasons for and solutions to it. The overlapping data from the posters will be categorized in two sections as reasons and solutions in a final poster. The study aims at revealing the student perspective of a common puzzle that troubles many teachers.

Keywords: exploratory practice, extra work, puzzle, students, teachers

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1434 Determinants for Discontinuing Contraceptive Use and Regional Variations in Bangladesh: A Sociological Perspective

Authors: Md. Shahriar Sabuz


Bangladesh, a South Asian developing country, has experienced an increasing rate of contraceptive use in the last few decades. But one-third of the pregnancies are still unintended, and the fertility rate surpasses the desired rate of children. It may be because of the discontinuation of the use of contraceptive methods. So, it is necessary to find out the reasons for the discontinuation of the use of contraceptives. Moreover, the rate of contraception discontinuation varies from rural to urban, region to region. In this study, our objectives are to find out the reasons behind the discontinuation of the use of the contraceptive method, and the regional variations of the rate of those reasons. We are using the dataset of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) 2014 for this study and the ever-married women of Bangladesh who have discontinued the use of contraceptive methods aged 15-49. The data was collected from the seven districts of the country. The finding shows that currently there are 23% of women have stopped using their contraception. The most common reasons for stopping using the method are that either they are pregnant or want to be pregnant. A significant number of people are not using the contraceptive method because of the fear of side effects. Though the rate of non-user is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, reasons for method discontinuation are not significantly different between urban and rural areas. However, reasons for discontinuing contraceptive methods significantly vary from region to region.

Keywords: discontinuation of contraceptive, health, pregnant, fertility

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1433 Reasons for the Slow Uptake of Embodied Carbon Estimation in the Sri Lankan Building Sector

Authors: Amalka Nawarathna, Nirodha Fernando, Zaid Alwan


Global carbon reduction is not merely a responsibility of environmentally advanced developed countries, but also a responsibility of developing countries regardless of their less impact on global carbon emissions. In recognition of that, Sri Lanka as a developing country has initiated promoting green building construction as one reduction strategy. However, notwithstanding the increasing attention on Embodied Carbon (EC) reduction in the global building sector, they still mostly focus on Operational Carbon (OC) reduction (through improving operational energy). An adequate attention has not yet been given on EC estimation and reduction. Therefore, this study aims to identify the reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. To achieve this aim, 16 numbers of global barriers to estimate EC were identified through existing literature. They were then subjected to a pilot survey to identify the significant reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. A questionnaire with a three-point Likert scale was used to this end. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 11 out of 16 challenges/ barriers are highly relevant as reasons for the slow uptake in estimating EC in buildings in Sri Lanka while the other five challenges/ barriers remain as moderately relevant reasons. Further, the findings revealed that there are no low relevant reasons. Eventually, the paper concluded that all the known reasons are significant to the Sri Lankan building sector and it is necessary to address them in order to upturn the attention on EC reduction.

Keywords: embodied carbon emissions, embodied carbon estimation, global carbon reduction, Sri Lankan building sector

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1432 Reasons for Study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Ratchasak Sannok, Jeeranan Wueamprakhon


This research aims to study reasons for study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Population is special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University enrolled in academic year B.E. 2012. Data were collected in February 2013 from 98 students. Tool used in this research was questionnaire. Data were analyzed by statistics: percentage, mean, and standard deviation, using a computer program. The results revealed that: 1. Most of the special program students have monthly income between 10,001–20,000 Baht. Majority of the students were private company employees, working in operational level. They were mainly single and the commuting distance to the university is between 10-30 kilometers. 2. Reasons for enrolling of special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, namely, career, self advancement, personal reasons and support from others received high scores. 3. Problems identified such as facilities, services, learning media and the content of the course received average scores.

Keywords: reasons, evening class students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

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1431 Analysis of the Reasons behind the Deteriorated Standing of Engineering Companies during the Financial Crisis

Authors: Levan Sabauri


In this paper, we discuss the deteriorated standing of engineering companies, some of the reasons behind it and the problems facing engineering enterprises during the financial crisis. We show the part that financial analysis plays in the detection of the main factors affecting the standing of a company, classify internal problems and the reasons influencing efficiency thereof. The publication contains the analysis of municipal engineering companies in post-Soviet transitional economies. In the wake of the 2008 world financial crisis the issue became even more poignant. It should be said though that even before the problem had been no less acute for some post-Soviet states caught up in a lengthy transitional period. The paper highlights shortcomings in the management of transportation companies, with new, more appropriate methods suggested. In analyzing the financial stability of a company, three elements need to be considered: current assets, investment policy and structural management of the funding sources leveraging the stability, should be focused on. Inappropriate management of the three may create certain financial problems, with timely and accurate detection thereof being an issue in terms of improved standing of an enterprise. In this connection, the publication contains a diagram reflecting the reasons behind the deteriorated financial standing of a company, as well as a flow chart thereof. The main reasons behind low profitability are also discussed.

Keywords: efficiency, financial management, financial analysis funding structure, financial sustainability, investment policy, profitability, solvency, working capital

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1430 'Explainable Artificial Intelligence' and Reasons for Judicial Decisions: Why Justifications and Not Just Explanations May Be Required

Authors: Jacquelyn Burkell, Jane Bailey


Artificial intelligence (AI) solutions deployed within the justice system face the critical task of providing acceptable explanations for decisions or actions. These explanations must satisfy the joint criteria of public and professional accountability, taking into account the perspectives and requirements of multiple stakeholders, including judges, lawyers, parties, witnesses, and the general public. This research project analyzes and integrates two existing literature on explanations in order to propose guidelines for explainable AI in the justice system. Specifically, we review three bodies of literature: (i) explanations of the purpose and function of 'explainable AI'; (ii) the relevant case law, judicial commentary and legal literature focused on the form and function of reasons for judicial decisions; and (iii) the literature focused on the psychological and sociological functions of these reasons for judicial decisions from the perspective of the public. Our research suggests that while judicial ‘reasons’ (arguably accurate descriptions of the decision-making process and factors) do serve similar explanatory functions as those identified in the literature on 'explainable AI', they also serve an important ‘justification’ function (post hoc constructions that justify the decision that was reached). Further, members of the public are also looking for both justification and explanation in reasons for judicial decisions, and that the absence of either feature is likely to contribute to diminished public confidence in the legal system. Therefore, artificially automated judicial decision-making systems that simply attempt to document the process of decision-making are unlikely in many cases to be useful to and accepted within the justice system. Instead, these systems should focus on the post-hoc articulation of principles and precedents that support the decision or action, especially in cases where legal subjects’ fundamental rights and liberties are at stake.

Keywords: explainable AI, judicial reasons, public accountability, explanation, justification

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1429 From Tionghoa to Tjina: Historical Tracing on the Identity Politics in Demonization of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia

Authors: Michael J. Kristiono


This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind the negative sentiments directed towards Chinese Indonesians from International Relations (IR) perspective. By tracing back the treatment of the New Order government towards ethnic Chinese, it was found that such demonization initially happened due to two politically motivated reasons. Firstly, as part of de-Soekarnoization done by the New Order, the Chinese were outcast because Chinese identity does not conform to the 'Indonesian identity', which was in essence, the Javanese identity. Secondly, the condition reflected the change in Indonesian foreign policy which drifted apart from People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the latter was suspected to be involved in September 30 Movement. Then, this paper argues that due to those reasons, coupled by blatant maltreatment from the New Order Government, Chinese Indonesians were constructed as the Others, that is, as non-Indonesians. Such construct has been deeply embedded such that reconciliation attempts done by the Reformation Era government were not sufficient enough to stop ethnic discrimination towards Chinese Indonesians from happening even until the present.

Keywords: Chinese Indonesians, ethnic discrimination, identity, New Order

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1428 Reasons for Choosing Medicine and the Personality Traits of Pre-Clinical Medical Students

Authors: Zarini Ismail, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim, Khairani Omar


Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions that people have to make in life. While choosing a suitable career, a person cannot ignore their intrinsic traits such as the type of personality, interests, values, and aptitude. The objective of this study is to ascertain the personality of the pre-clinical medical students and their reasons or intentions for choosing medicine as a career. This study is a cross-sectional study involving Year 3 pre-clinical medical students at Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. Participants were given a set of validated questionnaires on demographic data and open-ended questions for reasons of choosing medicine. Thematic analysis were used to analyse the open-ended question. The Participants were also required to answer a Career Interest Questionnaire (based on Holland’s Theory). A total of 81 Year 3 medical students were involved in this study. About two third (69%) of them were female and their age ranged from 20 to 21 years old. The majority of them were from middle-income families. From the thematic analysis, there were several reasons given for choosing medicine by the students. The majority of the students stated that it was their passion and interest in the medical field (45.7%). Approximately 24.7% decided to take the medical course because of parents/family influenced and 19.8% mentioned that they wanted to help the society. Other themes emerged were jobs opportunity in future (1.2%) and influenced by friends (3.7%). Based on Holland’s theory, ideally to become a good medical doctor one should score high in investigative and social personality trait. However, 26.3% of the students had low scores in these personality traits. We then looked into the reasons given by these students for choosing medicine. Approximately 28% were due to parents/family decision while 52% admitted that it was due to their interest. When compared with the group of students with high personality scores (investigative and social), there was not much difference in the reasons given for choosing medicine. The main reasons given by the students for choosing medicine were own interest, family’s influence and to help others. However, a proportion of them had low scores in the personality traits which are relevant for medicine. Although some of these students admitted that they choose medicine based on their interest, their strength might not be suitable for their chosen carrier.

Keywords: career, medical students, medicine, personality

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1427 The Reasons behind Individuals to Join Terrorist Organizations: Recruitment from Outside

Authors: Murat Sözen


Today terrorism is gaining momentum again. Parallel to this, it hurts more than before because it has victims from not only its own locations but also remote places. As victims are from outside, militants are likewise from own location and outside. What made these individuals join the terrorist organizations and how these organizations recruit militants are still unanswered. The purpose of this work is to find reasons of joining and power of recruiting. In addition, the role of most popular tool of recruiting, ‘social media’ will be examined.

Keywords: recruitment, social media, recruitment, militants

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1426 Faults in the Projects, Deviation in the Cost

Authors: S. Ahmed, P. Dlask, B. Hasan


There are several ways to estimate the cost of the construction project: simple and detailed. The process of estimating cost is usually done during the design stage, which should take long-time and the designer must give attention to all details. This paper explain the causes of the deviations occurring in the cost of the construction project, and determines the reasons of these differences between contractual cost and final cost of the construction project, through the study of literature review related to this field, and benefiting from the experience of workers in the field of building (owners, contractors) through designing a questionnaire, and finding the most ten important reasons and explain the relation between the contractual cost and the final cost according to these reasons. The difference between those values will be showed through diagrams drawn using the statistical program. In addition to studying the effects of overrun costs on the advancing of the project, and identify the most five important effects. According to the results, we can propose the right direction for the final cost evaluation and propose some measures that would help to control and adjust the deviation in the costs.

Keywords: construction projects, building, cost, estimating costs, delay, overrun

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1425 Tendency of Smoking, Factors Influencing and Knowledge Related to Smoking among Male Students in Tamil Primary School in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: T. Jivita, M. S. Salmiah


The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking, reasons for tried smoking, factors that influence smoking, and knowledge level on health risk among male Tamil primary school students. Seven urban Tamil primary schools in Kuala Lumpur were identified based on cluster sampling. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 and a total of 380 male children in standard 4 and 5 were selected. Survey included information on history of ever smoking even a puff, smoking a whole cigarette, smoking every day at least for 7 days, reasons for tried smoking, potential factors of smoking and knowledge related to smoking and health. Fifty seven had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4, 18.6) and 17 had smoked a whole cigarette (4.5%, 95% CI = 2.42, 6.58) while 8 had at least smoked 7 days continuously (2.1%, 95% CI = 0.66, 3.54). The reasons for tried smoking were because of curiosity (63.2%), it is not allowed (42.6%), it is relaxing (35.2%), it is cool (33.3%), to lose weight (20.4%), style (1.8%), by mistake (0.5%), for prayers purpose (0.3%), given by uncle (0.3%), and introduced by elder brother (0.3%). None of these reasons were associated with age factors (p > 0.05). Of those who had smoked a whole cigarette, 42.9% were significantly influenced by father (χ2 (1) = 6.42, p = 0.040) and 47.8% were significantly influenced by friends (χ2 (2) = 6.27, p = 0.043). Overall 91.5% had good level of knowledge about smoking, where the majority knew that smoking was dangerous to their health. However only 61.7% and 63.1% of them knew that smoking can cause high blood pressure and stroke, respectively. There is no significant different in mean rank between 10 years old and 11 years old students (p=0.987 < 0.05) for level of knowledge, tested by Mann-Whitney U Test. Odds of smoking increased 1.37 times having seen actors smoking (95% CI= 1.01, 1.86), 1.55 times having a father who smokes (95% CI= 1.26, 1.92), 1.64 times having siblings who smokes (95% CI= 1.32, 2.04), and 10.55 times having friends who offered cigarette (95% CI= 4.17, 26.68). As a conclusion, cessation of smoking in family members, who are role models, so as to reduce rates to taking up smoking among children.

Keywords: factors influence, knowledge on smoking, prevalence on smoking, reasons

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1424 Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster

Authors: Abid Hossain Khan, Syam Hasan, M. A. R. Sarkar


Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.

Keywords: fuel meltdown, Fukushima disaster, Manmade calamity, nuclear facility, tsunami

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1423 The Reasons for Vegetarianism in Estonia and its Effects to Body Composition

Authors: Ülle Parm, Kata Pedamäe, Jaak Jürimäe, Evelin Lätt, Aivar Orav, Anna-Liisa Tamm


Vegetarianism has gained popularity across the world. It`s being chosen for multiple reasons, but among Estonians, these have remained unknown. Previously, attention to bone health and probable nutrient deficiency of vegetarians has been paid and in vegetarians lower body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol level has been found but the results are inconclusive. The goal was to explain reasons for choosing vegetarian diet in Estonia and impact of vegetarianism to body composition – BMI, fat percentage (fat%), fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM). The study group comprised of 68 vegetarians and 103 omnivorous. The determining body composition with DXA (Hologic) was concluded in 2013. Body mass (medical electronic scale, A&D Instruments, Abingdon, UK) and height (Martin metal anthropometer to the nearest 0.1 cm) were measured and BMI calculated (kg/m2). General data (physical activity level included) was collected with questionnaires. The main reasons why vegetarianism was chosen were the healthiness of the vegetarian diet (59%) and the wish to fight for animal rights (72%) Food additives were consumed by less than half of vegetarians, more often by men. Vegetarians had lower BMI than omnivores, especially amongst men. Based on BMI classification, vegetarians were less obese than omnivores. However, there were no differences in the FM, FFM and fat percentage figures of the two groups. Higher BMI might be the cause of higher physical activity level among omnivores compared with vegetarians. For classifying people as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese both BMI and fat% criteria were used. By BMI classification in comparison with fat%, more people in the normal weight group were considered; by using fat% in comparison with BMI classification, however, more people categorized as overweight. It can be concluded that the main reasons for vegetarianism chosen in Estonia are healthiness of the vegetarian diet and the wish to fight for animal rights and vegetarian diet has no effect on body fat percentage, FM and FFM.

Keywords: body composition, body fat percentage, body mass index, vegetarianism

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1422 Examination of the Self-Expression Model with Reference to Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob


Human beings are intrigued by luxury watches for decades. It is fascinating that customers pay an enormous amount of money for specific wristwatch models. It is fascinating that customers of the luxury watch industry accept a yearly price increase. This behavior increases their desirability even more. Luxury watches are perceived as status symbols, but they are additionally accepted as a currency without the disadvantage of currency fluctuations. It is obvious that the symbolic value is more important as the functional value with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. Nowadays human beings do not need a wristwatch to read the time. Tablets, notebooks, smartphones, the watch in the car and watches on public places are used to inform people about the current time. This is one of the reasons why there is a trend that people do not wear wristwatches anymore. Due to these facts, this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people invest an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches and why those watches are seen as a status symbol. The study examines why the luxury watch industry records significant growth rates. The self-expression model is used as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches. This evaluative approach further discusses if human beings are aware of their current self and their ideal self and how they express them. Furthermore, the research critically evaluates the people’s social self and their ideal social self. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they have the same quality and cost comparable prices.

Keywords: luxury watch, brand awareness, buying-behaviour, consumer, self-expression

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1421 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra


Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, software entropy

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1420 An Investigation into the Current Implementation of Design-Build Contracts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim A. Alhammad, Suleiman A. Al-Otaibi, Khalid S. Al-Gahtani, Naïf Al-Otaibi, Abdulaziz A. Bubshait


In the last decade, the use of project delivery system of design build engineering contracts is increasing in North America due to the reasons of reducing the project duration and minimizing costs. The shift from traditional approach of Design-Bid-Build to Design-Build contracts have been attributed to many factors such as evolution of the regulatory and legal frameworks governing the engineering contracts and improvement in integrating design and construction. The aforementioned practice of contracting is more appropriate in North America; yet, it may not be the case in Saudi Arabia where the traditional approach of construction contracting remains dominant. The authors believe there are number of factors related to the gaps in the level of sophistication of the engineering and management of the construction projects in both countries. A step towards improving the Saudi construction practice by adopting the new trend of construction contracting, this paper identifies the reasons why Design/Build form of contracting are not frequently utilized. A field survey, which includes the questionnaire addressing the research problem, is distributed to three main parties of the construction contracts: clients, consultants, and contractors. The analyzed collected data were statistically sufficient to finding the reasons of not adopting the new trend of good practice of deign build approach in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the reasons are: (1) lack of regulation and legal framework; (2) absence of clear criteria of the owner for the trade-off between competing contractors, (3) and lack of experience, knowledge and skill.

Keywords: design built projects, Saudi Arabia, GCC, mega projects

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1419 Softening Finishing: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C.W. Kan


Softening applied on textile products based on several reasons. First, the synthetic detergent removes natural oils and waxes, thus lose the softness. Second, compensate the harsh handle of resin finishing. Also, imitate natural fibres and improve the comfort of fabric are the reasons to apply softening. There are different types of softeners for softening finishing of textiles, nonionic softener, anionic softener, cationic softener and silicone softener. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of different softeners and their final softening effect in textiles. The results could also provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, softening, textiles, effect

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1418 Groupthink: The Dark Side of Team Cohesion

Authors: Farhad Eizakshiri


The potential for groupthink to explain the issues contributing to deterioration of decision-making ability within the unitary team and so to cause poor outcomes attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, social and organizational studies, political science, and others. Yet what remains unclear is how and why the team members’ strivings for unanimity and cohesion override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. In this paper, the findings of a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research containing an experiment with thirty groups of three persons each and interviews with all experimental groups to investigate this issue is reported. The experiment sought to examine how individuals aggregate their views in order to reach a consensual group decision concerning the completion time of a task. The results indicated that groups made better estimates when they had no interaction between members in comparison with the situation that groups collectively agreed on time estimates. To understand the reasons, the qualitative data and informal observations collected during the task were analyzed through conversation analysis, thus leading to four reasons that caused teams to neglect divergent viewpoints and reduce the number of ideas being considered. Reasons found were the concurrence-seeking tendency, pressure on dissenters, self-censorship, and the illusion of invulnerability. It is suggested that understanding the dynamics behind the aforementioned reasons of groupthink will help project teams to avoid making premature group decisions by enhancing careful evaluation of available information and analysis of available decision alternatives and choices.

Keywords: groupthink, group decision, cohesiveness, project teams, mixed-methods research

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1417 Knowledge Management: Why is So Difficult? From “A Good Idea” to Organizational Contribute

Authors: Lisandro Blas, Héctor Tamanini


From earliest 90 to now, no many companies or organization can “really” implement a knowledge management (KM) system that works (no only viewed from a measurement model, but in this continuity). Which are the reasons of that? Some of the reason maybe could be embedded in how KM is demanded (usefulness, priority, experts, a definition of KM) vs the importance and resources that the organizations afford (budget, responsible of a specific area of KM, intangibility). Many organizations “claim” the importance of Knowledge Management but thhese demands are not reflecting these claims in their future actions. With another’s tools or managements ideas the organizations put the economics and human resources to work. Why it´s not occur in KM? This paper tray to explain some of this reasons and tray to deal with this situations through a survey done in 2011 for a IAPG (Argentinean Institute from Oil & Gas) Congress.

Keywords: knowledge management into organizations, new perspectives, failure in implementation, claim

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1416 The Impact of the Information Technologies on the Accounting Department of the Romanian Companies

Authors: Dumitru Valentin Florentin


The need to use high volumes of data and the high competition are only two reasons which make necessary the use of information technologies. The objective of our research is to establish the impact of information technologies on the accounting department of the Romanian companies. In order to achieve it, starting from the literature review we made an empirical research based on a questionnaire. We investigated the types of technologies used, the reasons which led to the implementation of certain technologies, the benefits brought by the use of the information technologies, the difficulties brought by the implementation and the future effects of the applications. The conclusions show that there is an evolution in the degree of implementation of the information technologies in the Romanian companies, compared with the results of other studies conducted a few years before.

Keywords: information technologies, impact, company, Romania, empirical study

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1415 Reasons for Food Losses and Waste in Basic Production of Meat Sector in Poland

Authors: Sylwia Laba, Robert Laba, Krystian Szczepanski, Mikolaj Niedek, Anna Kaminska-Dworznicka


Meat and its products are considered food products, having the most unfavorable effect on the environment that requires rational management of these products and waste, originating throughout the whole chain of manufacture, processing, transport, and trade of meat. From the economic and environmental viewpoints, it is important to limit the losses and food wastage and the food waste in the whole meat sector. The link to basic production includes obtaining raw meat, i.e., animal breeding, management, and transport of animals to the slaughterhouse. Food is any substance or product, intended to be consumed by humans. It was determined (for the needs of the present studies) when the raw material is considered as a food. It is the moment when the animals are prepared to loading with the aim to be transported to a slaughterhouse and utilized for food purposes. The aim of the studies was to determine the reasons for loss generation in the basic production of the meat sector in Poland during the years 2017 – 2018. The studies on food losses and waste in the meat sector in basic production were carried out in two areas: red meat i.e., pork and beef and poultry meat. The studies of basic production were conducted in the period of March-May 2019 at the territory of the whole country on a representative trial of 278 farms, including 102 pork production, 55–beef production, and 121 poultry meat production. The surveys were carried out with the utilization of questionnaires by the PAPI (Paper & Pen Personal Interview) method; the pollsters conducted direct questionnaire interviews. Research results indicate that it is followed that any losses were not recorded during the preparation, loading, and transport of the animals to the slaughterhouse in 33% of the visited farms. In the farms where the losses were indicated, the crushing and suffocations, occurring during the production of pigs, beef cattle and poultry, were the main reasons for these losses. They constituted ca. 40% of the reported reasons. The stress generated by loading and transport caused 16 – 17% (depending on the season of the year) of the loss reasons. In the case of poultry production, in 2017, additionally, 10.7% of losses were caused by inappropriate conditions of loading and transportation, while in 2018 – 11.8%. The diseases were one of the reasons for the losses in pork and beef production (7% of the losses). The losses and waste, generated during livestock production and in meat processing and trade cannot be managed or recovered. They have to be disposed of. It is, therefore, important to prevent and minimize the losses throughout the whole production chain. It is possible to introduce the appropriate measures, connected mainly with the appropriate conditions and methods of animal loading and transport.

Keywords: food losses, food waste, livestock production, meat sector

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1414 Influenza Vaccination Acceptance and Refusal Reasons among Tunisian Elderly

Authors: Ghassen Kharroubi, Ines Cherif, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret McCarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb


Influenza vaccination (IV) is recommended for elderly persons, especially those with underlying conditions. In countries where IV rates in the elderly remain unsatisfactory, exploring attitudes of older persons toward the flu vaccine could be useful to identify barriers and facilitators to IV. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for IV acceptance or decline in the Tunisian elderly. A national cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019, among persons aged 60 years and over with chronic disease. Data were collected using a standard administered questionnaire. Of the 1191 older persons included, 19.4% received the influenza vaccine in the 2018-2019 flu season. The two main reasons that may lead to refusal of vaccination were concerns that the vaccine could cause side effects (71.5%) and a belief that the vaccine was ineffective (33.9%). The main reason that may lead to accepting vaccination was a doctor’s recommendation (41.1%). Doctors were by far the most trusted source for information regarding influenza vaccine (91.5%) followed by pharmacists (17.6%). Our results highlighted the important role that doctors could play in promoting IV among the Tunisian elderly. Physicians should correct misconceptions about adverse events and the efficiency of the vaccine. In fact, influenza vaccines are generally effective and safe among older persons.

Keywords: attitudes, influenza vaccination, older persons, Tunisia

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1413 Evaluation of Flood Events in Respect of Disaster Management in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Hasan Uzun


Flood is the event which damage to the surrounding lands, residential places, infrastructure and vibrant, because of the streams overflow events from its bed for several reasons. Flood is a natural formation which develops due to its region's climatic conditions, technical and topographical characteristics. However, factors causing floods with global warming caused by human activity are events such as uncontrolled urbanization. Floods in Turkey are natural disasters which cause huge economic losses after the earthquake. At the same time, the flood disaster is one of the most observed hydrometeorological disasters, compared to 30%, in Turkey. Every year, there are around 200 flood-flood disasters and the disaster as a result of financial losses of $ 100 million per year are reported to occur in public institutions. The amount allocated for carrying out investment-project activities for reducing and controlling of flood damage control are around US $ 30 million per year. The existence of a linear increase in the number of flood disasters is noteworthy due to various reasons in the last 50 years of observation. In this study, first of all, big events of the flood in Turkey and their reasons were examined. And then, the information about the work to be done in order to prevent flooding by government was given with examples. Meteorological early warning systems, flood risk maps and regulation of urban development studies are described for this purpose. As a result, recommendations regarding in the event of the occurrence of floods disaster management were issues raised.

Keywords: flood, disaster, disaster management, Türkiye

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1412 Integration problems of Dutch-Turkish Youngsters: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Ozge Karayalçin


This study tries to find out the reasons for the integration problems of third generation Dutch-Turkish youngsters by particularly focusing on the socio-cultural and socio-economic situations of these people in the Netherlands. The results obtained from the field research are summed up under four sections. These four sections are education and language, labour market, cultural factors, religion, and nationality. The underlying reasons of the integration problems are reflected from two different perspectives. The first one is the effects of social and economic enforcements implemented on the Turkish immigrant society. The second one is the traditional Turkish values that are quite different from Dutch values. The problems experienced by third generation Turkish origin Dutch youngsters are not one-sided. To conclude, solution-oriented advisements are asserted.

Keywords: acculturation levels, Dutch-Turkish youngsters, integration, transnational migrants, identity conflicts

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1411 A Survey on Students' Intentions to Dropout and Dropout Causes in Higher Education of Mongolia

Authors: D. Naranchimeg, G. Ulziisaikhan


Student dropout problem has not been recently investigated within the Mongolian higher education. A student dropping out is a personal decision, but it may cause unemployment and other social problems including low quality of life because students who are not completed a degree cannot find better-paid jobs. The research aims to determine percentage of at-risk students, and understand reasons for dropouts and to find a way to predict. The study based on the students of the Mongolian National University of Education including its Arkhangai branch school, National University of Mongolia, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian National University of Medical Science, Ikh Zasag International University, and Dornod University. We conducted the paper survey by method of random sampling and have surveyed about 100 students per university. The margin of error - 4 %, confidence level -90%, and sample size was 846, but we excluded 56 students from this study. Causes for exclusion were missing data on the questionnaire. The survey has totally 17 questions, 4 of which was demographic questions. The survey shows that 1.4% of the students always thought to dropout whereas 61.8% of them thought sometimes. Also, results of the research suggest that students’ dropouts from university do not have relationships with their sex, marital and social status, and peer and faculty climate, whereas it slightly depends on their chosen specialization. Finally, the paper presents the reasons for dropping out provided by the students. The main two reasons for dropouts are personal reasons related with choosing wrong study program, not liking the course they had chosen (50.38%), and financial difficulties (42.66%). These findings reveal the importance of early prevention of dropout where possible, combined with increased attention to high school students in choosing right for them study program, and targeted financial support for those who are at risk.

Keywords: at risk students, dropout, faculty climate, Mongolian universities, peer climate

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1410 The Inception: A University-Wide Research on Alcohol Consumption

Authors: Robi Lou Logarta, Meliz Ann Marilag, Kristyl Lee Nisnisan, Felipe Lula Jr.


Nowadays, alcohol is consumed widely around the globe for plenty of reasons. College years are the time that the students really decide if whether they will or will not engage into alcohol, although alcohol drinking begins before students arrive at college. The reasons on why college students consume alcohol vary in many categories. The norms on alcohol drinking are addiction, emotional pain reliever, popularity purposes, socialization, and a medium of euphoria for most students; college students in particular are most likely to feel this need. After tons of requirements to be complied and courses to be reviewed, they felt a need for celebration and relaxation which ends up in drinking with college mates and a few old friends. A lot of reasons consist the consumption of alcohol and this research determined the reasons behind the students’ onset for alcohol consumption; the main reason for such action and the experiences they encountered after in-take, furthermore, the correlation of alcohol drinking to the average allowance of the involved participants; Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology Students whether it affects their spending towards alcohol or not. This study assumes that alcohol drinking for MSU-IIT students’ is done to relieve emotional pain caused by flunking in particular subjects as well as dealing with romance, as part of the student body, these acts are noticeable enough which made this hypothesis be formulated. Selected MSU-IIT students were asked about their opinions regarding reasons of alcohol consumption. There were 100 respondents consisting of first year to fifth-year students aging 17-23 years old. Choices were given to the students to mark their most favorable reason for drinking that is adult influence, curiosity, family/personal problems, peer pressure, stress. Using the bar and pie chart illustrations, the collected data was then analyzed and among the given choices, the result has invalidated the hypothesis. The outcome shows that curiosity is the topmost reason why students start to drink and not due to emotional pain. With this, another hypothesis is formulated stating that millennial is a curious generation; this generation has changed the norm of drinking. One of the characteristics of the Y generation is being adventurous which correlates to how they get curious about things and the same goes for alcohol consumption, compared to the latter, this generation can be considered early drinkers in this manner. Therefore, it is concluded that MSU-IIT students which are part of the generation Y are adventurous enough to try unfamiliar beverages to satisfy their curious minds.

Keywords: adult influence, curiosity, family/personal problems, peer pressure, stress

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1409 Delayed Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM): Reasons and Rationale for Patients with Unilateral Breast Cancer

Authors: C. Soh, S. Muktar, C. M. Malata, J. R. Benson


Introduction Reasons for requesting CPM include prevention of recurrence, peace of mind and moving on after breast cancer. Some women seek CPM as a delayed procedure but factors influencing this are poorly understood. Methods A retrospective analysis examined patients undergoing CPM as either an immediate or delayed procedure with or without breast reconstruction (BR) between January 2009 and December 2019. A cross-sectional survey based on validated questionnaires (5 point Likert scale) explored patients’ decision-making process in terms of timing of CPM and any BR. Results A total of 123 patients with unilateral breast cancer underwent CPM with 39 (32.5%) delayed procedures with or without BR. The response rate amongst patients receiving questionnaires (n=33) was 22/33 (66%). Within this delayed CPM cohort were three reconstructive scenarios 1) unilateral immediate BR with CPM (n=12); 2) delayed CPM with concomitant bilateral BR (n=22); 3) delayed bilateral BR after delayed CPM (n=3). Two patients had delayed CPM without BR. The most common reason for delayed CPM was to complete all cancer treatments (including radiotherapy) before surgery on the unaffected breast (score 2.91). The second reason was unavailability of genetic test results at the time of therapeutic mastectomy (score 2.64) whilst the third most cited reason was a subsequent change in family cancer history. Conclusion Factors for delayed CPM are patient-driven with few women spontaneously changing their mind having initially decided against immediate CPM for reasons also including surgical duration. CPM should be offered as a potentially delayed option with informed discussion of risks and benefits.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, CPM, Prophylactic, Rationale

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1408 Reasons and Implications of the Use of Social Media by Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Bashayer Alsana


Communication technologies are changing the way we experience life. More specifically, such technologies have changed the interaction system through which women express themselves. Interaction with the other gender, accessibility to useful content, and creative public expression are but a few facets of the new living experience now being offered to women through the use of technology, especially in areas where females are bounded by societal taboos and traditions. An evaluation of the new female experience of expressing themselves through technology is yet to be done. This study aims to fill the void of research conducted around that topic. The study explores women’s use of communication technologies in Kuwait in terms of reasons and effects. women’s responses to survey questions present an overview of the new and changing female experience in this traditional middle eastern country, and draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research are discussed to better serve the advancement of women in developing countries.

Keywords: communications, kuwait, social media, women

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1407 Financial and Human Resources of Terrorism

Authors: Abdurrahman Karacabey


Threat paradigm has shifted throughout the history. Considering conjuncture of our time, a major threat for humanity is terrorism. Although variety of reasons are influential, financial, and human resources are the vital needs for terrorist groups. It is known that terrorism is a significant term while taking decisions in diplomatic, politic, and military issues. Even though the methods to provide resources for terrorism are quite similar, there are still some differences for deterrent terrorist groups being active in various regions of the globe. Due to social and psychological reasons activists have generally similar excuses to join terrorist groups.At the same time, terrorists’ fiscal activities to secure permanence of terrorism, occupy the politics of the countries. Besides, preventive actions are expensive creating huge burdens in host nation’s economy. This paper elaborates on how ISIS is providing human and economic resources, course of actions to overcome ISIS is on the agenda of all countries.

Keywords: financial resources, human resources, isis, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 334